Edward Eggleston.

A history of the United States and its people : for the use of schools online

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NOTE The colored diagrams show the relative population and
the relative areas in the fiorth American nossesritms of the sever
al powers on the continent, including Greenland and the West










O 7
























ONE of our American humorists has said that it is better not The first re-
to know so much than to know so many things that are not true. <i uirement: -
Errors accepted in childhood become articles of faith, and are
not easily got rid of. The absence from this book of certain
well-worn fables, which have served more than one generation
of American school-children for historic facts, will be regretted,
perhaps, on sentimental grounds. It does not seem worth while,
however, to keep current in elementary books statements which
every sound historical scholar rejects. No work of history ever
yet escaped error, but I have at least tried to make this a genuine
history, in harmony with the best historical scholarship of the
time. Many laborious years passed in the critical study of
original printed and manuscript authorities for the history of
American institutions and American life have perhaps given the
author of this history some right to speak with assurance on
questions relating to our early history.

Next to correctness the most important feature in a book for Lucidity and
the young is clearness. To achieve this one must not treat more interest -
subjects than can be handled with sufficient fullness for compre
hension. Attempts to write a little about everything are fatal to
lucidity. The writer for the young finds all his skill taxed to be
clear and to be interesting, and the two things lie close together.
One of the highest benefits that a good text-book in the hands
of a good teacher can confer is to leave the pupil with a relish
for historical reading.

The order in which the various topics are treated has much Arrangement
to do both with the clearness and the interest of a history. In c toplcs -
the strictly chronological history the reader skips from theme to
theme, resuming under several dates the broken thread of now
this and now that story. The relation of cause and effect is
almost entirely lost, and history becomes a succession of events
with little logical connection. The understanding is benumbed,
the attention is but feebly roused, imagination slumbers, and




Position of
the reviews.

The history of

A teaching

memory gets small hold on occurrences that are presented like
beads unstrung. The rigid grouping of a history by epochs is
fatal to a truly logical arrangement. One of the most important
of the novel features of the present history is its arrangement.
Discoveries, settlements, Indians and Indian wars, colonial life,
the French wars, government in colonial time and the rise of
the Revolution, and other kindred topics, are severally grouped
together, so that, for instance, the pupil learns about the nature
of Indian life, the chief Indian wars, and the means of attack
and defense used by white men and Indians in successive chap
ters, pursuing this general subject until it is finished. Cause
and effect are thus clearly set before his mind, and history be
comes a reasonable science.

The reviews are not placed at regular intervals, according to a
stiff mechanical rule, but these also follow in the main the same
rule of grouping as the chapters. When a chief topic is com
pleted, there is a review, whether the chapters be many or few.

The "proper knowledge of mankind is man," and the real
importance of history lies in the light that it throws upon
humanity. For this reason liberal attention has been here given
to the domestic and social life of the people, their dress, their
food, their modes of thought and feeling, and their ways of
making a livelihood. The succession of events in minor wars
would only weary the attention, but the modes of attack and
defense and the character of the arms of the various belligerents
are essential facts in the history of man in this New World.
And the story of the progress of civilization, as marked by the
introduction of new inventions and by changes in modes of
living, is of primary importance in any history written in the
modern spirit.

This is from first to last a school-book. No other aim has
been in view in its preparation than that of making the best
possible teaching book of American history. The length and
arrangement of the chapters, the questions, topical and geo
graphical studies, and skeleton outlines, as well as the reviews,
are all arranged with reference to the needs of teacher and pupil.
An effort has here been made to apply to history in a thorough
and practical way the great Pestalozzian principle of teaching
through the eye. The suggestions for blackboard illustrations,


the diagrams, the abounding illustrations, and the little maps
scattered through the pages, are all part of a plan to make the
facts of history visible, and by that means to render the study
easily comprehensible and therefore delightful.

Instead of a few large maps in various colors and confused Th e maps,
with many names, among which the pupil must grope painfully
for the places that pertain to the events under consideration,
there are in this history more maps than chapters, and every one
of the smaller maps is arranged to bear upon one fact, or at
most upon two or three in close relation. Only so many names
are put upon each map as are necessary to make clear the event
under consideration. Not only is the pupil saved from much
needless toil by this plan, but maps thus arranged serve the dou
ble purpose of elucidating the narrative and impressing it on the
memory at the same time, by giving it form to the eye. Each
little map becomes a local diagram of some historical fact, and
the form of the map will remain in the memory inseparably asso
ciated with the event to which it belongs a geographical body to
an historical soul. Educational writers have said much about the
importance of teaching geography and history together. There
is not, perhaps, any better device for teaching the two branches
in unison than these simple and perspicuous maps, each imme
diately associated on the page with the single event to which it

Though the illustrations are by some of the best artists and The illustrations,
engravers of the time, and are many of them of high artistic
merit, and though they are far more abundant than is usual in
books of this kind, there has been no thought of making this a
mere picture-book. The illustrations are part and parcel of the
teaching apparatus ; their primary use, like that of the maps, dia
grams, and blackboard exercises, is to make the history visible. A
very considerable body of historical knowledge of the most im
portant kind might be acquired from these cuts alone. Illustra
tions of costumes, manners, implements, arms, jewels, vehicles,
and inventions are valuable in proportion to their truthfulness.
Those here given have been made under the author s personal
supervision, and they have cost quite as much labor and study
as the text itself. Many are founded on rare prints, others are
from ancient original drawings not before printed, and a few



The study of the

Marginal titles.


have been carefully drawn from descriptions of contemporary
writers. The device of placing many of the smaller cuts in the
margin serves to make the page more pleasing to the eye, while
it has rendered it possible to illustrate abundantly without unduly
increasing the size and cost of the book. The author can not
forbear expressing his appreciation of the liberality with which
the publishers have availed themselves of so many of the re
sources of the modern art of illustration to enhance the value of
this history. The illustrations have been made under the artistic
supervision of Mr. John A. Eraser.

In " English as She is Taught/ a definition is cited from a
school-boy s exercise-book to the effect that " the Constitution of
the United States is that part at the back of the book which no
body reads." Since no school-boy or school-girl ever does read it,
and since it is not a document meant to be construed by chil
dren, it seemed better to utilize the space for other things than to
reprint the Constitution for mere clap-trap. The same remark
applies to the Declaration of Independence. But I have, instead,
explained the purport of the Declaration of Independence in its
place, and I am sure the pupil will get far more from the account
given in this work of the various departments of our government,
their origin, and their operation under the Constitution, than from
reading the letter of the Constitution itself.

By omitting the numbers usually placed at the beginning of
paragraphs, the book has been relieved of stiffness ; by printing
the subject of each paragraph in the margin, a means of reference
far more convenient is provided, with the further advantage that
the margins serve as a resume of the subjects treated in the text.
This feature is part of the general design of the book, which aims
to keep before the minds of teacher and pupils the salient feat
ures of the topic under discussion, and thus to discourage mere
memoriter study.

In giving titles of books for reading and reference, I have
thought it better to mention a few accessible books rather than to
bewilder the student with a long list.

E. E.


Questions for Study follow each chapter. These are intended, in the Questions for
first place, to guide the pupil in mastering his lesson, to make him test stud y-
his understanding of the subject by analyzing and reasoning about his
facts, and by associating them with related facts. The teacher will also
find these questions helpful to him in preparing and hearing a recitation.

The Study by Topics which follows the questions is meant chiefly to study by topics,
aid the teacher in conducting a recitation, or, at least, a review of a recita
tion. The topical method of recitation develops the pupil s power of
grasping and holding each branch of a subject in its entirety. But it can
not be used to the exclusion of the use of questions and answers without
danger of its degenerating, on the one hand, into an inadequate statement,
or, on the other, into a mere repetition of the words of the text-book.

Some teachers will use now one and now the other method, testing Questions and
the pupil s understanding of the subject at one recitation by questions, to P lcs -
at the next developing his power of synthesis and his mastery of language
by giving him a division of the subject to be stated in his own way and
with his own words, and then, when he has completed his statement,
pointing out his omissions or misapprehensions.

Other teachers will prefer to combine the two plans in the same recita
tion. This may be done i. By a thorough examination of the subject
by questions, followed by a topical review of the whole chapter, each
division of the subject being assigned to a pupil in his turn. 2. Another
mode of combining the two is by following the recitation of each topic by
questions meant to bring out from the class points forgotten or obscured
in the pupil s account of that branch of the subject. No recitation can
fully accomplish its purpose without the use of questions at some stage.

The Skeleton Summary appended to many of the chapters will sug- Skeleton sum-
gest its proper use. It may be copied on papers or on slates and filled maf y-
in by each pupil, or the teacher may have it written on the blackboard
and then have the blanks filled by suggestions from the class.

The geographical facts connected with each event should be brought Geographical
out distinctly. When larger or fuller maps than those in this book are stud y-
needed, the atlas or the school wall-map can be easily referred to. The
small maps accompanying the text may be sketched on the blackboard,
as further described, or they may be used from the page.






The school his
tory as a class

School compo

In general, the blackboard should be used wherever possible. In
particular :

1. The Study by Topics may be written on the blackboard with
advantage in almost every recitation. The subject under consideration
is thus displayed in a natural order. This may be done before the recita
tion begins, or each topic made be added as the recitation proceeds, thus
constructing a visible table of the subject before the eyes of the class.

2. When diagrams are given in the book, they may be put on the
board, to give a visible illustration to some proportion of size or number.

3. Word-diagrams are often useful. See, for example, pages 13 and
121. In these the location of the words or phrases helps the mind to
group and the memory to hold important facts.

4. It is an excellent plan to sketch the small map on the blackboard.
This should not be done elaborately or with too much attention to detail.
The most useful maps of all are mere diagrams of location sketched by a
pupil rudely but readily, as he might do in explaining a fact in conversation.

The cuts, especially those illustrating life and manners, are a part of
the history, and the teacher should, by remark or question, draw attention
to the facts illustrated by them.

The Reviews which close each group of chapters may be treated as
a briefer topical recitation, developing rapidly the salient points of the
chapters reviewed. The review may also be put upon the blackboard, in
sections, if not as a whole.

In the prevailing movement to lighten the labors of the pupil in
school, history is sometimes taught by using the text-book for a reader.
In such cases, there should be a line of comment or question maintained
by the teacher sufficient to make sure that the chapter read is fully
understood, and sufficient to impress what has been read on the mem
ory. By writing the Study by Topics on the blackboard, a habit of
thoughtful reading will be promoted. The abundant illustrations of cus
toms and the little special maps in this book will prove of the greatest
advantage to teachers using this as a reading-book.

Topics for school composition are now and then suggested from the
subjects treated in the current chapter. There is a double advantage in
these : The puzzled pupil is helped to a topic for writing, while the best
results of historical study are secured by giving him occasion to exercise
his thoughts upon the subjects studied. The teacher will easily sug
gest other topics ; particularly may the pupil write upon the several actors
in our history in those schools where access can be had to works of biog
raphy or books of reference.



I. How Columbus discovered America I

II. Other Discoveries in America 7

III. Sir Walter Ralegh tries to settle a Colony in America . 13
IV. How Jamestown was Settled . . . . . .19
V. The Starving Time, and what followed . . . .24
VI. The Great Charter of Virginia, and the First Massacre by

the Indians 29

VII. The Coming of the Pilgrims ...... 34

VIII. The Coming of the Puritans ...... 39

IX. The Coming of the Dutch 45

X. The Settlement of Maryland and the Carolinas . . 50
XL The Coming of the Quakers and Others to the Jerseys

and Pennsylvania ....... 57

XII. The Settlement of Georgia, and the Coming of the Ger
mans, Irish, and French ...... 62

XIII. How the Indians Lived 71

XIV. Early Indian Wars . . 79

XV. Traits of War with the Indians 85

XVI. Life in the Colonial Time 91

XVII. Farming and Shipping in the Colonies . . . .98
XVIII. Bond-Servants and Slaves in the Colonies . . . 104

XIX. Laws and Usages in the Colonies 109

XX. The Spanish in Florida and the French in Canada . .116

XXL Colonial Wars with France and Spain . . . .122

XXIL Braddock s Defeat and the Expulsion of the Acadians . 128

XXIIL Fall of Canada 135

XXIV. Characteristics of the Colonial Wars with the French . 142

XXV. How the Colonies were Governed 151

XXVI. Early Struggles for Liberty in the Colonies . . . 156

XXVIL The Causes of the Revolution 161

XXVIII. The Outbreak of the Revolution and Declaration of Inde
pendence 168

XXIX. The Battle of Trenton and the Capture of Burgoyne s

Army 175

XXX. The Dark Period of the Revolution 181

XXXL The Closing Years of the Revolution . . . .186



XXXII. Traits and Incidents of the Revolutionary War . . 192
XXXIII. The Adoption of the Constitution ..... 197

XXXIV. The New Republic and its People 203

XXXV. Home and Society in Washington s Time . . . 209
XXXVI. Washington s Presidency, from 1789 to 1797 . . 213
XXXVII. Troubles with England and France. Presidency of

John Adams 220

XXXVIII. Election of Jefferson. War with Tripoli . . .224

XXXIX. The Settlement of the Great Valley . . . .231

XL. Beginning of the Second War with England . . . 240

XLI. The Navy in the War of 1812 245

XLII. The Army in the War of 1812 250

XLIII. Expansion of the Union . ...... 257

v XLIV. From Monroe to Van Buren. Rise of Whigs and

Democrats 264

XLV The Steamboat, the Railroad, and the Telegraph . .271
XLVI. Annexation of Texas. Beginning of the Mexican War . 276
XLVII. The Close of the Mexican War, and the Annexation of

New Territory 283

XL VI 1 1. The Question of Slavery in Politics . . . .292
vXLIX. Break-up of Old Parties. Approach of the Civil War . 298

v L. How the Great Civil War began 304

LI. Confederate Victory at Bull Run. The First Western

Campaign . . . . . . . .310

LII. The War at the East. From Bull Run to Gettysburg. 317
LI 1 1. Various Operations in 1862 and 1863 .... 324

LIV. The Campaign between Nashville and Atlanta . . 330
LV. From the Wilderness to Petersburg. The War in the

Valley 337

sLVL Close of the Civil War 345

LVIL Traits and Results of the War. Death of Lincoln . 350

LVIIL Political Events since the Civil War . . . .359

LIX. Later Developments of the Country .... 366

LX. Population, Wealth, and Modes of Living . . .372

LXI. Literature and Art in the United States .... 377

How Columbus discovered America.

IT is now about four hundred years since Columbus Trade with India

wf. -\ -r-i r in the time of Co-

dlSCOVered America. Before that time people in Europe

knew nothing of any lands on the western side of the
Atlantic. Trade with India was carried on by caravans,
and travelers who had gone to China and Japan brought
back wonderful stories of the riches of their cities, and of
the curious people who lived in those far-away countries.
In order to reach these lands of wonder and to open a
trade with India by sea, the Portuguese had been for a
long time pushing their discoveries down the western
coast of Africa. But the seamen of that time sailed
mostly in the Mediterranean, and they were timid in the
Atlantic Ocean. The Portuguese sent out expedition
after expedition, for seventy years, before they succeeded
in discovering the Cape of Good Hope, and they had not
yet got around that cape when Columbus offered to find
a new and shorter way to India.

As learned men already believed the world to be coiumbus pro-

T poses a new way

round, Columbus asked : ^ Why try to get to India and to India.


China by going around


, Africa? Why not


False notions
in the way.

sail straight to the west
around the world to Asia ?
He did not know that
America was in the way,
and he thought that the
world was smaller than it
is, and he believed that
he could reach the rich
lands of gold and spices in
Asia by sailing only two
or three thousand miles to
the westward. So that Co
lumbus discovered America

Christopher Columbus was born in
Genoa, in Italy. The date of his birth
is uncertain. His father was a humble
wool-comber, but Columbus received a
fair education. He knew Latin, wrote
a good hand, and drew maps exceedingly
well. He sometimes supported himself
by making maps and charts. He was
well informed in geography as it was
then understood. At fourteen he went
to sea, and before he sailed on his great
voyage he had been almost all over the
known world. He had gone some dis
tance down the newly discovered coast
of Africa, with the Portuguese, and north
as far as Iceland. Columbus married
the daughter of a Portuguese navigator,
and came into possession of his charts.
He was a man of great perseverance, and
he held to his idea of sailing to the west
through many long years of discourage
ment. He made four voyages to Amer
ica, setting out on the first in 1492, the
second in 1493, the third in 1498, and
the fourth in 1502. Though a great
navigator, he was not a wise governor of
the colonies he planted, and he had many
enemies. In 1500 he was cruelly sent
home to Spain in chains. But Ferdinand
and Isabella, as well as the people, were
shocked at this degradation, and he was
at once set free. His last voyage was
unfortunate, and when he returned to
Spain, in November, 1504, the monarchs
paid little attention to him. Queen Isa
bella died soon after his return, while
Columbus lay sick, and when the great
navigator came to court the king was deaf
to his petitions. Worn out with fatigue,
exposure, and anxiety, the great admiral
died on the 2oth of May, 1506.

in consequence of two

He first offered to make this discovery for the city
^of Genoa, in which he was born. Then he offered his
plan to the King of Portugal. But a voyage on the
"great Atlantic Ocean seemed a dreadful thing in
those days. It was called the

Sea of Darkness," be-

cause no one knew anything about it, and people

a.*^. - STERN OF

13 -^Vj* 1 I ANCIENT

i^LJ 5 -:* U fe WAR-SHIP.

"^ " . - "


believed that it was inhabited by hideous monsters.
As the world was round, some thought that, if a ship
sailed down the sides of it, it would find it impossible
to get back up again. They said that people could not
live on the other side of the world because they would
be upside down.

The King of Portugal was an enlightened man,
and the ideas of Columbus made an impression on him
after a while. But he did not like to grant the great re
wards demanded by the navigator if he should find land ;
so he secretly sent out a ship under another commander
to sail to the westward and see if there was any land
there. The sailors on this ship were easily discouraged,

A ship sent out

returned laughing at

and his notions.

Columbus found that coiumbus goes

to Spain.

been cheated, he left

and they
he had

Portugal ! ^^Sr& : toofferhisideatothe

King and Queen of Spain, the

celebrated Ferdinand and Isabella. The Spanish mon-
archs were very busy in their war with the Moors, and
Columbus, who was poor and obscure, spent about seven
years in trying to persuade them to furnish him ships
and sailors. At length, after he had waited so long, they
refused his terms, and he set out for France, but certain
officers of Queen Isabella, who believed in Columbus s
theory, persuaded her to call him back and to send him
on his own terms.

Columbus sailed from Spain, with three small ves- His departure on

i i i his great voyage,

sels, on the 3d of August, 1492, and was more than two and his discovery
months on the voyage. The sailors were more and more c
frightened as they found themselves going farther and



Online LibraryEdward EgglestonA history of the United States and its people : for the use of schools → online text (page 1 of 32)