Edward Harper Parker.

China, her history, diplomacy, and commerce, from the earliest times to the present day online

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First Mongol Mussulmans — Marco Polo's route — Burmese routes
again — Tonquin railway — Where was Zaitvm ? — Parallels in nomen-
clature — Marco Polo's sea route — Ibn Batuta's voyage to China —
Nestorian evidences — Takakusu's discoveries — Chavannes, PeUiot,
Tachibana — Turkish and Ouigour evidences — Carpini, Rubruquis,
Odoric, Monte-Corvino — Marignoli, Pascal, and other Franks —
Missions to and from Tamerlane - Goes was the first to identify
"China" with "Cathay" — Lieutenant Wood — Ming eunuchs' sea
routes — Early name for Formosa — Land routes to Nepaul and
Tibet — Manchu discoveries — Kalmuck wars, and consequent Manchu
conquests — Roads to and from Tibet — Khotan road — Kokand
and the Kashmir trade — Abb6 Hue's route — Nepaul and Lhassa
roads — British expedition of 1904 — Sources of Irrawaddy — Chinese
pilgrims to Mecca — Mongol, Manchu, and Corean roads — Spread of
railways in Mongolia — Armamese roads and trade — French railway
to Yiin Nan — General conclusions and principles — Progress : is it
of happy omen ? Pages 59-86

2



xviii CONTENTS

CHAPTER V

ARRIVAL OF EUROPEANS

St. Francis Xavier, the first missionary, dies at Sanciano — Founding of
Macao — Arrival of Ricci — " Franks " at last identified — The first
Portuguese traders — Mission to Peking ends in disaster — Frank guns,
and how Macao was founded — Mendez Pinto, Ningpo, and Zaitun —
Restrictions on trade — Rivalry of Dutch and Japanese — Portuguese
settle quietly down — Macao's degeneracy — Spaniards and Manila —
Spaniards and Portuguese one realm — ^Massacre of Chinese at Manila
— Koxinga threatens it — Chinese in Manila — The Dutch — EarUest
known Chinese settlements in Formosa — Japanese rivalry — Koxinga
drives out the Dutch — ^Dutch mission to Peking — Chinese obtain
Dutch aid against pirates — Chinese incorporate Formosa with Fuh
Kien — Dutch tribute to China — Van Braam's mission — Dutch
remain quiet till 1863 — CooUes for Sumatra — Dutch policy — Chinese
demands after " Boxer " war — Ricci's death and successors — The
Manchus and Schaal — Verbiest makes cannon — Religious dissen-
sions — Queen EUzabeth and China — EngUsh attack Canton, and
are mistaken for Dutchmen — EngUsh at Amoy before 1730, and
even earher at Ningpo — EarUer still at Canton — Opium War of
1840-2 — History of opium — Chinese also to blame — Reforms since
1906 — Friction concerning right of entry into Canton — A Chinese
junk visits England — Second war — More treaty ports — Russia takes
advantage — Extension of missionary rights — British influence fu-st
— Japan looms to the front — Germany pushes forward — French
influence decUnes — Murder of Margary — Chefoo Convention and
more ports — Opium Convention — Sikkim Convention — B\irma
Convention — Convention of 1897 — Iviang-hung Convention —
Kowloon and Wei-hai Wei agreements — England has her fair share
— Expedition to Tibet in 1904 — The Russians — Serve Mongols
as body-guards — Pinto meets Russians — Russian captives at
Peking — Incidents of Russian political intercovirse — Kalgan trade
convention — Hi question — China's weak Manchurian poUcy —
Changed — Siberian railway and Cassini Convention — Manchuria
now Russian — New " all-Russian " railway — Manchviria and division
of " rights " with Japan — France and Mangu Khan — Franks and
Fulin — French " ferocity " and self-effacement — Treaty of Whampoa
— ^Taiping religious rebellion — France and the second war — Cession
of Saigon — Explorations in Indo-China — Garnier killed by Black
Flags — Riviere's similar fate — Tonquin rebellion — Hostilities with
China — Fournier Treaty — Haiphong trade — Inland " ports " —
Benefit to Hongkong — The Yiin Nan railway through Tonquin —
Sz-mao opened to French and English trade — French occupy
Kwang-chou Wan — Germany an vmknown quantity — Prussian
treaty — Rising pretensions after Franco-German War — Frederick
the Great's venture — Sides with the strongest after the Japanese
War — Claims reward at I^ao Chou — Evil example — Japan ejects
Germany — The United States — Surrender of Terranuova — Treaty
of Wang-hia — American support at Taku — Treaty of Washington —
Chinese immigration — Honest broker attitude — Conscience money
given back to China — Good influence in Corea — Lack of force —
The Manila white elephant — Belgium — Portuguese position at
Macao — Sr. Branco's activity — Japanese aloofness — Perry's treaty
— Lord Elgin opens Japan to British trade — Japanese revolution
— ^Transformation — Treaty of 1871 with China — Formosa dispute —



CONTENTS xix

Loochoo — Japanese rights in Corea — Chinese intrigue — War with
China — Shimonoseki Treaty — Opening of Soochow and Hangchow —
The " Boxers" give Japan her opportiinity — She becomes a first-
class Great Power, and annexes Corea — Denmark — Spain — Policy at
Manila — Cuba coolie question — Exchange of envoys — Loss of Pliilip-
pines — Senor Cologan's services — Italy and the Pope — "Cultured
barbarians" — Treaty of 1866 — Italy and Corea — Demands in the
Cheh Kiang province rejected — Austria — Baron Czikann a " brilliant
second" — ^Swiss — Red Cross and Postal Convention — Peru — Brazil
— Mexico and ill-treatment of Chinese — Congo State — Sweden —
Mr. Carl Bock — Turkey's fiasco in the Far East — Serbia, Rumania,
Corean " Empire," Uruguay — List of Treaties, etc., to 1906

Pages 87-125

CHAPTER VI

SIBERIA, ETC.

The Tartars — Hung equally over Europe and Asia — Russia occupies
their place — ^Two main civihsations, Roman and Chinese — Russia
caps the pair — Zones separating both Rome and China from Hyper-
boreans — Hiung-nu Empire, Huns, and Avars — Tungusic Empire
replaces Hiung-nu — JNever included Turkestan — Japanese captives
— Rule North China — Fail as a nomad power — Comparison with
Mongols — The Jeujen Empire — Not Avars — The Turks — EarUer,
Later, and Western Empires — The Siberian tribes — The Ouigour
Empire — Their Manicheism and the Chavannes-Pelliot documents
— Tungusic power reappears — Kitans and Niichens — The old
Puh-hai kingdom — Kara- Kitans — Mongols — Kipchaks — Alans —
Bulgars — Russians — Ancient Wusun and mediaeval EphthaUtes —
— Who are the Hungarians ? — Novgorod Republic — First ideas of
Siberia — Kalmuck or Eleuth power — Tamerlane and the Kipchaks
— Realm of Sibir or Issibur : Tobolsk — Ivan the Terrible and the
Yugurs of Sibir — Chinese and Russians in accord concerning the
Khan of " Catch 'em " — ^The Strogonoff and the Cossack Yarmak —
His raids and discoveries — Contract with the Kalmucks — Prudent
PoUcy of the Czars : " Heads I win, tails you lose " — Hiatus in
Kalmuck history — Russian missions to Altyn Khan on the Kem
River — Alleged Chinese mission to Russia, 1619 — The first tea —
Russian advance to the Amur — Little danger in the extreme north —
Attempt to explore the Sungari — Albazin conflict — Treaty of Ner-
chinsk — Kiachta tea trade — Aigun treaty secures the Amur to
Russia — Peking treaty secures Ussuri province to Russia — Tibet —
Nepaul — Manipur — Burma — Siam — Japan — Corea . Pages 126-140

CHAPTER VII

MODERN TRADE

Old co-hong system — East India Company — Life at Canton — Natvire of
Trade — Treaties of Nankin, Tientsin, etc. — Comparison of 1880 trade
with the trade of 1899 and 1913— The Tea Trade— Good position
of Great Britain — Revenue : its relation to trade — Cotton goods —
Opium disappears — Woollens and metals — Russian imports —
Mackay treaty of 1902 — British Textile Commissioner — France and
silk — Revolution of ideas caused by kerosene and flovir — New



XX CONTENTS

cigarette trade — Foreign clothing — Aniline dyes — Demand for
liixuries — Curious sugar finance — Exports — Soya hiapida and bean-
cake — Straw-braid — The new feather and albumen trades — Hides,
skins, and tobacco — Mats, hemp, oils, spirits, leather — Shipping —
Foreign population — Pakhoi trade — Hoihow trade — Lappa and
Kowloong — Lai'ge silk filature trade at Canton — Li Hung-chang'a
intelligence — Transit-pass Nemesis at Wu-chou — Rival provincial
capitals — Swatow trade — Amoy or " Zaitun " — Disappearing tea
trade — Bad government in Fiih Kien — New port of Santu Ao —
Foochow's decline — Wenchow trade — Ningpo transformations —
Railway bickerings — Hangchow trade and likin understandings —
Sununer resort of Kvding — The Poyang Lake and the railway —
Shanghai the great centre — River trade — Chungking — Novel condi-
tions of trade — Branch at Wan Men — Ichang and its transhipment
trade — Sz Ch'wan railway — ^Tea and hides — ^Shashi, a failure — Rail-
way to Hu Nan — Yochou and its possibilities — Ch'ang-sha and
its antimony — Hankow's central position — Tea still flourishes —
Kewkiang trade fairly flourishing — Wuhu and its great rice trade —
The port of Nanking, a great railway centre — Chinkiang and its
prospects — Great increase in the Newchwang trade — Port Arthur
not now a treaty port — Ta-lien Wan as a railway terminus — Tientsin :
enormous development of its trade within recent years — Ranks
almost next to Shanghai — Great wool trade with Mongolia — Great
area served by Tientsin — Advantages of Ts'in-wang Tao as an ice-
free port, coal export — Kalgan, Kia-yiih Kwan, and the Russian
land trade — Chef oo and her extended trade — Kiao Chou as a limited
" free port" was entirely German — Wei-hai Wei's doubtful status as
a port — Corean trade now Japanese affair — Shanghai the great centre
— Caution in estimating trade totals — Tonquin trade and railways —
Mengtsz — Lungchow — Sz-mao — Kwang-chou Wan — Soochowand the
Shanghai-Nanking railway — Kongmun and Kumchuk — Other mis-
cellaneous quasi-ports, on various frontiers, making up the Foreign
Customs total of forty- seven .... Pages 141-176



CHAPTER VIII

THE GOVERNMENT

Central Government not essential — Eighteen Provinces — Old nanaea
still used — Comparison with French provinces — Theory of provincial
government — Changed relations of former Viceroy and Governor —
Memorials to the Emperor have now become " submission " to the
President and Boards — Division of labour not yet quite definite —
Judicial and executive governments — Reorganisation of each
province separately — Jehol and other extra-mural governments —
New relation of province to province — Each a state — MongoUa,
Manchuria, Turkestan, Tibet — Disappearance of Banner canton-
ments — Modern development of armies and Salt Gabelle — The
Board and provincial revenues — New taxes under the Republic
— System of budget finance — Give-and-take principles — China one
vast democracy — Manchu privileges and disabilities aboUshed —
In spite of revolutions and failures, China and Peking have both
really advanced — Caste distinctions now abohshed — The hien is the
real unit of government — Number and size of hien districts —
Largest towns may append to a small hien city — Personal associa-



CONTENTS xxi

tion with native city — The Men Hke the Lord Mayor — Embodiment
of " the State " — " Father and Mother," or factotum for the
people — His staff of secretaries — Not so black as he is painted —
Judicial and executive distinction has deprived him of much power —
New police system for all China — Full description of the " good
viceroys' " efforts and of Yiian Shi-k'ai's example at Tientsin —
Means of obtaining office — How he raises money — Reforms intro-
duced after " Boxer " war — Ill-defined duties oi a, fu; this nebulous
official now abolished along with his imaginary " city " — The ante-
rooms of a Governor — The pickings of a former prefect — Distri-
bution of patronage — K'ang Yu-wei's contemptuous view of ronds
de cuir in 1898 — Description of taotais' functions — Now styled
taoyin — But things all round are still (1917) in a state of flux — Other
special, salt, and grain taotaia — Illustrative table . Pages 177-190



CHAPTER IX

POPULATION

Ancient population extensive — History of the Census — Unnecessary
to go back beyond a.d. 600 — Relative statistics for China and
Corea — Mouths and households — Dr. Lionel Giles on the Census —
Proof indirect from army statistics — Population during the eleventh
century — Freemen, villeins, and serfs — North and South extremes
to be excluded — Population of Tartar-governed China in twelfth
century — Proportion of households to acres — Negative estimates
for South China — Mongol populations — Before and after Bayen's
conquests — Manzi and Cathay — Marco Polo's estimates — Fearful
ravages of war — Hon. W. W. Rockhill as an authority — Depopu-
lation of Sz Ch'wan — During 1,500 years, an average of 50,000,000
souls — After the Tartars had all been ejected — Artificial decrease
of population — Manchu statistics — Steady rise — Great prosperity
and liberality — System of levying land tax — K'ang- hi' s reforms —
Free heads — K'ien-lung's new way of looking at things — Enormous
increase — Effects of Taiping rebellion — Difficult to slay millions —
Chinese official statistics the sole evidence — Opinions alone are
worthless — Special conditions of Sz Ch'wan — Did not pay to be a
mandarin there ... ... Pages 191-204



CHAPTER X

REVENUE

Revenue regarded as food for government — A tithe of produce — Salt
comes next — Customs more modern — No space now for elaborate
detail — Consider the Manchu dynasty alone — Revenue 250 years
ago — Corruption existed — Prosperity of the eighteenth century —
One tael equal there to one pound here — Balances, surpluses, and
sale of titles — Peking share of the revenues — Nothing done until
after the " Boxer " war — Crushing effect of " Boxer " indemnities
on the public — Expenditures — Waste on the Yellow River — Real
revenue and expenditure at least double the nominal — As much
once more for " squeezes" — And once more again for local rates —
The decrees of the Board of Revenue — Specimen of an old^appro-



xxii CONTENTS

priation " bill " — Great military expenditure — General financial
confusion — Very little improvement under the Republic — Foreign
loans and novelties — " Boxer " affair of course did still further con-
found matters — Defence against Russia and France — Contributions
to other provinces — Specimen of annual revenue-receipts table —
The measure of the nominal appropriations — Underlings at head-
quarters — Expense of remitting — Curious contrasts — Specimens of
Republican budgets ...... Pages 205-221



CHAPTER XI

THE SALT GABELLE

Illustrative of natural geography — Earliest excise on salt — Description
of the Two Kwang salt system — Annual yield of revenue — Corners
of other provinces supplied — Irregularities — Swatow and part of
Fuh Kien — Fuh Eaen salt system — The supply of salt to Formosa —
Enormous clandestine trade up the Wenchow River — Old adminis-
trative divisions for Chdh Kiang salt — Sir Richard Dane's reforms —
Geographical reasons affecting An Hwei — The island salt supply —
Price of salt now increased throughout the empire — Large revenue
receipts — Clever engineering in the Hwai salt region — North and
South varieties — Compromise with the Sz Ch'wan industry —
Description of the system — Field for native investments — Serves
the Yang-tsze Valley — Sz Ch'wan salt and hydrogen wells — Fuel
supplied by nature — Three Yang-tsze viceroys used to manage the
salt revenues — Sir R. Dane and Republican changes — Personal
experiences — Salt serves as small change — Sudden changes depre-
cated — One exit only from Sz Ch'wan — Area served — Yiin Nan and
Kwei Chou arrangements — Tibet's position — Supplies Nepaul —
Black salt wells in Kublai Khan's time — Wu San- kwei and the
Panthay Mussulmans exploit the salt — Muang-u salt — Manchurian
salt — Changes since " Boxer " war — Mongolian salt — Goes east to
Peking and west' to near Russian frontier — Possibly the salt
industry of 2,000 years ago — Revenues very small — Old China —
Geographical significance once more — Chinese a Yellow River
people — China's Sorrow — The oldest salt industry Shan Tung — ^Two
branches of the salt trade — Used to be one with the Tientsin salt
syndicate — History of first Chinese salt administration — Salt and
iron monopolies — ^The Tientsin or " Long-reed " salt industry — Mer-
chants are heavily " squeezed " by the Government — The recent
farce of Government " faith bonds " — Divided condition of Ho Nan
in her salt supplies — Shan Si or Ho-timg salt system — Its history
in Tartar hands — Achmac, the villainous minister of Kublai Khan —
Commissary lives at P'u-chou — Sir R. Hart's land-tax scheme fails
— Chang Kien proposes'*all-round increase in price of salt

Pages 222-244



CHAPTER XII

LIKIN

Origin of likin — A special levy on tea and salt to support troops
operating against Taipings — Extensions of the idea — ^Tax becomes
an imperial one — Shanghai likin and foreigners — Our own weakness
causes the trouble — Chinese recognise its unconstitutionality — Ho



CONTENTS xxiii

Nan likin — Evidently likin was a voluntary " benevolence " at first
— Taku and Tientsin levies for " Sam Collinson's " troops — Chefoo
liJcin — Charges levied on native opium — Mr. Wade and Mr. Lay —
Native opium in Yiin Nan — Likin in Manehiiria — Li Han-chang
collects for Liu K'un-yih's troops — Chungking likin — Likin along
the Cheh Kiang trading routes — Kwang Si accounts — Kiang Nan
charges — Definition made precise — Our responsibility is double —
The foreign howl of anguish — Sir Brooke Robertson's deliberate
policy — Blocks the way until his death — Sir Brooke condoned —
Peking rapacity — Effect of the Foreign Customs — Effect of Taiping
rebellion upon the land-tax — A big combine — Compromise neces-
sary — All share the plunder — The Republic no better — A huge
Tammany Hall — National conscience — Proposal in 1902 to abolish
likin in exchange for increase in import dues — Comparison of
Chinese and French exactions on Yiin Nan trade — Under the Re-
public the semi-independent miUtary governors practically are law
unto themselves at present — Sir Robert Hart's salt likin arrange-
ments of 1898 — The estimated likin revenue in 1911 and 1913 —
The redoubtable General Chang Hiin and his army feeding on the
country — Opium likin a thing of the past — Effect of likin on the
railways — British and American protests — China's lack of public
disinterestedness — General considerations — Increase of duties — What
is wanted ........ Pages 245-255



CHAPTER XIII

THE ARMY

Manchu military organisation — ^Nvichen and Eatan banner organisation
the soul of it — Manchu, Mongol, and Chinese banners — Bought out
by the President of the RepubUc — Civil and military " domiciles " —
Strength of the banner army — " Stiffeners " at the conquest —
Provincial banner garrisons — Jealousy caused — Drain on the
provinces — Contrast with India — Degeneracy — The Green Flag,
or Chinese Army — Provincial and brigadier generals — Changes of
titles under the Republic — Service in one's own province — Relative
rank — Corruption and peculation — Distinction between " soldiers "
and " braves " — All a question of honesty — Efforts at reform
previous to the Japanese War — Effects of the Japanese War —
Difficulties in the way of reform — German occupation of Kiao Chou
— The young Emperor's reforms — The Empress-Dowager is egged
on to interfere — Endless circle of savings and waste — Yiian Shi-k'ai's
effective army — ^The " Boxer " fiasco — Recent reforms — Viceroy
Chang denounces the Green Flag and drills foreign-trained troops —
The new military spirit turns out a Frankenstein monster — Central
control over armies and railways wrecks the dynasty — Provincial
generals and pronunciamentos — New armies of 1905 and 1911, with
new nomenclature — Chinese soldiers not entirely Gilbertian, but
have a bottom or fundament of good qualities Pages 256-270



CHAPTER XIV

PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS

Rev. A. Smith's excellent book upon this subject — Personal opinion
upon Chinese character — Observations upon Manchua — Marriages



xxlv CONTENTS

with Chinese — Manchu officials and princes — "Mean whites"
among the scions — Drinking habits — Comparison of Manchu with
Chinese bravery — Bravery generally — Manchus and Chinese —
Different groups of Chinese — Distinctions — Take the common
Chinese view of ovu-selves — Republican sumptuary changes — We
take the same general but inaccurate view of the Chinaman —
Question of truthfulness — Distinctions in lying — Not much worse
than we are ourselves — Question of thieving — Ordinary care and
common honesty — Practical honesty of thieves — Cleanliness and
dirt — More definitions and distinctions — Great fidelity — Respect
for justice — Politeness — Effect of the Republic — Definitions and
comparisons — Cruelty and callousness, and their explanation — The
Viceroy Liu disapproves of it — A true bill — Commercial rectitude —
Recent degeneration — Government credit — Libidinous nature —
Marriage and concubinage — Puritanical virtue — Chinese women —
Position improved under the Republic — Local reasons — Infanticide
— Virility — Treatment of children — ^Inferior position of girls — Recent
improvement — Hold-of¥ attitude of parents — Mothers are petty
tjTants — Patria potestas — Children and pigs — ^Temperance in eating
and drinking — ^Theory of gluttony, vice, opium, and drink — Dis-
tillery laws — Aphrodisiacs — Industry a ruling virtue — Artificial
light, and effect of latitude — Sagacity in money making — Official
smugglers — ^The handy man — A cold time for barbers — ^What the
Chinaman can not do — Time will show effect of change

Pages 271-292

CHAPTER XV

RELIGION AND REBELLION

Meaning of " religion " — Effect of it at home — Much the same in
China — Like to appear whole in the next world — Care not for
doctrine — Over-zeal of missionaries — Early or natural religion —
Confucianism — Improvement in articulate ideas — Republic first
abandons and then harks back to the old philosopher — Revolution
of ideas in Asia just before our era — Good effects of Buddhism —
Position of women — Comparison with Romish Church — Toleration
of the Chinese mind — Mussulmans — Early Christianity in China —
Regulars and their disputes — Zeal and doctrine too much, charity
too little — Female foot- squeezing — Missionaries and their views —
Opium — Hearty British co-operation — Drink — Slavery — Concubin-
age — Words not to be taken too harshly — Marriage — Popular con-
ventions — Village feasts — Church rates — Narrow sectarianism —
Religious mind of the Chinese — Ideas of a soul — Filial piety — The
basis of Chinese Law — Mussulmans tamed down — Rodney Gilbert's
Turki experiences — Wisdom of Russian Church — Secret societies —
White Lily sect — Cause of two dynasties' collapse — " Boxer " re-
volts — ^Taiping rebellion — Later " Boxer " consequences

Pages 293-306

CHAPTER XVI

LAW

Law reform in 1905 — Foreign codes consulted — British law just aa
cruel once — China has a consecutive law history — Patria poteataa
and filial piety — Austin and Maine on law — Chinese law ia purely



CONTENTS XXV

criminal — State and family — ^War and crime — Family law no affair
of state — Civil law almost as little — Contract and custom — Ancient
myths and traditions — History dates from 841 B.C. — Early Chinese
codes — Comparison with Roman Twelve Tables — Roman contrasts
— Chinese Solons and Dracos — Gradual steps towards uniformity



Online LibraryEdward Harper ParkerChina, her history, diplomacy, and commerce, from the earliest times to the present day → online text (page 2 of 35)