power. The national forces should not be dispersed in expeditions, posts of occupation,
and numerous armies, but should be mainly collected into masses, and brought to bear
upon the armies of the Confederate States. Those armies thoroughly defeated, the polit-
ical structure which they support would soon cease to exist.
" In carrying out any system of policy which you may form, you will require a com-
mander-in-chief of the army, one who possesses your confidence, understands your views,
and who is competent to execute your orders, by directing the military forces of the na-
tion to the accomplishment of the objects by you proposed. I do not ask that place for
myself. I am willing to serve you in such position as you may assign me, and I will do
so as faithfully as ever subordinate served superiour.
" I may be on the brink of eternity ; and as I hope forgiveness from my Maker, I have
written this letter with sincerity towards you and from love for my country.
" Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
" GEORGE B. McCLELLAN",
'■'■ Major- General Commanding.
" His Excellency A. LracoLN, PresidenV
The letter of McClellan was significant of a remarkable division of sen.
THE RADICAL PARTY IN THE NORTH. 299
timent in the North on the conduct of tlie war. That division -was appa-
rent in the Federal Congress, and n)arked by sharp lines of party conflict.
The best portion of the Democi-atic party recognized the true proportions
and character of the war ; were for according all belligerent rights to the
Confederates ; and strenuously insisted that its objects should be limited
to the restoration of the Union. They claimed that the war for the Union
had been cheated of its due effect by the intrusion of sectional rancour and
tlie injudicious or unfaithful acts of agents of the Government. They re-
sisted the inauguration, now attempted at "Washington, of a system ol
spoliation and disfranchisement in the invaded country of the South ; tbey
declared that such a system would rob the cause of its sanctity, and render
success more difficult of attainment.
The Eadical party, on the otlier hand, which controlled a majority of
votes in Congress, were for extending the contest to the extinction of
slavery, and punishing the " rebels " with every conceivable means that
the quick imagination of hate and revenge could suggest. They could not
realize the fact that the contest had risen to the dignity of war. Their
great mistake was that they habitually underrated the extent and strength
of "• the rebellion," just as they had foi-merly underrated and contemned
the grievances of the South and their hold on the Southern mind. They
refused to apply even Vattel's test of a civil war, viz. : " tiiat a consider-
able body of insurgents had risen against the sovereign ; " they repudiated
all its appurtenances of a humane code of warfare, tlie exchange of prison-
ers, etc. ; and the consequences of such a theory were constantly recurring
difficulties about belligerent rights on sea and land, and inhumanities
which would sicken the heart of a savage. In fact, this party cared noth-
ing for the success of the war unless it could be used for purposes of re-
venge upon the Soutliern people, and embrace a design upon their institu-
tion of slavery. Wendell Phillips, a famous Radical orator in the North,
had not hesitated to declare that he would deplore a victory of McClellan,
because " the sore would be salved over," and it would only be the victory
of a slave Union ; and that he thanked Beauregard for marshalling his
army before Washington, because it had conferred upon Congress the
constitutional power to abolish shivery.
The appointment of John Pope to what was now the most important
command in Virginia was a triumph of the Eadical party at Washington,
and dated that system of spoliation and disfranchisement in the Southern
States, now to be distinctly announced in forms of authority and in the
^ext of official orders. Pope assumed his new command in the following
address, which long amused the world as a curiosity in military literature
and the braggart flourish of a man, whom the Pichmond Examiner de-
Dcribed as " a compound of Bobadil and Munchausen : "
300 THE LOST CAUSE.
" To the Officers and Soldiers of the Army of Virginia :
" By special assignment of the President of the United States, I have assumed con*
inand of this army. I have spent two weeks in learning your whereabouts, your qondi«
tion, and your wants; in preparing you for active operations, and in placing you in posi-
tions from which you can act promptly and to the purpose. I have come to you from
the "West, where we have always seen the backs of our enemies — from an army whose
business it has been to seek the adversary, and to beat him wlien found, whose policy
has been attack and not defence. In but one instance has the enemy been able to place
our Western armies in a defensive attitude. I presume that I have been called here to
pursue the same system, and to lead you against the enemy. It is my purpose to do so,
and that speedily. I am sure you long for an opportunity to win the distinction you are
capable of achieving— that opportunity I shall endeavour to give you. Meantime I desire
you to dismiss from your minds certain phrases which I am sorry to find much in vogue
amongst you. I hear constantly of taking strong positions and holding them— of lines
of retreat, and of bases of supplies. Let us discard such ideas. The strongest position
a soldier should desire to occupy is one from whicli he can most easily advance against
the enemy. Let us study the probable lines of retreat of our opponents, and leave our
own to take care of themselves. Let us look before us and not behind. Success and
glory are in the advance. Disaster and shame lurk in the rear. Let us act on this un-
derstanding, and it is safe to predict that your banners shall be inscribed with many a
glorious deed, and that your names will be dear to your countrymen forever.
He followed this cliaracteristic production with a series of general or-
ders, making war upon the non-combatant population within his lines.
He ordered the arrest of citizens, and on their refusing to take an " oath
of allegiance," they were to be driven from their homes, and if thej re-
turned anywhere within his lines they should be " considered spies, and
subjected to the extreme rigour of military law ! "
B}^ a general order of the Federal Government, the military command-
ers of that Government, within the States of Virginia, SoutJi Carolina,
Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, and Arkansas,
were directed to seize and use any property, real or personal, belonging
to the inhabitants of this Confederacy whicli migiit be necessary or con-
venient for their several commands, and no provision was made for any
compensation to the owners of private property thus seized and appropri-
ated by the military commanders of the enemy.
Pope went further than this authority, for he threw open all the coun-
try he occupied or controlled to unlimited spoliation by his soldiers. They
were given to understand that they were free to enter upon a campaign of
robbery and murder against unarmed citizens and peaceful tillers of the
soil. The country was ravaged as by a horde of barbarians. Houses were
robbed ; cattle were shot dead in the fields ; clothing and jeweli-y were
stolen ; and nothing was spared in this new irruption of the JSTorthern
spoilsmen. A ISTorthern journal, more candid and honourable than its co-
temporaries, referring to the depravity of Pope's troops in Virginia, said :
MILITARY MOVEMENTS IN VIKGINIA. 301
" The new usage which lias been instituted in regard to protection of rebel
property, and the purpose of the Government to subsist the army as far aa
practicable upon the enemy's country, has produced a decided revolution
in the feelings and practices of the soldiery. Unless these innovations are
guarded by far more stringent safeguards against irregular and unauthor-
ized plundering, we shall have let loose upon the country, at the close of
the war, a torrent of unbridled and unscrupulous rol)bers. Rapid strides
towards villainy have been made during the last few Aveeks ; men, who at
home would have shuddered at the suggestion of touching another's prop-
erty, now appropriate remorselessly whatever comes within their reach.
Thieving, they imagine, has now become an authorized practice."
The military movements in Yirginia were now of surpassing interest.
Pope was across the Rappahannock, with a strong advance guard south
of Culpepper Court-House, and near Gordonsville. The enemy also ap-
peared in force at Fredericksburg, and threatened the railroad from
Gordonsville to Richmond, apparently for the purpose of co-operating with
the movement of Pope.
From early indications Gen. Lee was inclined to believe that McClellan
would not again operate on the Peninsula, but had concluded to transport
most of his forces to the Rappahannock, and form a junction with Pope.
But it was necessary to be very careful in making any movement between
the two forces, and to await, as far as possible, the full development of the
enemy's designs. To meet the advance of Pope, and restrain, as far as
possible, the atrocities which he threatened to perpetrate upon defenceless
citizens. Gen. Jackson, witli his own and Ewell's division, was ordered to
proceed towards Gordonsville, on the 13th of July. Upon reaching that
vicinity, he ascertained that the force under Gen. Pope was superiour to
his own, but the uncertainty that then surrounded the designs of McClel-
lan, rendered it inexpedient to reinforce him from the army at Richmond.
He was directed to observe the enemy's movements closely, and to avail
himself of any opportunity to attack that might arise.
McClellan, who was still at "Westover, on James River, continuing to
manifest no intention of resuming active operations, and Gen. Pope's ad-
vance having reached the Rapidan, Gen. A. P. Hill, with his division,
was ordered, on the 27th of July, to join Gen. Jackson. At the same
time, in order to keep McClellan stationary, or, if possible, to cause him to
withdraw. Gen. D. H. Hill, commanding south of James River, was directed
to threaten his communications, by seizing favourable positions below
"Westover, from which to attack the transports in the river. That officer
selected Coggin's Point, opposite Westover. On the night of the 31st of
July, Gen. French, accompanied by Brig. -Gen. Pendleton, chief of artil-
lery, placed forty-three guns in position within range of the enemy's ship-
ping Id the river, and of the camps on the north side, upon both of wliich
302 THE LOST CAUSE.
fire was opened, causing consternation, and inflicting serious damage.
The guns were withdrawn before daybreak, witli the loss of one killed and
two wounded bj the gunboats and batteries of the enemy. This attack
caused Gen. McClellan to send a strong force to the south bank of the river,
which entrenched itself on Coggin's Point.
While the main body of Gen. Lee's army awaited the development of
McCIellan's intentions, Gen. Jackson, reinforced by A. P. Hill, determined
to assume the offensive against Pope, whose army, still superiour in num-
bers, lay north of the Rapidan.
Only a portion of Gen. Pope's army was at Culpepper Court-House.
The forces of Banks and Sigel, and one of the diYisions of McDowell's
corps, had been concentrated there ; Banks' corps bjcing pushed forward
five miles south of the town. Gen. Jackson, who was anxious to meet his
old acquaintance of the Shenandoah Valley, resolved to attack this portion
of the Federal army, before the arrival of the remainder ; and on the 7th
August moved from Gordonsville for that purpose.
BATTLE OF CEDAR RUN.
On the 9th, Jackson's command arrived within eight miles of Culpepper
Court-House, when the enemy was found near Cedar Pun, a short distance
northwest of Slaughter's Mountain. Early's brigade, of E well's division,
was thrown forward on the road to Culpepper Court-House. Tlie remain-
ing two brigades, those of Trimble and Hays, diverging to the right, took
position on the western slope of Slaughter's Mountain. Jackson's own
division, under Brig.-Gen. Winder, was placed on the left of the road.
The battle opened with a fierce tire of artillery, which continued for about
two hours, during which Gen. Winder, while directing the movements of
his batteries, was killed.
It was now above five o'clock in the evening, and there had scarcely
been any demonstration beyond that of artillery. Gen. Banks, about this
time, sent word to Pope, who was at Culpepper Court-House, seven miles
away from the field, that the enemy had made no considerable demonstra-
tion upon him, and that he hardly expected a battle that afternoon. But
the obtuse Federal commander, despite his lesson in the Shenandoah Yal-
ley, was again to be deceived by his wily and vigorous adversary. Banks'
com-ier had but just started, wlien an advance of the Federal infantry un-
covered, what had been unknown to their commander, the flanking force
of Confederates on the slopes of the mountain. The infantry fight soon
extended to the left and centre. Early became warmly engaged with the
enemy on his right and front. He had previously called for reinforce-
ments. As Gen. Hill had arrived with his division, one of his brigades,
"BATTLE OF CEPAK KUN. 303
Gen. Thomas', was sent to Early, and joined him in time to render efficient
service.' Whilst the attack upon Early was in progress, the main body of
tlie Federal infantry moved down from the wood, through tlie corn and
M-heat-fields, and fell with great vigour upon our extreme left, and, by the
force of 6uj)eriour numbers, bearmg down all opposition, turned it, and
poured a destructive lire into its rear. At this critical moment. Branch's
brigade, of Hill's division, with Winder's brigade further to the left, met
the Federal forces, flushed with their temporary triumph, and drove them
back with terrible slaughter, through the woods. The fight was still
maintained with obstinacy, between the enemy and the two brigades just
named, when, reinforcements coming up, a general charge was made,
which drove the enemy across the field into the opposite woods, strewing
the narrow valley with his dead. At every point of their line the Fed-
erals fell back. It had been one of the most rapid and severe engagements
of the war. The attack of Banks had failed ; his centre and left were irre-
parably broken ; and night alone saved him from the severe penalty of
The next day, Gen. Jackson remained in position, and, becoming satis-
fied that Banks had been reinforced, proceeded to bury the dead, and col-
lect the arms from the battle-field, and at night returned to the vicinity of
Gordonsville. The official report of his loss was 223 killed and 1,060
wounded. It was closely estimated that the enemy's loss was at least two
thousand, including four hundred prisoners in our hands.
Shortly after the victory at Cedar Run, it became apparent to Gen. Lee
that Pope's army was being largely increased. The corps of Maj.-Gen.
Burnside, from l^orth Carolina, which had reached Fredericksburg, was
reported to have moved up the Kappahannock, a few days after the battle,
to unite with Gen. Pope, and a part of Gen. McClellan's army was be-
lieved to have left Westover for the same purpose. In this condition of
afi'airs it was promptly decided by Gen. Lee, that the most eflectual way
to relieve Richmond from any danger of attack, would be to reinforce
Gen. Jackson, and advance upon Pope. On the 13th August, Maj.-Gen.
Longstreet, with his division, and two brigades, under Gen. Hood, were
ordered to proceed to Gordonsville. At the same time. Gen. Stuart was
directed to move with the main body of his cavalry to that point, leaving
a sufficient force to observe the enemy still remaining in Fredericksburg,
and to guard the railroad. Gen. R. II. Anderson was also directed to
leave his position on James River, and follow Longstreet. On the IGth, the
troops began to move from the vicinity of Gordonsville towards the Rapi-
dan, on the north side of which, extending along the Orange and Alex-
andria Railroad, in the direction of Culpepper Court-llouse, the Federiil
army lay in great force.
It was intended that Longstreet and Jackson should cross the Rapidan,
304 THE LOST CAUSE.
aii.l attack the enemy's left flank ; but Pope taking the alarm.^ nastily re*
treated beyond the Eappahannock. While Gen. Lee was making demon-
strations at various points of the river, Jackson's forces, some twenty-live
thousand strong, left the main body on the 25th August, and proceeded
towards the head-waters of the Rappahannock. He was encumbered with
no baggage, and moved with great rapidity. Crossing the river about
four miles above Waterloo, he pushed rapidly towards Salem, and, turning
the head of his column, proceeded eastward parallel with the Manassas
9-ap Railroad, tmtil he reached the village of Gainesville. The design of
*.his rapid and adventurous movement of Jackson was, to move around the
enemy's right, so as to strike the Orange and Alexandria Railroad. Long-
street, in the mean time, was to divert his attention by threatening him in
front, and follow Jackson as soon as the latter should be sufficiently
On the 26th August, Gen. Jackson was between the large army of Pope
and the Federal capital. It was a situation of extreme peril. He was in
the rear of an enemy much more powerful than himself, far from all sup-
ports, liable to be attacked by superiour numbers from Washington, on
the one hand, and in danger of annihilation if Pope should face about and
co-operate with a force moving in that direction. The enemy was being
heavily reinforced. The corps of Heintzelman and Porter, probably twenty
thousand strong, joined Pope on the 26th and 27th of August, at Warren-
ton Junction. Another portion of McClellan's army, transported from
Westover, consisting of the coi'ps of Pranklin and Sumner, were at Alex-
andria, intending to reinforce Pope's lines ; making altogether an array
of force and a situation in which the Federal Government had reason to
expect a certain and splendid victory. It seemed indeed that Jackson had
marched into the jaws of destruction, and had thrust into Pope's hands the
opportunity of an easy and brilliant conquest.
But Jackson's designs upon Pope's stores at Bristoe and Manassas
Station as well as upon his communications with Washington, were an im-
portant part of his expedition, were efiectively carried out, and were
accomplished before Pope could realize tbat such a force was in his rear,
and that the demonstration upon his depots of supplies was not a mere
guerilla foray. The amount of stores captured by Jackson was large. At
Manassas, eight pieces of artillery were taken, and more than three hun-
dred prisoners. Here there was a vast accumulation of supplies : fifty
thousand pounds of bacon, one thousand barrels of corn-beef, two thou-
sand barrels of salt pork, two thousand barrels of flour, quartermasters'
ordnance, and sutlers' stores, deposited in buildings, and filling two trains
of cars. Having appropriated all that his army could use, Gen. Jackson
ordered the remainder of these stores to be destroyed, to avoid recapture
by the enemy.
THE SECOND BATILE OF MANASSAS. 305
On the 27th August, a considerable force of the enemy under Brig.-
Gen. Tajlor, approached from the direction of Alexandria, and pushed
forward boldly towards Manassas Junction. After a sharp engagement,
the enemy was routed and driven back, leaving his killed and wounded on
the field. Gen. Taylor himself being mortally wounded during the pursuit.
In the afternoon, the enemy advanced upon Gen. Ewell at Bristoe, from
the direction of Warrenton Junction. They were attacked by three regi-
ments and the batteries of Ewell's division, and two columns, of not less
than a brigade each, were broken and repulsed. Their places were soon
supplied by fresh troops ; and it was ap^^arent the Federal commander had
now become aware of the situation of affairs, and had turned ujdou Gen.
Jackson with his whole force. Gen. Ewell, upon perceiving the strength
of the enemy, withdrew his command, part of which was at the time en-
gaged, and rejoined Gen. Jackson at Manassas Junction, having first de-
stroyed the railroad bridge over Broad liun. The enemy halted at
THE SECOND BATTLE OF MANASSAS.
It being evident that the design of Pope was to fall upon Jackson, and
annihilate him in his isolated position, that alert Confederate commander
rapidly withdrew from Manassas, and took a position west of the turnpike
road from "Warrenton to Alexandria, where he could more rapidly unite
with the approaching column of Longstreet.
Taliaferro's division moved, during the night, by the road to Sndley,
and crossing the turnpike near Groveton, halted on the west side, where it
was joined by the divisions of Hill and Ewell. Perceiving during the
afternoon of the 28th, that the enemy, approaching from the direction of
Warrenton, was moving down the turnpike towards Alexandria, thus ex-
posing his left flank. Gen. Jackson advanced to attack him. A fierce and
sanguinary conflict ensued, which continued until about nine o'clock in the
nigiit, when the enemy slowly fell back, and left us in possession of the
The next morning, the 29th, the enemy had taken a position to inter-
pose his army between Gen. Jackson and Alexandria, and about ten
o'clock, opened with artillery upon the right of Jackson's line. The troops
of the latter were disposed in the rear of Groveton, along the line of the
unfinished branch of the Manassas Gap Railroad, and extended from a
point a short distance west of the turnpike towards Sudley Mill — Jackson's
division, under Brig.-Gen. Starke, being on the right, Ewell's, under Gen.
Lawton, in the centre, and A. P. Hill on the left. The Federal army was
evidently concentrating upon Jackson, with the design of overwhelming
him before the arrival of Longstreet.
306 THE LOST CAUSE.
The latter officer was already approaching the critical field of battle on
a rapid m-arch. The preceding day he had reached Thoroughfare Gap —
a wild, rude opening through the Bull Run Mountains, varying in width
from one hnndred to two hundred yards. The enemy held a strong posi-
tion on the opposite gorge, and had succeeded in getting his shar|)sbooters
in position on the mountain. Brig.-Gen. D. R. Jones advanced two of
his brigades rapidly, and soon drove the enemy from his position on the
mountain. Brig.-Gen. Hood, with his own and Gen. Whiting's brigade,
was ordered, by a footpath over the mountain, to turn the enemy's right,
and Brio-.-Gen. "Wilcox with his own and Bri£2;.-Gen. Feath erst one's and
Pryor's brigades, was ordered through Hopewell Gap, three miles to our left,
to turn the right and attack the enemy in rear. The movement was so suc-
cessful that the enemy, after a brief resistance, retreated during the night.
Early the next morning, Longstreet's columns were united, and the
advance to join Gen. Jackson was resumed. The noise of battle was heard
before Longstreet reached Gainesville. The march was quickened. The
excitement of battle seemed to give new life and strength to his jaded
men. On a rapid march he entered the turnpike near Gainesville, moving
down towards Groveton, the head of his column coming upon the field in
rear of the enemy's left, which had already opened with artillery upon
Jackson's right, as previously described. Longstreet took position on the
right of Jackson, Hood's two brigades, supported by Evans, being deployed
across the turnpike, and at right angles to it.
The timely appearance of Longstreet gave a new aspect to the field ;
and the enemy, discovering his movements, showed a disposition to with-
draw his left from the attack. He changed his front, so as to meet the
advance of Hood and Evans. However, about two o'clock in the after-
noon, another effort was directed against Jackson, this time against his
left, occupied by the division of Gen. A. P. Hill. The attack was received
by his 'troops with great steadiness. The enemy was repeatedly repulsed,
but again pressed the attack with fresh troops. Once he succeeded in
penetrating an interval between Gen. Gregg's brigade on the extreme left,
and that of Gen. Thomas, but was quickly driven back with great slaugh-
ter. The contest was close and obstinate, the combatants sometimes deliv-
ering their fire at ten paces. At last Early's brigade was ordered up, and