Edward Frederick Leveson-Gower.

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attendants. The figures looked very complacent
as they were douched, and the expression of
the faces was thereby improved. The sail back
by a glorious moonlight was very enjoyable.
The following day I accompanied Sir Erskine
to a meeting- at a native educational collesfe over
which he had to preside. It had been established
but three years. It was an interesting occasion, as
it was the first granting of diplomas. They were
allotted to eight scholars, who had passed more
severe examinations than are required in London.
They were of different races. Two were Portuguese,



208 INDIA

two Parsees, and the rest Hindus. There were
many old natives, the principal merchants of the
place, who are ready to encourage improvement.
Evidently the medical profession is one of the more
powerful influences for the spread of civilisation.
Sir Erskine Perry in a long address alluded to my
being present, which, he said, was an unexpected
honour. He added that I should take back
with me this striking instance of the progress
of the Hindus in knowledge ; that they were
just awaking from a sleep of two thousand
years. Another speaker talked of their absurd
and cruel rules of caste. Sir Erskine declared
that the Bombay native magnates fully concurred
in these views. There were many present who
watched the proceedings with interest. Sir Jamset-
jee Jheejeebhoy, the rich Parsee, was not among
them. He was the great benefactor of the place —
built hospitals, schools, and made roads, entirely
at his own expense, and with considerable ostenta-
tion. He was pleased at being made a knight, but
his great ambition is that it should be an hereditary
title. I saw his son, who would make a respectable
baronet. They say the native doctors become
fully equal to the Europeans in knowledge, but
not in judgment, still less in pluck, particularly if
they are in attendance on a European. That
afternoon Grosvenor and Egerton arrived, to my
inexpressible relief, although the former had entirely
lost his voice and was very weak. In the evening
I rode along the delightful sands, and afterwards
listened to the band, round which were conirrerated
the few remaining fashionables. The following day



1850-51] VOYAGE HOME 209

we drove out to Malabar Point, which is the
opposite point of the bay to the promontory of
Bombay. There were here a number of bungalows
inhabited by the Governor and his Court, and it
is to my mind a delightful spot, catching every
breeze. The drive there is extremely pretty,
skirting the bay, with rocks to the left, and re-
minding me of the road from Salerno to Amalfi.
We passed near the burying-place of the Parsees,
a high tower where they place their dead, leaving
them to be devoured by the vultures.

At 6 p.m. on Thursday, the 27th, we went on
board the Sesostris, a war-steamer belonging to the
Company, which carries the mail, and, by favour,
a few passengers to meet the Haddington at Aden.
We had an excellent passage, never extremely hot,
very calm, but with a breeze in the daytime. The
captain was a delightful man. We had but little
room, but slept on deck in very snug places.
There was a possibility of our finding the
Haddington started from Aden, which would have
been a fortnight thrown away in our lives. As
we approached we watched anxiously, looking out
for a steamer, and our spirits fell when no funnel
was to be seen. The Calcutta steamer, however,
had not arrived, and my joy was great the next
morning at this discovery. At five we took a ride
as far as the Arabian frontier. Here the body
of an Arab who had lately attacked a European
was hung up in chains. It was the second
outrage within a short time. In the first an
officer was killed and another badly wounded, and
the murderer escaped. In the second case the

14



2IO INDIA

officer, though wounded in several places, was able
to knock the Arab down, seize his dagger, and
kill him with it, and the corpse is hung up
on the frontier as a warning. They look upon
it as a most dreadful punishment, as they think
it precludes all hope of reaching Paradise. There
was, it was said, a conspiracy in a neighbouring
village to murder thirty Englishmen in revenge for
the death of some Arabs who not long ago attacked
the place, and the residents ride about armed.

On our return we met all the donkeys coming
from the hotel, a clear proof that the passengers
had left it. The wicked little urchins with them
screamed out, ** Steamer gone off — no more
steamer." At the door of the hotel waiters were
shaking their heads, declaring that the gun
had some time ago been fired ; but fortunately,
we reached the steamer ten minutes before the
anchor was weighed. We found on board several
of the acquaintances we had made on different
occasions during our trip. The most unexpected
was the pretty and clever little woman who
was staying with the Colvilles at Calcutta. She
had a good deal to say for herself, and I was lucky
enough to get next to her at our meals, but I
soon learnt a most melancholy bit of news, which
quite damped the pleasure of her society and her
gaiety. As I was going down to dinner I got
a message to take care not to mention the death
of Mitchell. Now as I never had heard of his
existence, discretion was easy, but judge how
shocked I was at learning that he was her father.
The news was in the paper by the last mail.



1850-Si] HOME AGAIN 211

but as she was not expected home she had received
no intimation of it. At that very dinner she had
expatiated on her love for her father, and her
ecstasy at the prospect of seeing him in London.

There were also on board Sir H. Blackwood, a
cousin of Lord Dufferin's and rather like him, and Mr.
Macleod, who said he was returning to England in
order to buy machinery for the Nepaulese.

The rest of our journey was prosperous. The
steamer from Alexandria to Trieste was ex-
ceedingly clean, comfortable, and rapid — the
Mediterranean and Adriatic looking like glass —
Corfu and Albania beautiful, the rail across Europe
uneventful, and the arrival in London ecstatic.



MY JOURNAL IN RUSSIA
1856

" Youth on the prow and
Pleasure at the helm."

MY brother was sent on a Special Mission to
St. Petersburg on the occasion of the
Coronation, in 1856, of Alexander II. He was
good enough to include me in his staff of attaches,
and to invite my wife to accompany me. The
following is a curtailed account of our expedition.
A fuller description of it will appear in Lord Edmund
Fitzmaurice's forth-coming life of my brother.

On Sunday evening, towards the end of July
we^ railed to Dover by the last train. We put up
at the Lord Warden Hotel, where we were received
with bows and smiles, which we paid for.

The next morning our whole party assembled
on board the Princess Alice, which was waiting
alongside the pier to take us off to our big man-
of-war, the St. Jean d' Acre, which lay at anchor a
short distance off Our party consisted of Sir
Robert^ and Lady Emily Peel, Lord Dalkeith,^

* I was accompanied by my wife, Margaret, the youngest daughter
of the second Marquis of Northampton, to whom I was married in
1853 (to which event I subsequently refer).

' The late Sir Robert Peel, son of the Prime Minister ; married
Lady Emily Hay, daughter of the eighth Marquis of Tweeddale.

^ Afterwards sixth Duke of Buccleuch.

213



1856] H.M.S. ST. JEAN D'ACRE 213

Lord Ashley,^ Lord Seymour, Sir Arthur Hardinge,^
Colonel Maude, ^ Mr. Gerald Ponsonby,^ Mr. Lister,
Dr. Sandwith, and ourselves.

The smiling aspect of affairs with which we
started did not last long. As soon as we arrived
on board we were shown our accommodation. A
row of delightful cabins had been put where the
guns used to be along each side of the main deck.
They were charmingly furnished with a profusion
of pretty chintzes, and fitted with every convenience.
The Peels and ourselves were only allotted a
cabin apiece, and Sir Robert and I were ex-
pected to dress in the corner of our mess room,
divided off by a curtain. This was certainly an
inconvenient arrangement ; it was too public, and
any gust of wind might have betrayed our naked
charms to the world at large. I said nothing,
but very different was it when the Lord of the
Admiralty, the Secretary to our Embassy, and
the bearer of so great a name, saw what was
destined for us. He rated the Captain roundly.
In vain the poor Captain, in whom the dignity of
his position struggled with his awe of a Lord of
the Admiralty, proposed a wooden partition or offered
several vacant cabins. The Baronet would not be
appeased. He would not stand such treatment,
to be worse off than any single man in the ship.
He would not remain there, but would go each
night to sleep on board the Princess Alice,

* Afterwards eighth Earl of Shaftesbury.

' Son of Viscount Hardinge, the Commander-in-Chief from 1852
to 1856.

' Afterwards Crown Equerry.

* Son of the fourth Earl of Bessborough.



214 MY JOURNAL IN RUSSIA

the steamer we were taking in tow. This threat
hung over our heads all day. I pitied Lady Emily.
She either was or pretended to be angry. I only
ventured to suggest to her that their sleeping in
the Princess Alice would annoy my brother,
but did not add would be punishing themselves.
At dinner the couple avoided the Captain. We all
rallied round him, as he had won our golden
opinions by not being strait-laced about smoking,
and by allowing us to dine in our morning dress.

Kiel, August ird. — Nothing worth mentioning
occurred during our voyage here. The weather
has been beautiful, and good humour generally pre-
vailed. It was a merry party, "Youth on the prow
and Pleasure at the helm." Even Lady Stafford's
coiffeur, Monsieur Plaisir, who was unhappy at
first, was pleased. The nights were noisy, a cock
incessantly crowing, a dog frequently barking,
people chattering, and that dreadful holy-stone,
which might well be literally translated into French
cette sacrde pierre.

The Granvilles reached Hamburg on Saturday,
and this place the next evening. I went to meet
them at the station. The addition to our party
besides the Granvilles were Sir John Acton, ^ Lord
Lincoln,- and Captain Robins, a Queen's Messenger.

The town of Kiel looks prosperous, although
it has not yet recovered from the injury done to
it by the Schleswig-Holstein War. At its termina-
tion two thousand inhabitants emigrated. The
people cannot reconcile themselves to Danish

' Stepson to Lord Granville, afterwards Lord Acton.
* Afterwards sixth Duke of Newcastle.



1856] CRONSTADT 215

rule. They will have no intercourse with any
Danish officer ; they spit on the ground after
a Dane has passed them ; and, what is more
remarkable, if true, they refuse Danish money.
They are fond of the English. We had their
best wishes during our campaign in the Crimea,
partly because the Danes were favourable to Russia.

I was not very well after we left Kiel ; my
spirits were depressed and I lost all energy. I
suffered from gout, which came out in the knees,
and made me hobble about the ship. I seemed
to cross in one day the Rubicon which separates
youth from old age. I liked Dr. Sandwith, though
his theory cannot be popular among patients ; as
he liked to leave cures to nature and prudence, and
had no golden rule.

My brother was in tearing spirits and encouraged
and joined in the amusements of the crew. There
was singing and acting, sling-the-monkey and
hi-cockalorum. All were cheery, and Sir Robert
was seen the last day patting the Captain on the
back.

On Friday, August the 9th, we cast anchor off
Cronstadt. A steam yacht that belonged to the
late Emperor Nicholas was placed at my brother's
disposal. In it he and most of the party started
off at once for St. Petersburg, where we arrived
in a thick fogf.

On the following Monday we began to sight-
see in earnest. Count Nesselrode^ showed us
over the Hermitage and the Winter Palace. In

' Son of the celebrated Russian statesman, Comte Charles de
Nesselrode. He was afterwards Russian Minister at Athens.



2i6 MY JOURNAL IN RUSSIA

the latter we saw the room in which the late
Emperor died — a small entresol simply furnished
with an iron bedstead without curtains, a table,
and a couple of chairs. On his bed lay the
dressing-gown and slippers he last wore. At
the head of the bed hung a portrait of his
daughter, the Grand Duchess Olga, dressed as
a hussar.

The following day we saw the Isaac Church,
which is magnificent. From the leads we got a
glorious view over the town. In the afternoon
Granville and I made another ascent up the
curiously shaped tower of the Admiralty, from which
there is a different view, but equally striking.
This tower reminded me of some of the Buddhist
temples in Nepaul. The Church of Kazan, which
we next visited, did not much impress me.

We hear the Russians take the numbers and
the rank of the members of our Embassy as
a compliment, but in the meanwhile the political
sky is overcast. They wish to know why the
English do not evacuate Kars, and why our
ships return to the Black Sea against the Treaty.
The clergyman who remained here during the
war tells me it was always unpopular among
the people, who suffered much from the con-
scription. On the other hand, I am assured
that the peace surprised and mortified the upper
classes.

One day we were taken to the principal palace.
My brother first had his audience with the
Emperor, which lasted some time. The attaches
were then ranged in a row according to their



1856] THE HERMITAGE, ETC. 217

rank, and the Emperor came down the Hne, my
brother naming us to him. He said a few words
to each, most to the mihtary attaches and Dr.
Sandwith, alluding to the Crimea and to the siege
of Kars. The ladies were then presented to the
Empress, who also came down our line, making much
the same observations as the Emperor. They both
look amiable, and she seems clever, which he does
not give one the impression of being. He has none
of the commanding look of his father. When Lady
Wodehouse ^ told a Russian how she had mistaken
him for an aide-de-camp, he observed : " Cela
na^irait pas pit arriver du temps de son pereT

The next day, Margaret, Maude, and I returned
to the Hermitage to take a quiet view of the
pictures. I was much pleased with a Murillo
which came from Souk's collection, and with
some of the Dutch pictures, particularly some Paul
Potters. Morny ^ said the collection is full of copies.

On Sunday we went to the Leuchtenburg
Palace, a delightful residence with some good
pictures. We had no leisure to examine them,
as the Prince and Princesse de Eigne were there
with the whole Belgian Legation, and much time
was occupied in introductions and civil speeches.
Time has told, but gently, with the Princesse,
since I used to dance with her in Paris.

We were all of us glad when the time arrived
for going to Moscow. On Monday last the

^ Lady Wodehouse. Her husband, afterwards the late Earl of
Kimberley, was then our Ambassador at St. Petersburg.

* Afterwards Due de Morny, Special Ambassador from France to
the Coronation. The well-known statesman under Napoleon III.



2i8 MY JOURNAL IN RUSSIA

Ambassador and Lady Granville, Maude, Lister and
Sandvvith started, and I went to the station to see
them off". They were comfortably established in
what were rather rooms than carriages, with sofas,
arm-chairs and tables.

That afternoon I walked to the Citadel Church
to see the burying-place of the Czars. The tombs
are placed close to one another, with nothing about
the place to denote their greatness. This simplicity
reminded me of the burying-place of the ancient
Kings of Spain at the Escorial.

We left St. Petersburg for Moscow on Tuesday
morning amidst great confusion. Two sets of
luggage were upset in the middle of the
Newski Prospekt, and I caught up my faithful
servant, Musson,^ riding astride upon a heap of
luggage piled up on a rickety cart. Inside the
station matters were no better — luggage thrown
about a large waiting-room densely crowded by the
mob from the streets, couriers not knowing which
way to turn. On the platform there was greater
peace, most of the party being installed in their
carriages and mildly asking for their luggage. We
were then informed that it could not come in our
train, but would be conveyed in a later one, a
promise to my astonishment faithfully kept. Three
compartments were given to us, one for the ladies,
another for those who did not smoke, and a third
for the smokers. I need not say that the last
was the most filled. Lady Stafford" gained much in

' In my service for some thirty-nine years. He taught himself French,
German, and Itahan, was a good fisherman, and a universal favourite.
' Wife of the Marquis of Stafford, afterwards third Duke of Sutherland,



1856] MOSCOW 219

my opinion during this railway journey, she was so
cheerful and obliging. The train stopped at every
station, sometimes for an hour, rarely for less
than half an hour. At each one the passengers
got out, both men and women, to eat and smoke.
It was a strange medley of people, Circassians
and wild-looking Russians. The journey took
twenty-two hours. Without the stoppages it would
have taken fifteen.

Moscow is a wonderful town, and were I
Emperor of Russia I would transfer my residence
to it, now that the railway has brought it nearer
to Europe. The Kremlin, from its quaintness,
its imposing size, and the splendid view from it,
is enchanting. I spent much time in the Tartar
bazaar, which reminded me of the East. The
second day we rode up to the manoeuvring
ground, where we found a great number of troops,
very fine men, one seven feet high. The officers
were very civil. There were reviews every day
after the arrival of the Emperor ; also trotting
races in "droshkies," which were rather amusing.

On August 25th we were presented in the small
palace in the Kremlin to the two Grand Dukes
Nicholas and Michael. We were ushered into a
small room, where Alexander II. was born. I
was charmed with the two young men, who played
their part with greater ease and simplicity than
the Emperor and Empress. Nicholas was hand-
some and with a pleasant countenance — Michael
not good-looking and rather rough in his manners,
yet natural and talkative when he got over his
shyness. They both look thorough soldiers. On



220 MY JOURNAL IN RUSSIA

this occasion, as at Peterhof, our military men were
the chief objects of attention.

On August 26th the Prince and Princesse de
Ligne came to dinner. The Prince has taken
a small house and does not intend to give any
fetes. His Government only gave him ;^ 1,000
for the expenses of his Mission. They always
choose him for such occasions, as he is rich and
does not mind being allowed so little. Prussia
manages the matter still more economically, as
a Royal Prince is always sent, who is received as
a guest at Court and therefore spends nothing.
This time Prussia is represented by the Crown
Prince of Prussia, the Jianc^ of our Princess Royal.

On the 28th we rode with the Ailesburys ^ to
the Montagne des Moineaux, whence Napoleon first
saw Moscow. It commands a beautiful view.

The 29th was the day fixed for the Emperor's
entry. When I got up it was raining hard,
but by breakfast-time it had become quite fine.
At one o'clock we all set out for the Princesse
Kotchoubey's house, to which all the diplomats had
been invited to see the procession. In consequence
of the stupidity of the chasseur we went past the
door, and had to move on into a side-alley to allow
M. de Morny's equipages to pass. They were
splendid — carriages, horses, and liveries. The state
coach was perhaps too grand for the occasion,
all glass — which to my mind is only suited to a
procession — and the Ambassador was a trifle too
regal. He sat alone at the back of his carriage

* Second Marquis of Ailesbury ; married Lady Mary, daughter of the
eleventh Earl of Pembroke.



1856] THE EMPEROR'S ENTRY 221

with one attach^ sitting opposite and two officers
riding on each side.

We found all the diplomats assembled in a
long suite of rooms, which looked into the street
where the Emperor was to pass, but owing to some
projecting columns the view was not very good.
There were some balconies to which the ladies and
big-wigs got access. I shared a window with
Currie ^ and a Neapolitan Rothschild, who said he
thought the whole affair " very stylish." There
were about thirty coaches, all magnificent with six
horses and gold harness, some fine troops, and a
curious cavalcade of the representatives of the
Eastern tributaries of Russia, The Emperor wore a
simple uniform, and was followed by a brilliant staff
The procession took an hour and twenty minutes
to go by, and they did not once stop, nor was there
any hitch or interval. The worst part of it was
the ladies of the Court, who were generally old and
ugly. The E mpress- Mother " looked well and was
extremely gracious to the crowd. She preceded
the reigning Empress, who sat stiffly in her carriage
with her second son by her side, the eldest riding
in his father's staff What was wanted to my
mind in this magnificent display were some repre-
sentatives of the nation. With the exception of
the Eastern tributaries, who were probably placed
in it on account of their costumes, the procession
consisted entirely of military and of people
belonging to the Court. The nobility were not
represented, nor were the industrial classes. The

' The present Lord Currie.

^ Widow of the Emperor Nicholas I.



222 MY JOURNAL IN RUSSIA

only exceptions were a dozen men in long shabby
coats, who were made to shuffle along on foot
between two troops of cavalry, and who seemed
to be placed there as it were in derision. These
I was told represented the commerce of Moscow.
Opposite to our house was drawn up a regiment
called Paulovski, formed by the Emperor Paul, all
the men having turned-up noses, and therefore
resembling him. It seems it was the fashion here
to compose regiments of men who have the same
sort of features. The late Emperor had recruits
sent to him, and told them off according to their
looks. What childishness ! There is one regiment
of men all marked with the smallpox. This
Paulovski regiment did one thing which amused
me. Just before the cortege came up they all blew
their noses with their fingers at word of command,
and this was in order that none of them might
sneeze when the Emperor passed, as their doing
so would bring him bad luck !

On the 30th I drove about with Margaret,
leaving cards on the wrong persons. It is difficult
to find out where people live, as so many have
only taken houses for the occasion, and their
addresses are not known.

On the 31st there was a great review. Lady
Stafford, Margaret, Doctor Sandwith and I went
in the barouche with four horses, postilions and
an outrider, and our equipage was much admired.
We got an excellent place, and two Russian
officers told us which were the different regiments.
Go where you will, you are sure to meet civil
people, delighted to be of service. There were



i8s6] A REVIEW 223

80,000 troops on the ground, all fine-looking,
well-equipped men, and the cavalry and artillery-
had excellent horses. The Emperor rode full
gallop along the line of troops, followed by his
staff Some of our countrymen followed on horse-
back. One of them nearly deprived Russia of
its ruler through his horse rearing and striking
out his forefeet close to him. Another made
pirouettes just before the Empress, to every one's
amusement. The cavalcade then took their station
close to us, and we had a capital view of the
troops as they marched by. They were all what
we call Household troops, none of which had
been in the Crimea. They were kept as a reserve
either at Moscow, Warsaw or St, Petersburg. A
French general told me that there were great
complaints among their officers that none of these
Household troops had been sent to the Crimea.
On the other hand, it was hard upon those who
fought there that they were not represented at
these great reviews. I was sorry that General
Mouravieff was not there. I am told he is out
of favour, in consequence of his having connived
at the escape of a spy whom the Government were
anxious to get hold of, and that the admiration of
him in England has not been of service to him.
The finest sight at the review was the final charge
of the cavalry, which came full speed towards us
in an extended line. That over, we hurried home,
covered with dust but pleased with our day.

After dinner we went to the Opera-house, which


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