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LIBRARY

UNIVERSITY Of




FOOT-POWER LOOM WEAVING



BY



EDWARD F. WORST

Supervisor of Elementary Manual Training and
Construction Work, Chicago, 111.




THE BRUCE PUBLISHING COMPANY
MILWAUKEE, WIS.



DECORATIVE ABI



Copyright, 1918

by
Edward F. Worst



I 0/4-90



-tive
Art.



INTRODUCTION




HE suggestions offered in this manual are for those who believe that the more ad-
vanced weaving should be pursued as a most wholesome occupation and that it
should again, in the near future, find a place not only in the school but also in the
home. Few lines of occupation furnish more excellent opportunity for color com-
bination and design than does the craft of weaving.

Girls taking the various household-arts courses will find weaving a great aid in under-
standing the structure of a piece of cloth.

The work is so full of possibilities and the results obtained have such a wonderful effect
on the character of the worker that these alone afford ample reasons why weaving should be
carried on in both school and community.

The descriptions given are for the amateur weaver who will find them more easily under-
stood than those given in the more technical books on the subject.

It is hoped that those interested will find help through the suggestions offered in this manual.

EDWARD F. WORST.



M856405



Table of Contents



CHAPTER I

THK LOOM, WAKPING AND THREADING Loom Weav-
ing The Construction of Plain Cloth The Essential
Parts of a Loom Preparing a Long Warp Construc-
tion of Warp Board The Warp Board in I'se Taking
Off the Warp The Warping Reel Alternate Method
of Warping Four Threads Keeping Account of Threads
Warped Warping a Number of Threads at Once
Turning On, or Beaming The War]) Spreader or Raddle
- Laying in Sticks Knotting the Heddles Heddlc
St ieks" Threading the Loom The Reed Threading
the Reed Placing the Reed Tying the Loom The
Cloth Beam The Shed The Small Shuttle The
Bobbin Winder The Temple The Reel 7-42

CHAPTER II

PATTERN WEAVING Rag Rugs Introducing Color -
Plaids Pattern Weaving Beginning the Threading^
Threading the Reed Tying the Heddle Sticks Tying
Heddle Slicks to Treadles - Weaving the Pattern -
Weaving a Border Second Change in Pattern Checked
Paper Adaptations of Patterns Rose Path Pattern
Threading for the Rose Path Pattern Weaving the Pat-
tern Fine Threads Used for Warp The Lambs 43-58

CHAPTER III

COLONIAL PATTERNS Reading a Pattern Draft The
Big Diamond Pattern The Tie-l'p Weaving the Pat-
tern Double Snowball Pattern Where to Begin the
Threading for Large Patterns Block Work Pattern
Chariot Wheel Pattern - The Orange Peel Pattern
Governor's ( ianlen Bonaparte's March Pattern Weaving
Borders Snail's Trail Pattern The Blooming Flower
Pattern Pine Knot Pattern Federal Knot Pattern
Wheel of Fortune Pattern Irish Chain Pattern The
Tie-Up of Irish Chain Rings and Chains Old Quilt
Pattern Miscellaneous Patterns Wind Flower Pattern
Whip Hose Pattern 59-100



CHAPTER IV

DANISH AND NORWEGIAN WEAVING Expressing Dan-
ish Patterns Reading a Danish Draft Tying the
Treadle Danish Patterns 101-105

CHAPTER V

SWEDISH WEAVING Swedish Way of Writing a Draft -
Irregular Threading - Three-Harness Draft - Eight-
Harness Pattern Heddle Frames Tie-Up for Two Sets
of Lambs Six-Harness Pattern Six-Harness Loom
Eight-Harness Loom Miscellaneous Swedish Patterns. .106-150

CHAPTER VI

DAMASK WEAVE Double Weave Damask Weave -
Threading the Reed Tie-Up Ten-Harness Tie-Up
Table Mat - Rug Weaving in Wool Operation of
Treadles Double Weaving Threading Double Weave
Pattern 107-165

CHAPTER VII
TEXTILES AND WOOD Combinations of Textiles and Wood

Foot Stool Waste Basket Screens 166-174

CHAPTER VIII
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF LOOMS - - Danish

Looms Swedish Looms 175-182

CHAPTER IX
DYES AND DYEING Utensils Used Washing of Wool

Water Used in Washing Mordant Formulae for Dye-
ing Yellows Reds Preparation of Olium Blue
Dyes Green Dyes Violet Dyes Violet With Cochi-
neal Violet With Cochineal, or Madder Brown Dyes
Gray Dyes Black Dyes Further Use of Used Dye
Liquids Yellow After Dyes Red After Dyes Blue
After Dyes Violet After Dyes Green After Dyes
Dyeing of Old Goods Bleaching Woolen Goods Hand
Measures 183-208



Foot -Power Loom Weaving



CHAPTER I
The Loom, Warping and Threading



Loom Weaving

Notwithstanding the introduction of the power
loom and all its wonderful possibilities, the hand
loom still survives and seems likely to continue in
use since numerous schools and handicraft societies
as well as many independent art workers are becom-
ing interested. This gives hope that at some time
in the near future the domestic occupations of weav-
ing and spinning in both flax and wool will again
find a place, not only in the home but also in the
studio and in the industrial school. The apprecia-
tion of handwork has, during the past decade, in-
creased in the estimation of the public.

In various European countries, as well as in
India, China and Japan, hand loom weaving still
continues. In Norway and Sweden a very success-
ful line of home industry is carried on to great ad-
vantage to many women who find it necessary to
aid in the family support. This may also be said
of the women in the Orkney and Shetland Islands.



Of late much has been written of the beautiful
hand-weaving done by the women in the moun-
tains of Kentucky and Tennessee. So attractive is
this work that little difficulty is experienced in
disposing of the articles woven.

Since the introduction of machine spinning and
weaving, no home industry which approaches them
in usefulness or interest has taken their place. It
is true that there are many lines of weaving now pro-
duced by the machine, too intricate to be attempted
on the hand loom, but the weaving of linen, cotton,
woolen and the coarser silk threads into materials
of strength and beauty for home use, can quite well
be carried on in the studio and even by the home-
maker who has other household occupations.

There is no doubt as to the superiority of a well
made, hand-woven article. This is plainly shown
if the hand-made and the machine-made articles are
compared. Hand loom weaving, too, is superior
to machine weaving if judged by the effect it is



likely to have on the worker. The hand weaver is
employed in a pleasant, ingenious occupation which
exercises all his faculties, while the attendant on a
power loom is engaged in a monotonous toil in which
no quality but intense watchfulness is required.

The object of this manual on weaving is to give
to the amateur weaver the benefit of the author's
experience in preparing the fibers, the warping
and the threading of the loom for plain weaving, as
well as learning to interpret and to execute various
pattern drafts used in our own country and in
other countries.

Through the exercises given it is hoped the
weaver may be led to invent and to work out many
interesting and original designs.

The Construction of Plain Cloth

If a piece of plain cloth is examined it will be
found to consist of a number of longitudinal threads
placed side by side and interlaced by a continuous
single thread. The latter thread passes alternately
above and below or before and behind the longi-
tudinal threads. Fig. 1 shows the arrangement of
the longitudinal threads and the continuous thread
crossing and intersecting them.

The longitudinal threads of a piece of woven
material are always called the warp. They are so
named, because, in order to allow their being inter-




Fig. 1 A Piece of Plain Cloth



sected conveniently by the continuous crossing
thread they have to be warped, that is, tightly
strained in position on some kind of frame prepared
for the purpose. The continuous crossing thread
has several names, such as weft, woof, or shoot
(shute). "

If the warp threads are carefully examined
they will be found to consist of several fine threads
twisted together. This is done to give added
strength. The weft may be single and the thread
only slightly twisted, as this makes it soft so the
warp and weft are easily pressed together into a
firm material.

The weaving of mats and baskets from local
materials and from raffia, reed and willow may be
done without any special appliance for holding or
stretching the material while it is being woven.

When fine thread is to be woven the problem
is very different, and it becomes absolutely necessary
to devise some kind of frame to hold and stretch
the war]) upon, so that the weft may be readily
interlaced with it. The more elaborate frame con-
structed for this purpose has by universal consent
been called a loom.

The Essential Part of a Loom

In all the ancient pictures of looms the stretched
warp threads are shown and the insertion of the








Fig 2 Simple Loom



weft threads is suggested; but the lease, the one
universal and indispensable contrivance used in
weaving, has been omitted. While not shown, it
must have been there, for no loom could be operated
without it.

Fig. 2 illustrates the three steps in the con-
struction of a simple loom. The construction is
similar to the looms made by the pupils of the
lower grades.

Fig. 2, "A" shows the loom without the
thread.

"B" shows the warp threads wound upon it
lengthwise.



10

"C" shows the strings on the board intersected
by two rods, "D," in such a way that alternate
strings go over and under each rod. In the space
between the rods the alternate strings cross each
other in regular succession. While the rods "D"
are kept in their position in the warp it js impossible
for the threads to get out of place or to get hope-
lessly entangled, as they certainly would if any
great number of threads were used.

This cross is called the lease and is really the
one indispensable part of the loom. No two looms
may be alike in any other respect but in the case
of the lease. One cannot dispense with this simple
yet perfect contrivance for keeping the warped
threads in order when a long warp made up of
hundreds of threads is required.

Preparing a Long Warp

A warp longer than the loom cannot be made
upon the loom as was shown in A, B, C, Fig. 2.

This being true, some sort of apparatus must be
constructed on which to build up a series of threads
of exactly the required length and number of threads.
These threads must be held in exactly the same ten-
sion so that when transferred to the loom and
stretched between its front and back beams they
shall give the weaver as little trouble as possible
with loose threads.



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Fig. 3 Use of Warping Board

This process of preparing the threads is called
warping. There are several ways of doing the
warping.

Construction of Warping Board

Fig. 3 shows the construction of a warping
board. On this board may be warped a moderate
number of threads, such as would be required for
a foot-power loom. The warping board makes it
possible to illustrate perfectly the principles of
warping.



The board shown in Fig. 3 (1, 2 and 3) is six
feet long by one foot wide. It is made to hang
firmly on a wall at such a height from the ground
that the operator can reach to any part of it without
difficulty.

On a board, the size indicated in Fig. 3, a warp
ton yards in length may be warped. A longer
length may be warped either by increasing the length
of the board or by increasing its width and adding
to the number of pegs. The pegs should be made of
hard wood not less than six inches long and one inch
in diameter.

The pegs marked A and E must be movable,
perfectly smooth and have nicely rounded ends.
The space between A and B should not be less than
one foot, and the space between B and C, six inches.
The space between D and E should also be one
foot. (No. 1, Fig. 3).

The Board in Use

Let the problem at hand be to make a warp of
thirty threads ten yards long.

Place a spool of ordinary four-ply carpet warp
on end in a receptacle of some kind in order that the
thread may freely unwind. If a spool rack may be
conveniently had the spool may be slipped on to
one of the rounds of the rack. Tie the free end of
the spool of warp to the movable peg A, No. 2,



11

Fig. 3. Guide the thread under peg B and over
peg C. Then follow the dotted line, as shown in
No. 2, Fig. 3, by allowing the thread to pass outside
the pegs 1, 2, 3, back to 4, then to pegs 5, 6 and 7,
until it reaches peg D, which it goes under. Carry
the thread now over and under peg E, and then
begin its return by carrying the thread over D,
No. 3, Fig. 3, on to peg 7 (see dotted lines) and so
back in the same course, until we again reach peg 1.
It must now be taken below C, over B, and below A
(see dotted lines). This completes one course. The
warping board should now look like No. 3, Fig. 3,
with the threads crossed between pegs B and C,
and D and E. Two threads have now been warped,
having a length of ten yards between the crosses.

The second thread having been carried around
and over peg A, went under B and then followed
exactly the course of the first thread until it reached
E. Then, following the second thread back it reaches
A, goes under and over the peg, and four threads
out of the thirty are warped. By the time fifteen
forward and fifteen backward journeys are made the
sample warp of thirty threads is finished and may
be taken from the board as soon as the crosses have
been made secure.

One can readily understand by the above ex-
planation that a great amount of time would be
consumed in making a warp by handling one thread



12



at a time. Since four-ply carpet warp is to be
used for the first warping, four spools may be
placed on the spool rack, the four ends tied to the
proper peg at one time and then the course pursued
with the four threads, as was described for only one
thread. This causes four threads to pass under and
over the pegs instead of one. On account of the
coarseness of the warp there is little or no danger
of the threads becoming tangled. A more detailed
explanation of running more than four threads will
be given later. The above, however, works very
successfully.

Securing the Crosses

The important matter of securing the crosses
is easily done, but if forgotten the warp will be
spoiled when it is removed from the board.




Fig. 4 Securing the Crosses

Fig. 4 shows clearly the way it is done. The
letters indicate the pegs of the warping board, the
heavy lines are the threads of a warp, which may be
of any number of threads.

The important crosses are shown between C
and B and between D and E. A thin, pliable cord



about two yards long is now drawn in at each cross
from the back to the front, through the openings in
front of the pegs. Tie the ends of the cord as shown
in Fig. 4. By this means the crosses are perfectly
secured.

It will be observed that there is another cross
in the warp between B and A. This is not so im-
portant. A short cord may be drawn through the
loop at peg A, and the threads may be tied all to-
gether.

The warp may now be removed from the board
and made into what is called a chain.

Taking Off the Warp

The warp is taken off the warping board for
convenience in transferring it from the board to
the warp beam of the loom.

The crosses having been made secure, the warp
is ready to be removed from the board. The long-
strings between the crosses may be wrapped around
the warp to prevent them from hanging in the way.

First remove the peg A, Fig. 5. Allow the warp
to slip from the other pegs, B and C, and also No.
1, Fig. 5. Hold the warp with the left hand about
two feet from the end. While the warp is being held
with the left hand, throw the end over the warp
with the right hand, as shown at F, Fig. 5.



13



C B




Fig. 5 Taking Off the Warp



This makes a kind of loop. With the left hand
still holding the warp, the right hand is put through
the loop at G, Fig. 5. The warp is grasped and drawn
through the loop far enough to make a second loop,
held by the right hand. The left hand is now free
and is put through the new loop held by the right
hand. The warp is grasped and drawn through the
new loop thus making a third loop held this time
by the left hand. The right hand being free is put
up through the third loop, the warp is grasped and
drawn through the loop. This is continued until
the entire warp has been removed from the board.



The process of taking off the warp will be rec-
ognized as the same as making a chain stitch in
crocheting, the hands doing the work instead of a
hook. See Fig. 6.

Before placing the warp, which may now be
called a chain, on the warp beam of the loom, another
method of warping will be considered, ^ju^

The Warping Reel

The use of the warping reel, sometimes called
the warping mill, somewhat simplifies the process of
warping. Fig. 7 shows a working drawing of a warp-
ing reel, and Fig. 8 shows the finished reel.





Fig. 6 Chain made with warp from warping board



14




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It will be observed that the pegs appear on the
cross bars of the finished reel marked A, B, C,
and D, E, the same as on the warping board. The
distance between the upright posts of the reel is
27 inches. The spools of warp are placed as when
the warping board was used. Some sort of a spool
rack is almost indispensable. Yet any convenient
way of arranging the spools so the thread will freely
unwind, will answer the purpose. Fig. 9 shows the







15

working drawing of the spool rack and Fig. 10
shows the finished rack.

Supposing that four threads are to be warped
at one time. The four ends are all tied at one time
to peg A, Fig. 11., They are carried under B and over
C and then start on their way around the reel, the
threads being guided on their way to pegs D and E
by the left hand while the reel is turned by the right
hand. The person performing the work remains




A !> C

Fig. 11 Method of Starting Threads



Fig. 12 Threads Passed over Lower Pegs




Fig. 3 Working Drawing of Spool Rack



Fig. 10 Spool Rack



A B C

Fig. 13 Another Method of Starting Threads



16

stationary. On reaching peg D the group of four
threads is carried over it, under and around E and
back under D, as shown in Fig. 12. From here the
threads start back toward pegs A, B and C, passing
under C, over and under and around A, under B
and over C, as in the beginning.

The reel measures 27 inches between posts.
Passing around the reel once is equal to three yards
of warp. Knowing this, makes it an easy matter
to measure off any number of yards.

Another Way to Begin With Four Threads

The four threads may be tied together and
slipped on to peg A, two threads being on top of the
peg and the other two below. Bring the two threads
which are below A, over B, and the two above
A, below B. Allow the two below B to pass over C.
and bring the two above B so that they pass below
C, Fig. 13. From this point the four threads are
guided around the reel just as above described. The
four threads pass over and under D and E, as shown
in Fig. 12. On their return to peg A the four threads
pass under the pegs the two went over, and over the
pegs the two went under, and the warping proceeds in
the same manner as when using the warping board.

Keeping Account of the Number of Threads Warped

As soon as the threads have crossed a few times
between pegs D and E, it will be found difficult to



remember how many threads are gathered together
on the pegs. It becomes necessary to use some de-
vice for keeping count in order to know when the
warp is completed.

This account can be easily kept if a piece of
cord or tape is used.

After the group of four threads passes between
pegs D and E five times, draw one end of the cord
or tape through the opening next to peg D and the
other end through the opening next to E, as shown
in Fig. 14.




Fig. 14 Keeping Account of Threads Warped.

The warping continues until five more groups
have been warped or reeled, as the process is some-
times called. The end of the colored cord or tape
marked "f," Fig. 14, is now passed through the
opening next to peg D, and the end of the cord or
tape marked "e" passes through the opening next
to peg E, thus making a cross in the cord or tape
between the first group of five and the second group
of five. As there are twenty threads in each group
the worker knows that the warp contains forty
threads. This is continued until the required num-
ber of threads has been reeled.



17



The cross at the beginning and the one at the
end of the warp are now secured in the same way as
when the warp is made on the warping board.

Removing the Warp from the Reel

Peg A is removed and the warp is slipped from
pegs B and C. A chain is made the same as when
removing a warp from the warping board. See
Fig. 15.

To Warp a Number of Threads at Once

If only four or six threads are warped at a time
these may easily be carried and placed over and
under the pegs in a group. It will be learned a little
later that, when the lease rods are placed, either four
or six threads, according to the number warped at
a time, will pass over and under the rods at one time.

When eight, ten, twelve, or sixteen threads are
warped at a time the problem is somewhat more
complicated and should be done in such a way as to
bring alternate threads over and under the lease
rods. This arrangement of the threads makes the
threading of the loom easy and keeps the threads
from becoming snarled or twisted one with another.
Arrange the spools on the spool rack, as shown in
Fig. 16.

A paddle-shaped piece of \" or 3-16" basswood
is cut as shown in Fig. 17, to serve as a guide. Any
number of holes may be bored. Sixteen is usually




Fig. 15 Removing the Warp from the Reel



18




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Fig. 16 Spools on Rack



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Fig. 17 A Paddle



the greatest number for the amateur. The ends of
the threads coming from the spools on the left side
of the rack and all unwinding in the same direction
are threaded through the holes in the left side of
the guide, Fig. 17A, and the ends coming from the
spools on the right side of the rack are threaded



through the holes in the right side of the guide, 17A.
The ends are now all gathered together and tied in
one knot and slipped over peg A of the warping reel,
four threads being on top and four below the peg,
the threads fixed to peg A, Fig. 17A. The guide is
held in the left hand in an upright position so the
threads are well separated. With the first finger
and thumb of the right hand the threads (warp)
must be crossed. This is done by placing the first
finger of the right hand on the lowest thread on the
right side of the guide and pressing it downward,
Fig. 18. The thread just pressed down passes under
the finger and over the thumb. With the thumb
press down the lowest thread on the left side of




Fig. 17 A Method of Using Paddle



19




Reeling Eight Threads with Paddle




Fig. 18 First Thread Pulled Down Fig. 19 Second Thread Pulled Down

the guide, Fig. 19. This thread passes under the
thumb and over the finger. Allow the finger to press
down the second thread on the right side of the guide.
This thread now passes under the finger and over the
thumb. With the thumb press down the second
thread on the left side of the guide, Fig. 18. This is
continued until all the threads are crossed on the
finger and thumb of the right hand. This cross is
transferred to the pegs. When placed on the pegs
B and C, it will be found that there is a crossing of
alternate threads. The eight threads are now held



in one group and carried around the warping reel
until the pegs at the other end are reached. The
group of threads are carried over and under the pegs
the same as was described with the warping board
when only one or four threads at a time were warped.

Turning On, or Beaming

At the present time the warp is in a long chain
ready to be placed on the loom in such a way as to


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