Edward Harper Parker.

China, her history, diplomacy, and commerce, from the earliest times to the present day online

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its members entirely out of Parliament.

As a reward for retaking Nanking in 1913,
Chang Hiin had been temporarily rewarded with
the military governorship of Kiang Sli, from
which post (after declaring his " indepen-
dence ") he was only coaxed out, in January 1914,
by heavy money payments, and by his appoint-
m.ent to the nebulous new charge of Supreme
Inspector of the Yang-tsze Defences, which in
1917 he still holds against all comers.* It is
impossible to deny that all this action of Yiian' s
in 1913-1917 was a coup d'etat tending towards
monarchy, and it seems certain that the final
denoument was solely prepared in secrecy by the
President himself; but up to this date Yiian
Shi-k'ai had by no overt act disclosed dynastic

^ Though nominally Military Governor of An Hwei.



380 RISE OF CHINESE REPUBLIC [chap, xviii

ambitions, contrary to his declaration of March
1912 ; and, indeed, the fact that his ministry in-
cluded such staunch radicals as Liang K'i-ch'ao
and others showed that a firm policy had now
the general approval. The arch-reformer of 1898,
K'ang Yu-wei, seems to have kept in the back-
ground during the whole revolution, but his
then comrade Liang, now in power, succeeded in
obtaining for K'ang and his family their con-
fiscated estates near Canton. It was also now
that the Vice-president Li Yiian-hung (who,
however, had to steal off in the night like a
thief in order to avoid his jealous soldiers' con-
straint) thought he might safely lend his moral
support to Yiian and venture to Peking, where
he duly arrived on 10th December; formed a
marriage alliance with Yiian' s family, and for
a couple of years disappeared into absolute
obscurity as Chief- of -the-Staff.

As a next step, to take the place of the ob-
noxious Parliament, the President organised an
Advisory Council {Ts^an-cheng Yuan) of members
(paid) nominated by himself, and in the following
May Li Yiian-hung was appointed nominal chief
of it with a salary of $10,000 a m^onth.; m.any
of the other members were prominent men. A
good deal of really useful work was accomplished
during the year 1914 ; the military and civil
governorships were reorganised under historical
names ^ sounding less aggressively republican ;
the lesser high officials in the provinces were
recast, and had their relative degrees of subor-
dination to the Peking Boards and the Provin-
cial Governors more intelligibly fixed ; revenue
began to flow into Peking from the provinces ;
Sir Richard Dane got his hand well in upon the
reformed Salt Administration ; internal loans
proved successful ; foreigners were content
with the situation ; and it really looked as though

» c/. p. 179.



A.D. 1913] "WHAT WOULD DOVEY DO?" 381

China were settling down at last to a practicable
Repviblic — in name at least, if monarchical in
effect ; the only uncomfortable thing was,
What shall happen if Yuan dies ? Is good
Vice-president Li capable of wearing gracefully
and effectively the mantle of succession ? Presi-
dent Yiian anyway played a bold hand, and at
Christmas time proceeded in state to worship
Heaven for all the world like any Emperor ; even
the dethroned Manchu house agreed to certain
modifications in its status.

The breaking out of the great European war
in August 1914 must necessarily have had some
effect in strengthening both the coherence of
China and the firm hold of Yiian, if only because
financial busy-bodies and grasping syndicates
of all nationalities had now less leisure and less
money at their disposal for the Far East than
had been the case before. The year 1915 opened
with the arrangements for the drafting of a new
Constitution in place of that so summarily
abolished in 1913. It had been originally pro-
posed by Japan that Germany should hand over
Ts'ing-tao to China "for the period of the war";
but when the Emden started out on her raids,
and the presumptuous Kaiser treated Japan's
offer with contempt, he received a sarcastic ulti-
matum, and his governor was ultimately ejected,
bag and baggage ; moreover, for her own pro-
tection Japan was obliged to formulate certain
at first sight harsh and peremptory demands
upon China in order to forestall Teutonic spite
or intrigue, and any future attempt of the tricky
Kaiser to wrest from China by violence any
Ersatz " place in the sun " to " take the place of
Kiao Chou " under an easily forced construction
of som,e such provision in the 1898 treaty. In
cavilling at the excess of Japanese demands, the
unfriendly press of the Far East seem to have



382 RISE OF CHINESE REPUBLIC [chap, xviii

forgotten this prime necessity for Japan : ^' no
Power " to he granted any coast or island territory
by purchase or lease ; that is, specifically,
treacherous Prussia.

The first serious signs that something uncanny
was brooding in the President's mind, or in the
minds of those of his creatures who were suscept-
tible to foreign gold and intrigue, manifested
themselves in the summer of 1915, when a
mysterious society called the Chii-an Ilwei or
" Peace-promxoting Association " suddenly blos-
somed into existence, promoted by three pro-
minent members of the Advisory Council itself,
its avowed object being to discredit the re-
publican in favour of the monarchical idea,
or at all events to deprecate government by
popular clamour in favour of concentrated in-
dividual rule. The next thing was the unex-
pected pronouncement of the Am.erican Professor
Goodnow, one of Yiian's political advisers, in
the same sense; it being well known at the
same time, or at all events generally believed,
that no such germinations had taken place in
the universally trusted British Adviser Dr.
Morrison's sagacious mind. On the whole, the
Japanese Adviser Ariga, seems to have person-
ally favoured monarchy. Then came a number
of Chinese " petitions " of doubtful provenance
from all quarters, and at the same time fairly
definite news that Yiian's scapegrace eldest son
Yiian K' eh- ting was interesting himself in the
movement ; whilst on the other hand the Minister
of Justice, that uncompromising republican Liang
K'i-ch'ao, showed a decided tendency to leave the
Governm.ent. The Japanese Minister, M. Hioki,
hastened back from furlough to Peking, but
made no opposition, and the Germans (who
had recently displayed considerable intriguing
activity in Harbin, Tsing-tao, and Ningpo) re-



A.D. 1916] IT COMES IN DOUBTFUL SHAPE 883

mained remarkably silent (so far as the general
public v\^as aware).

It was at this moment that Yiian Shi-k'ai
himself seems to have fallen under some occult
baleful influence, and the monarchical agitation
accordingly grew apace. At last on 8th October
appeared a Presidential Decree setting forth
how the Advisory Council had received a repre-
sentation from the Temporary Parliament {Lih-
jah Yiian) explaining that all the provinces,
dominions. Banners (including the " one-time
Manchu Heir P'ulun), Mongols, Tibetans, Turki,
Chambers of Commerce, Universities, etc., were
through their representatives (2,006 votes) of one
mind in favour of a constitutional monarchy
(Kiln-chu lih-hien), or " sovereign lord with a con-
stitution," and suggesting that a popular vote
sliould be taken. Then it was that the Japanese
Charge d' Affaires, M. Obata, accompanied by the
British and Russian Ministers, paid a hurried
visit to the Foreign Office to recommend post-
ponement until the end of the war, on the
ground that troubles might break out and involve
the treaty ports ; this advice was endorsed
by France and Italy shortly afterwards. Un-
doubtedly at this moment the majority of the
trading interests, foreign as well as Chinese, were
in favour of trusting Yiian ; but as yet no one
seems to have contemplated that the so-called
Constitutional Monarchy would take the ulti-
mate form of a despotic hereditary dynasty on
the old model. The United States were too
"proud" to interfere in China's internal affairs;
the Grand Lamas of Tibet remained silent ; and
the predatory powers, i.e, Germany, with her
insignificant satellite Austria, still observed a
mysterious silence.

Gradually the movement which began so
unaggressively gained irresistible momentum ;



384 RISE OF CHINESE REPUBLIC [chap, xviii

adulatory appeals to the "Emperor"' followed
each other in rapid succession ; but at least one
sane document justified in logical and circum-
stantial terms the reversion to monarchy, arguing
the matter out on plain business-like grounds ;
and this remarkable paper was a long aioologia
of 4,000 characters (8,000 EngHsh words), pub-
lished in the official gazette day after day for
some time, by the Preparation for Parliament
Bureau. On 13th December, after the regula-
tion three refusals. Yuan accepted the imperial
crown in a mandate countersigned by Luh
Cheng-siang, the Secretary of State; the " ques-
tioning" Powers, evidently non-plussed, simply
stated that their attitude v/ould be " expectant."
Two days later Vice-President Li was created a
Prince ; further mandates in very good taste
explained and justified the step taken by the
President; but on the 22nd a real "imperial"
tornado fairly burst in a shower of dukedoms,
marquisates, earldoms, viscounties, and baronies,
all with pensions. Whilst it raged, many of the
President's best men quietly slipped away on
various pretexts ; but an attem.pt to secure at
least their neutrality in some particularly im-
portant cases was made by creating " Four
Intimates" from three ex -viceroys and a well-
known sterling Hanlin Academician. There were
also distributed som.e posthumous honours to
persons who had suffered for the State, and the
new Emperor (who, however, never once assumed
that title, or its honorific attributes, himself) took
the opportunity of abolishing the employ of
eunuchs and the supply of pretty girls for the
menus plaisirs of the palace ; nor was there to
be any kotowing at his audiences.

The fat was now irrevocably in the fire not-
withstanding this personal moderation, and the
unfortunate Yuan, having once mounted the



A.D. 1916] ALL THE FAT IN THE FIRE 885

tiger, had to go on with his John Gilpin ride.
His very last mandate as President conferred a
princedom upon the hereditary Duke Confucius
the Seventy-sixth, who expressed his thanks a
week later ; Li Yiian-hung, by the way, had
declined his princely title three times. On the
1st January a new era was created under the
style 1st year of Hung-hien^ which term may
be here translated "Great Constitution"; but
Yuan never at any time abandoned the modest
"mandate" in favour of the old imperial "de-
cree, respect this." However, simultaneously
with these events, which at first appeared to be
proceeding quite smoothly, came the ominous
news from Yiin Nan that the province had de-
clared its independence.^ The ex-tutuh Ts'ai Ao
(Ch'oi Ngok), who had been " allowed to resign "
and then coaxed to Peking in 1913-1914, and had
later been given a high-sounding sinecure post
there, became diplomatically ill in November
when the monarchy boom was at its highest,
sought " medical " advice in Japan, ^ and worked
his w^ay thence, via Tonquin, to his former pro-
vince. Japan declined to receive a special
complimentary envoy from China " at this
juncture," w^hich probably meant that the Ameri-
can, German, and Austrian promise of recog-
nition did not find favour in that quarter.

The discontent fomented by Ts'ai Ao spread ;
two other southern provinces pronounced ; then
two coast provinces ; and soon the whole of
central and southern China was in such a blaze
of republican enthusiasm that the unhappy

1 25th December, which date has now been declared a national
holiday.

2 He again sought Japanese advice, this time quite seriously,
as mihtary governor of Sz Ch'wan, towards the end of last year,
and died there in December 1916, receiving from President Li
thu highest posthumous honours, and, as Hwang Hing, a public
funeral.



386 RISE OF CHINESE REPUBLIC [chap, xviii

Yiian had to give way and go through the
huinihation of reverting to the repubhcan era
(Min-kwoh), of course withdrawing his imperial or
at least monarchical pretensions (March 23rd).
His former Secretary of State (one of the Four
Intimates) tried to save the situation by resum-
ing his old post ; but it was too late, and on
22nd April he resigned in favour of Twan K'i-j wei.
The cry, " Yiian must go," was caught up on all
sides ; his deadly enemy, the fire-eating ex-vice-
roy " Shum " (Ts'en Ch'un-hiian), emerged from
his exile in the Straits Settlem.ents and joined in
the fray as Generalissimo of the South. Both
he and Sun Yat-sen issued angry manifestoes ;
T'ang Shao-i and Wu T'ing-fang published
" open letters " of cynically friendly advice,
and Liang K'i-ch'ao gave to the public press a
lengthy expose of the fraudulent measures that
had been adopted by Yiian in order to " nobble "
the voters in each province. Yiian, having
squandered his funds, made the situation worse
first by proclaiming a moratorium, and then by
endeavouring to create out of the Parliam.ent
Preparation Comimittee an Emergency Parlia-
ment, later on a real Parliamicnt {Lih-fah Yiian) to
meet on 1st May instead of on its legal date in
September. Harassed by all this humiliation
and worry, the unhappy man as a last shift took
ill, a.nd finally died of uraemia on 6th June,
leaving behind him a short, dignified, valedic-
tory testament. The next day the Vice-presi-
dent Li Yiian-hung announced his succession by
law, and since then party quarrels seem to have
largely subsided. Meanwhile Twan K'i-jwei as
Premier has formed a responsible Cabinet with
Wu T'ing-fang as Foreign Minister ; and here I
close (15th February, 1917).



GLOSSARY



Abkhai. Probably a Tartar word

meaning " sky," " heaven."
Ainos = Aino word Ainu, " men."
The ancient Chinese call them
" shrimp barbarians," and as
the vulgar word for " shrimp "
is hia-mi, this is probably the
origin of the Japanese ye-bi,
" shrimp," and yebi-su, "shrimp
people," or Ainos.
Ak'su = Turkish "White Water."
Aktagh (Turkish). Apparently the
Chinese Peh-shan, or " white
hills" north of Harashar.
Altai. The Kin-shan or " Gold
Mountains." The word Altun,
alchu, aisin, appears in many
Tartar forms.
Amoy. Local pronunciation of

Hiamen, " gallery-gate."
Annam = Chinese " pacifier of
the south," a title granted to
the rulers of Kiao-chi, just as
Antung, or " pacifier of the
east," was granted to the rulers
of Corea.
Ausgleich = German for " that

which evens out."
Bilga = Turkish " wise," a com-
mon appellation of reigning
Khans and other princes.
Binh-thuan = Annamese form of
Chinese P'ing- shun, "run
smooth " ; but, query, which
language has precedence, as
the Chinese seem to have " re-
imported " the local pronuncia-
tion in the form Pin-t'ung.
Bogdo Khan. I suppose this is
connected with the Russian
Bog, " God." The Chinese
T'icn-tsz, or " Son of Heaven,"
reappears in the Hiung-nu
Tengri-kudu, the Turkish and



Ouigour Tengri-khagan, the
Arabic " Facfur " (Marco Polo),
the Japanese Tenshi (Sama).
Urga is called Bogdo Kuren,
" Holy City."
Bonze = Japanese bo-dz, being
their pronunciation of the
modern Chinese /ow-t'w, which in
the sixth century spelt Buddh.
Boxer. Translation of K'iian,
" fist," or ta-k'iian, " to box."
The I-ho K'ican are the " Patri-
otic Harmony Fists."
Burma = Burmese " Bamma," or
Miamma, first called Mien in
Mongol times. An earlier
Chinese name was P'iao, the
people called Byu in the early
Burmese records.
Cambalu = Khanbaligh, " Khan's

citadel."
Cambodgia, The word Kam^put-
ch'i occurs in mediaeval Chinese
history for old Fu-nam country.
This last dissyllabic word seems
to occur in Pnom-{penh), the
present capital. It is ciu-ious
to note that the Chinese name
for the ruins of Angkor is
" Temple of the Ts'in Iving,"
which looks as though the visit
of Antoninus' envoy had left
some tradition in the land.
Candareen = Malay kondrin ; in
the Chinese ports = 10 cash
(about), or f Ju of a silver ounce.
{Copper) Cash — Portuguese caixa,
a tin coin used at Malacca
and brought from India ; cf.
Sanskrit Kdrshdpana, "copper
coins."
Chagan Khan = Mongol " White"
Khan. Chagan Nor (sea),
Chagan Kuren (city).



27



387



388



GLOSSARY



Ch'ang-sha = " Long Sands."

Chef 00 — CKi-fou, a very ancient
name of no very intelligible
meaning ; — " sesame-net."

Chemulpo = Corean pronunciation
of Cantonese Tsaimetpo, or
"mandarin" Tsi-wuh-p'u, " Por-
terage Cove."

Ch'eng-tu = " Has become a centre
or metropolis."

Chmgnampo — (Rice) - steamer-
south-cove, (Corea).

Chinkiang = chen-kiang, " rule the
river."

Chit (Hindoo Chitthi), a word in
universal use in India and
China for " letter," " memo.,"
" I.O.U.," " notice," etc.

Chow, or chou, in such words as
Wenchow, Wu-chou, is simply
" flat-land " or " plain," fol-
lowed by a place-name, descrip-
tive or original. In accepted
names like Voochow the popular
form is used throughout this
book.

Gh'ungk'ing = " Double Joy."

Chusan = chou-shan, " boat-hill."

Cianipa. The word Cham appears
in several forms of the Chinese
name. I take pa to mean
" country " in some Hindoo
tongue, for Singpa in Chinese
means " Pan jab," or "land of
the Sikhs," or " Singhs."

Compradore = Portuguese " pur-
chaser." The business facto-
tum in most foreign " houses,"
banks, consulates, etc.

Confucius = K'ung fu-tsz, " the
philosopher K'ung," as Meng
fu-tsz is Mencius. In both
cases the fu can be omitted,
and " Conscious " or " Men-
fucius " would do as well. Out
of the sages Tseng and Chwang
we might create Cincius, San-
cius.
Coolie, This is an Indian word,
but in " mandarin " fitted with
Chinese characters to mean
" hard work."
Corea = Corean Ko-ry& (pro-
nounced exactly like the Eng-
lish word), being the local form
of the Chinese Kao-li, or Kao-
kou-li, " the Kou-li state of the
Kao clan."



Cowloong = Cantonese for Kiu-
lung, " Nine Dragons."

Daimy5 = Japanese pronunciation
of ta-m.ing, or " great name," a
term not used historically or
officially in China.
Dalny = Russian " distant " (Ta-
lien Wan) ; a name chosen by
the Czar, apparently to "hit
off " Ta-lien (Japanese Z)airen).

Dccima. I suppose Japanese De-
shima, " go-out island."

Dolonor = Mongol dolon - nor,
" Seven Lakes."

Dungans, a contraction of turi-
gan or " colonisers," descen-
dants of Arabs, Persians, etc.,
who have married Tibetan and
Mongol women.

Ephthalites. In old Chinese Iptat,
the Corean pronunciation of
which is still Eptal,

Esmok. The Burmese have a way
of putting a final k at the end
of Chinese words, just as the
Russians put a z7iak tverdi, or
" hard sign." I noticed the
sign-board of aChinaman named
Liu Ts'ai, at Bhamo, marked
" Lew Ch'aik." " Sz-mao " ia
an impossible mouthful for a
Burmese.

Fah-hien = " Law's manifesta-
tion."

Faifo = corrupt Chinese hwui-
p'u, or hwei-an-p^u, " assembly
shops," or " assembly-of-peaee-
shop."

Fiador = Portuguese " surety-
man"; in pidgin English,
" hab got man can skewer."

Foochow = " Happy region," lo-
cally Houk-chiu, or, by euphonic
rule, Uchiu.

Formosa — Portuguese " beauti-
ful," cf. T'aiwan.

Frank appears in various forms,
Fu-lin, Foh-lang-ki, P'i-ling,
etc. (cf. Ferenghi, Frangkikos,
etc.).

Fusan Chinese Fu-shan, " Pot
Hill," in Corean Pusan.

Oayuk — Mongol kuyuk, " clever."

Oenghiz. The Hiung-nu khans
called themselves shen-yii, which
is retrospectively equivalent to
something like zen-ghi, or f^i'xi' ;
possibly there may be some



GLOSSARY



389



etymological connection. The
title appears in the middle-agea
word Jenuye.

Gialbo. The Cliinese always write
this Tibetan title tsan-p'u.

Qodown = Malay godong, " ware-
house."

Hainan ~ Chinese " sea-south."

Haiphong. The Chinese hai-fang,
or " coast defence."

Han. A proper name ; rarely has
any literary meaning.

Han Wu Ti = " Han Military Em-
peror," or Divus Martialis.

Hankow — " Han (River) Mouth."

Hanoi = " River - interior," the
Annamese (ha-noui) form of
Ho-nei, Cantonese Ho-noi.

Hideyoshi. His Chinese name is
P'ing Siu-kih.

Hing-hwa = " Start civilisation."

Hinterland — German " behind-
land."

Hiung-nu = " Hiung slaves."

Hoang-ho = " Yellow River " :
hwang is one syllable, and not
ho + ang.

Hoihow = Cantonese iovHai-k^ou,
" Sea Mouth."

Hong = Cantonese pronunciation
of hang, " a store " or " shop " ;
but the word is little used except
in reference to foreign " houses,"
and native " trade-guilds."

Hung-tseh = " Vast Marsh."

Hwai-kHng — " Cherish joy."

IcK'ang = " Should be glorious."

III. In the sixth century the
Turkish Khans already used the
style Hi- Khan, which may pos-
sibly be the " Ilkhans " of Wes-
tern writers.

Irrawaddy = in part Arabic wddi,
" a river," but I cannot say
what Irra means. The Chinese
used to confuse the Upper Irra-
waddy with the Upper Yang-
tsze, or Gold- sand River.

Isayk Kul = " Hot Sea " in some
Tartar tongues ; Denghiz Nor
in others ; the Chinese also call
it Jeh-hai, or " Hot Sea."

Japan = Chinese Jih-pen, " sun's
origin."

Java. From ancient times known
as She-p^o, or Djaba ; later
Chao-wa, usually misprinted
Kwa-wa .



Jaxartea, In old-times Chinese
called the Yok-aliat.

Junk. Probably shun, the Can-
tonese form of ch'wan, " a
ship," as seen in the Javanese
jung.

Kachyn = Burmese " wild man."
They call themselves Singp'o, or
" men."

Kalgan = Mongol " Gate," called
in Chinese Chang-kia K'ou, or
" Chang- family Pass."

Kalmuck = " remaining ones " ;
those of the Dzun (" right " or
"east") who were "left,"
when Uriankhai abandoned the
" Wala," or " confederacy."
Hence Kalmuck, Dzungar,
Eleuth, Oirat, Wala, Tvu-gut,
are all much the same thing.
The Boron (" left " or " west ")
tribes fell under the power of
the Kirghis, and were absorbed ;
hence " Borongar."

Kanagawa = (I suppose) Japanese
" Golden Stream."

Karakitans = Turkish for " Black
Cathay ans."

Kazaka =" vagabond " ; theKara-
Kirghis call themselves " Kir-
ghis " ; the Eleuths call them
" Buruts " ; the Kazaks call
them " Kara-Kirghis." The
Kazaks, or Kirghis-Kazaks,
speak the same language as the
Kara-Kirghis, whom they de-
test. The Russian word (7oa-
aack, or Kazak (also meaning
"day labourer"), is evidently
the Turkish Kazdk.

Kewkiang = " Nine Rivers."

Kiao-chi = " Parted toes." I nay-
self was struck in Annam with
the extraordinary " apartness "
of the big toe. Possibly our
word " Cochin (China) " comes
from this. Another name is
Kiao-chou, " Mutual Plain."

Kiao Chou (German) = " Glue-
plain."

Kia-yiih Kwan = " Beautiful Gem
Pass."

Kilung = " Chicken Hamper."

Kirghia = (according to the Chi-
nese) " red- faced " in the Kir-
ghis tongue.

Kobe = Japanese " Divine - por-
tals."



390



GLOSSARY



Kokand. Until Manchu times
usually kno^vn by names corre-
sponding to " Ferghana."

Kokonor = Mongol " Blue Sea,"
or " Lake" ; cf. Chagan.

Kongmun = Cantonese for Kiang-
men, " River Gate."

Koxinga = local Kwok - sing - ya,
" State's-surname-sire."

Kuhlai = Mongol hObilai, " re-
embodiment." The re -born
hutukhtu, or saints, are in their
baby stage called the hubilkhan
of the said deceased saints,
lamas, etc., e.g. at Lhassa,
Shigatse, Urga, etc.

Kmnchuk = Cantonese Kom-chuk
(Kan-chuh), " sweet bamboo."

Kunsan. The Corean form of
K'iinshan, " Flock Hill."

Kuren — Mongol " city." The
Chinese call Urga K'ulun.

Kutlug = Turkish " happy."

Lama Miao = " priest temple."
The Tibetan word lama (mean-
ing "without superior") isnow
adopted into northern Chinese.

Lao, Yao, Miao, are the T'ang,
S\ing, and modern names for
the ill-defined wild tribes (not
Shans, and not Lolos or Tibe-
tans).

Lao-kai = Chinese for "Old mar-
ket-street."

Lao-tsz, or Laocius. Usually trans-
lated " Old Boy," but really
" the Philosopher Lao," or" the
Old Philosopher." He might
be called " Lafucius," if it were
not that (in his case) the fu is
always omitted ; cf. Confucius.

Lao-wa T'an — " Crow Rapid."

Lappa. Apparently some abori-
ginal word which cannot be
written in Chinese ; neverthe-
less the two words Taipa and
Lappa (Islands) seem to mean
" rubbish-grounds."

Lari = Tibetan/Aa-ri, "god- moun-
tain." Compare Lhassa.

Lau Vinh-phuc = Annamese for
Liu Yung-fuh (Cantonese Lao
Wingfuk), formerly Black Flag
Rebel chief; died Dec, 1916.

Likin = Chinese" percentage," or
" per mille."

Likin, likiien, lit'ou = " percent-
age."



Loess = German loss, " loose."

Lolo = No, the native word for



Online LibraryEdward Harper ParkerChina, her history, diplomacy, and commerce, from the earliest times to the present day → online text (page 31 of 35)