Edward Harper Parker.

China, her history, diplomacy, and commerce, from the earliest times to the present day online

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themselves. Like the Kirghia,
they have black and white
" bones," or castes.

Loochoo. The word first appears
in A.D. 600 under its present
form Liu-k'iu, which, if it is
anything more than an imita-
tion of native words, seems to
mean " string of beads," i.e.
" islands."

Macao = Ma -ao, or Ma-ngao,
" Goddess' Bight " ; but it has
many other Chinese names ; the
usual one is, locally, Ou-mun,
" Bight Door," in " mandarin "
Ngaomen.

Mace — Malay mas, from Indian
masha ; in China ports ^*jj of a
tael or ten candareens.

Malay. I cannot find more than
one trace of this word before
the Mulayu of Kublai's time.
The Chinese never seem to have
conceived the existence of a
Malay " state " par excellence.

Mali-kha and Nmai-kha are
Kachyn words for "Little" and
"Great " kha or " rivers." Kha
is perhaps allied to the Chinese
ho, still pronounced ha in Corea
and Annam, and ka in Japan.

Manchu. According to the Em-
peror K'ien-limg, this word is
connected with the Chushen
tribe of Tunguses. In Con-
fucius' time they were called
Sushen. It is just possible that
the Buddhist word Mahdjus^ri
may have been adapted or
utilised, as the earlier Turks
and Tunguses often took Bud-
dhist names in compliment to
themselves or their country.

Mandarin = Portuguese man-
darim, " a ruler."

Mangu — Mongol mongge, " per-
severing."

Manila = the local river of that
name.

Manipur. Only known to the
Chinese as Kase ; the Burmese
say Kath6 (th as in EngUsh
thin).

Manzi. The Chinese man-tsz or
" Southern barbarians," a word
I have myself seen in a procla-



GLOSSARY



391



mation issued by the Tartar
General of Canton, referring
haughtily to the Cantonese.

Masanpho = " Horse-hill Cove."

Mei-ling = " Plum Ridge."

Mengtsz = in the Shan tongue,
" the district Tsz." See also
Confucius.

Mikado = Japanese " Imperial
Gate," " Sublime Porte."

Ming — Bright.

Mokpo, the Corean form of Muh-
p'u, " Wood Cove."

Mongol =" silver " (perhaps).
The word " mungku " appears
at least 1,000 years ago as a
tribe of Turko-Tungusic origin
near the Shilka River.

Mukden = This seems to be a
Tungusic word for " glorious
capital." Its ancient name in
Corean times was Shen-yang.

Nagasaki = Japanese " Long-
point."

Nanking — " South Metropolis."

Nepaul. The oldest Chinese word
is Nip'olo ; then Parpu (Palpa),
and now Kwo-r-k'a (Goorkha).

Newchivang = " Cow-village."

Ningpo = " Calm the Waves."

Novgorod = Russian, "New-
town."

Niichens = a supposed native word
something like" Djurchi," mean-
ing " west of the sea."

Octroi — " authorised (charge)," or
" grant."

Odon-tala. I believe this word
means " Thirteen Seas," but I
have forgotten the nimiber.

Ogdai = Mongol ogedei, " su-
perior."

Ordos. This word first appears
600 years ago. Several Mongol
princes still have their ordo in
this plateau, which possibly
takes its name from the fact.
Cf. Urga and Yamen.

Ouigour. Name of one of the
T'ie-le or Tolos tribes. The
Turkish tablets discovered a
generation ago never use the
word ; only the word Tolos,
or sometimes " Tokuz Uguz,"
which corresponds to the Chi-
nese " Nine Surnames " of the
Ouigoiu-s.

Oxus. In old Chinese called the



Wei or Kwei, the Oech of
Zemarchus.

Pakhoi = Cantonese for Peh-hai,
" North Sea."

Pamir. This word appears in
Chinese as po-mit in the eighth
century {pa-mir according to
philological rule).

Pecul = a Chinese cwt. of 133 J
lbs.

Peh-seh = " 100 colours," pro-
bably some Shan word.

Peking — " North Metropolis."

Persia. Always called Po-sz ( =
Pas, or Pars) by the Chinese.

Pescadores = Portuguese pescador,
" fisher." The Chinese name
is P'eng-hu, " Lake P'eng."

Philippines — Spanish Filipinos,
or " (King) Philip's (isles)."

PHng-jang, Corean Pyong-yang =
" even soil " ; a very ancient
name.

P'ing-shan = " Flat Mountain."

Pirouz. In Chinese Pi-lu-sz.

Port Arthur (from Captain Arthur)
in Chinese Lii-shun K'ou, or
" Port Agreeable to Travellers "
— a hopeful name.

Po-yang = " Spread out."

Pulo Condor. The Malay piih,
" island," and theChinesejK'?i7i-
lun; but, query, which lan-
guage has precedence.

Quelpaert (Dutchman's name),
called Tan-lo, or Tamra, by the
Chinese and Coreans.

Samshu = Cantonese sam-shiu
(san-shao), " thrice distilled."
Mentioned by Dampier 220
years ago, but uncertain.

San-tu Ao =" Three centres
bight " (cf. Macao).

Shamien = " Sand-stirface," pro-
nounced in Cantonese Shamln.
The flat islet constructed from
the rubbish of the " Thirteen
Hongs " after the second war,
much on the principle that
Decima was set apart for the
Dutch in Nagasaki Creek.

Sam-shui = " Three Rivers."

Shan-haiKwan =" Mountain- sea
Pass," or " Barrier."

Shash'i = " Sand Market."

Shimonoseki = Japanese shimo-no-
seki, " lower pass, or barrier of
the lower."



392



GLOSSARY



Shroff = Hindoo sarrdf : the
handler of dollars and other
coins in most large foreign con-
cerns. " To shroff " has come
to mean to " test," or to
" sample," or " taste."

Si-an Fu = " West-peace City,"
the more modern name of
Ch'ang-an, or " Lasting Peace."

Sikkim. Known to the Chinese
by an imitation of the native
name " Demajong."

Si-ning = " West Peace."

Songchin, or Sydng-chin. The
Corean form of Ch'eng-tsin,
" City Ford."

Soy = Japanese sho-yu, the Chi-
nese tsiang-yu, or " sauce-oil."

Strogonoff. There is a Russian
word strogi, " strict," but I
cannot say if it is the origin of
such a word as " strictly ruled
ones " (genitive plural).

Sui. The founder was hereditary
Duke of Sui. Nearly all dyn-
asties wore " territorial " by
name, until the " Iron" (Kitan),
" Golden " (Niichen), " Chief "
(Mongol), " Bright " (Ming),
and " Clear " (Manchus).

Sumatra. This name first ap-
pears in Kublai's time as one of
many petty states in the island,
which never had a Chinese
name as a whole.

Sung. A proper name ; no mean-
ing in literature.

Swatow. Local form of Shan-
Vou, " end of the Shan (river)."

Sz-ma = " Rule the Horses" —
Captain-general ; (a Chinese
double " surname " or family
name).

Tad. The Chinese Hang or
" ounce," said to be the Malay
tail, which I suppose is allied
to the Siamese tical (pronounced
tick-all). Pere Richard says it
is the Hindoo tola through the
Malay tahil; cf. Mace and
Gandareen.

T'ai-pHng = "Great Peace," or by
extension " Reign of Peace."

T'ai-ivan, or Terrace Bay = For-
mosa.

Takow = Ta-kou (Cantonese ta-
kao), " beat dogs," probably a
corrupted Formosan word.



Taku = " Great Reach."

Ta-lien Wan = " Purse Bay."
Often written with other char-
acters signifying " Great Unity
Bay." Cf. Dalny.

T'ang. A proper name; no
meaning in literature.

Tangut. This word does not
occur often in Chinese. When
it does, it seems to refer to a
common language, including the
civilised Tibetans and the wan-
dering tribes of that race. So
far, I have not come across any
Chinese use of the word anterior
to the Manchu dynasty. There
were Tang-ch'ang and Tang-
hiang tribes in Kan Suh, but
Marco Polo's Tangut is never
called anything except Hia, or
West Hia, being the whole
Ning-hia region of to-day.

Tartar. From ancient times the
word Tatan, tata, tata-r, or
ta-tsz, has been used for loosely-
defined tribes between the Turks
and Tunguses. The word ta-
tsz is still used jocularly by the
pure Chinese in the vague sense
of our word " Tartar."

Tashkend. Turkish tos/t, " stone" ;
Persian kand, kent, " city."
The oldest Chinese name is
Chech or Djedj, in imitation of
the ancient native word Djadj,
corrupted by the Turks to Task.
The Chinese also call it Shih'
ch^eng, or " stone city."

Tashkurgan = Turkish " stone-
tower." Sir Aurel Stein thinks
Ptolemy's " Stone Tower,"
however, must be at or near
Daraut-Kurgan.

Ta-tsien Lu = " Strike arrow
stove," a meaningless imita-
tion of Tarsando (Tib.).

Ta-ts'in = " Great Ts'in," or, in
the older form, Dziin, which is
probably Syr or Syria. The
later Chinese form Sz-li occurs
in reference to the inhabitants
of the Syro-Persian region.

Tea = local pronunciation te. It
is pronounced ta in Foochow,
and tsha in most parts. The
Russian ichai is simply the
Pekingese ch'a-ye, " tea-leaf."

Tibet. The Chinese first called



GLOSSARY



393



the civilised Tibetans fnpo,
usually mispronounced Vufan.
The second syllable is bod (what
the Tibetans call themselves)
= Tibetan, sKod-Bod, or sTod
Bod, pronounced To Bhot, and
meaning " Upper-Bod." Bodgul
or gyul means "Land of
Bod."

THen-shan. " Heaven Mountains "
= the Tengri Tagh of the Tar-
tars. See also Bogdo.

Tientsin = " Heavenly Ford " ; a
modern name.

Ting-hai = " Settle the Sea."

Toba = " born in the sheets,"
but the Chinese give other
fanciful meanings for this Tun-
gusic word.

Tokyo. The Chinese words Tung-
king, " eastern capital."

Tonquin. The Chinese words
Tung-king, " eastern capital."

Taaidam. Said to mean " marsh "
in some local tongue.

TsHng = Clear.

Ts'in-wang Tao = " Prince of
Ts'in's Island," probably allud-
ing to the conquest of Corea by
the T'ang Emperor Li Shi-min,
who passed that way and had
borne that title (seventh cen-
tury).

Tsung - li Yamen = " General-
management Office," short for
the fiill title " General-manage-
ment of Different Countries'
Affairs Office" ; — Foreign Office.
After various changes, it is now
called the Wai-kiao Pu or
" Foreign Relations Board."

Tsushima (pronounced almost in
two syllables like TzhiHia) is
written by the ancient Chinese
Tui-ma, or " Facing Horses."
I cannot say which language
gave the original sounds.

T'umu — " Earth Tree." I have
twice been there.

Tunghwan = " East Sedge."

Tung-Ving = " Cave Court," pro-
bably alluding to the royal
centre of the aboriginal races.

Tunguz, Tunguses, generally sup-
posed to be a term of Russian
origin derived from Tung-hu or
" Eastern Tartars " ; but the
point is not certain.



Turk = Turkish word " liirk," or
" helmet," from the shape of a
mountain in their earliest habi-
tat.

Tycoon or Shogun. The first is
the Japanese way of pronounc-
ing the Chinese words Ta-kiin
or T'ai-kun, a term, like the
corresponding Corean Tai-tvon-
kun, applied to the second per-
sonage in the state. The second
is simply the Chinese tsiang-
kiln, or " generalissimo," being
the word " Imperator " in its
original miUtary significance.
Compare soy.

Uliassutai. This seems to be the
Chinese word t'ai, " post- sta-
tion," added to the ^Mongol word
usu; Ulia-usu, the "River" Ulia.

Urga, said to come from orgo, a
palace ; but see Ordos.

Uriangkha. I do not know if this
is the Eleuth tribe mentioned
luider " Kalmuck," but there
are still Eleuth settlements in
Tsitsihar and Kokonor as well
as in Hi. In Kublai's time this
term was applied to Nayen's
appanage of Manchuria, from
the Amur to Corea.

Vladivostock = Russian " rule the
east."

Wangpoo =" Yellow Cove,"
meaning the Shanghai River.
The same sotmd signifies " Yel-
low Depot," or Whampoa near
Canton.

Wei = state or dynasty. A proper
name; no meaning in literature.

Wei-hai Wei = " Awe-the-sea Gar-
rison."

Wei River of Si-an Fu, not to be
confused with the Wei River of
Wei-hwei Fu (written differ-
ently). The first- named is dubi-
ously mentioned 3,000 years ago
as being either clear or muddy,
and the intellectuels disputed
for 2,000 years which of the two
it was ; until the Manchu Em-
peror K'ien-lung ordered the
learned Viceroy of Kan Suh to
go to the source in the desert,
and follow the stream person-
ally all the way down to its
junction with the King, so as
to close the question for ever.



394



GLOSSARY



Whampoa = Wongpou, " Yellow
Quays," the Cantonese form of
Hwang-p'u.

Wonsan — Chinese Yiian-ahan, or
Ngiian-alian, " Head Hill " ; in
Japanese Genzan.

Wo-nu = " Japanese slaves." Cf.
Hiung-nu.

Wu-hu = " Jvmgle Lake."

Yamen = Chinese " gate of the
ya." The ya was first " a
flag " ; then the entrance to
the camp-gate where the flag
was planted ; then " head-
quarters " ; then "nomad
court," or " ordo." Yamen
now means " public residence,"
or " office." Cf. Urga.

Yang-tsze = the " philosopher
Yang " : the old name for the



modern salt dep6t of Icheng
near Chinkiang, and of the
Great River in that vicinity, or
a ford of it. The usual trans-
lation "Son of the Ocean"
seems incorrect.

Yedo = Japanese " River-door."

Yin Shan =" Sombre" or "hy-
perborean " mountains.

Yiian-kung P'u = " Duke Yiian's
Cove."

Zanzibar. This word seems to
occur in the Chinese ts'etig or
Dzang, " black slaves " from
which place were imported by
the Arabs. As to bar, see the
remarks on Ciampa, Lappa,
Singpa, etc.

Zuider Zee = Dutch for " South
Sea."



NoTK — In Giles' Anglo-Chinese Dictionary (first edition) I have
given the pronunciation in eight dialects (also in Corean, Japanese,
and Annamese) of every important Chinese word. In the Philological
Essay contributed to the same work, I have explained the etymo-
logical rules involved. I have not yet seen the later edition of Giles'
dictionary. For most of the Mongol words I am indebted to Mr.
Zach, of the Foreign Customs in China. Pere Richard's Geography
is responsible for the Indo-Malay coin words, and Mr. L, C, Waddell
for one or two Tibetan meanings.

Although the paragraphs on Corean and Formosan trade have been
expunged from this edition, the Corean and Formosan place-names
still appear in this Glossary.



INDEX



Abascia (see Abyssinia)

Abbassides, 32

Abdeli, 68 (see Ephthalites)

Abdications, 304, 373

Abkhai, 39, 387

Aboriginal officials, 8

Aborigines, 7, 183 (see Tribes)

Abu Said, 54, 67

Abyssinia, 75

Accadian origin, supposed, 4

Acheen, 57, 80, 83, 92

Achmac, 241

Actors, 183

Aden, 50, 75, 80, 83

Admiralty, Chinese, 211

Adults, 199

Advance of Chinese, 6

Advisory Committee, 145

— Councils, 377, 380, 382

^rarium, 209

Aeroplanes, 86

Affghanistan, 22, 65, 365

Afranghi, 127 (see Franks)

Africa, 36, 57, 58, 71

Agricultural implements, 48

Aigun, 103, 138, 174

Ainos, 127, 387

Ainscough, M. T., 60

Aintab, 83

Aisie, 106

Aksu, Ak-8u, 64, 83, 387

Aktagh, 66

Akwei, General, 304

Alans, 67, 134

Alashan Mountains, 235

Albazin, 103, 104, 138

" Albazins," 306

Albumen trade, 149

Alchuk, 84

Aleppo, 83

Alexander the Great, 21

Alexander III, 104

Alexandria, 48

Almalik, 72, 77, 78 {see Hi)



Alompra of Burma, 139
Altai, 136, 137, 180, 387
Altyn Khan, 137, 138
Alum, 156

Amaral, Governor do, 114
America, 111, 341, 378, 383

— Chinese in, 40, 112
American immigration laws, 112

— parallels, 20

— syndicates, 1 1

— tirade, 111, 112, 113, 146, 147,
166, 170

Amherst, Lord, 97

Amoy, 74, 79, 90, 96, 98, 156, 387

— emigrants, 91

— trade, 148, 156
Amur, 103, 132, 138
Ananas sativus, 153
Ancestral Worship, 287, 294, 298,

302, 373
Ancient remains, 4, 31, 55, 76, 77,

131
Andamans, 80
Andijan, 83
Andrab, 64
Andrade, 88
Andrea, 78

An Hwei, 229, 231, 253
Aniseed, 152
An-k'ing Fu, 252
Armals of Confucius, 17, 345
Annam, 21, 24, 29, 31, 32, 35, 37,

40, 60, 107, 197, 387

— annexed, 29, 32

— conquered, 35, 193

— independent or tributary, 32,
33, 37

— French in, 32, 167
Annamese, 21, 49, 85

— language, 360
Ansi, 59, 69
Antimony, 161
Antioch, 52, 83
Antiochia Margiana, 61



395



896



INDEX



Antiquities (aee Ancient Remains)

Antoninus, 23, 48, 50, 52, 62, 387

An-tun, 23, 48, 50

Antung, 174

An Yih, 240

Aphrodisiacs, 289

Arab conquests, 65

— traders, 32, 54

Arabia, 33, 36, 37, 54, 63, 67, 68,

71, 92
Arabs, 33, 49, 53, 68, 88, 300
Archery, 258, 259
Areas of China, 2

— of trade (see Trade)
Argun, River, 85
Ariga, Mr., 382
Armenia, 40, 73, 135

Armies, Chinese, 42, 80, 210, 25G-

270, 370
Arms, trade in, 110 (sec Cannon)
Arrian, 62
Arrows, 47
Arsacides, 50
Arsenals, 211
Art, 132

Artesian wells, 231
Artillery (see Cannon)
Aru, 80

Aryans, 19, 47, 134
Asbestos, 49

Asiatic Co. (German), 109
Astrakhan, 77
Astrology, 17
Astronomy, 95, 106
Atlas of Yang-tsze, 12
Attila, 21, 128
Augustan era, 33
Augustines, 90
Auli6-ata, 64
Aurelian, 51
Austin, jurist, 309
Austro-Hungary, 119, 383
Autochthones, 184
Ava, 83
Avars, 128, 130

— the word, 131
Awakening of China, 365
Ayuthia, 140

Azes, 135 (see Alans)
Azov, 77

Babel, Tower of, 6
Baber, E. C, 8
Babylon, 4, 50, 61
Babylonian theories, 4, 348
"Babylonian" women, 43, 238
Back River, 160
Bacot, M. Jacques, 9, 82



Bactria, 22, 47, 134

Bactrians, 63

Badakshan, 60, 74, 79, 81

Bagdad, 53, 71, 77, 83

Baghdur Khan, 20, 46

Baikal, 31, 131, 132, 138

Baikoff, 103

Balkash, 66, 73, 74, 77, 132, 139

Balkh, 64, 68, 73, 83

Balti, 32

Bamboo, edible, 157

Bamian, 64

Banner system, 103, 195, 208, 256,

272
Bannu, 63
Bantam, 75, 92
Baotu, 82, 84, 169, 235
Barbarians, 7, 9, 70, 118, 183, 184,

212, 234
Barbers, 183
Barca, 73
Barkul, 59
Bashkirs, 136
Basman, 75
Basra, 50, 61, 71
Batavia, 75, 92
Bathang, 13
Batu Khan, 73
Bayen, General, 75, 197
Bayen-Kara, 82
Bean-cake, bean- oil, beans, 148,

166-70
Beer, 46
Beggars, 283
Behar, 65
Belgiiun, 113, 148
Bell of Antermony, 36
Benedict XII., 78
Benevolences, 45, 204, 230, 239
Bengal, 80
Beni Asfar, 127
Bentham, Jeremy, 314
Berbera, 71
Beresov, 135
Beyla, 83
Bhamo, 62, 74, 83, 147, 174, 366,

388

— trade, 74
Bharam, 54
Bicycles, 147
Bink-thtian, 70, 79, 387
Bird-Bishop, Mrs., 9
Birds' nests, 289
Bismarck, 110

Black dwarfs, 52, 57

— Flags, 107, 390

— River (Mongolia), 1 1 1
(Tonquin), 21



INDEX



397



Black Salt Wella, 234

Blagoveschtschensk, 103

Boards at Peking, 178, 180, 186,

210, 215, 230, 246, 308, 312,

341, 380, 393
Bocca Tigris (see Bogue)
Bock, Mr. Carl, 120
Boehmeria nivea, 163
Bogdo Khan, 126, 387
Bogue, The, 112
Bokhara, 31, 68, 72, 81, 83, 283,

286

— Little, 81
Bombay, 75

Bone inscriptions, 343
Bones, desert, 86
Bonham, Governor, 98
Bonnet, N. de, 78
Bonzes, 66, 76, 304, 387
Book of History, 42
" Books" of bamboo, etc., 344
Books, burning of, 346
Borneo, 32, 36, 57, 71, 77, 92

— oil, 146

Boundaries, natural, 2
Bouvet, 106

"Boxer" Indemnity, 112
"Boxers," 37, 40, 99, 103, 105,

109, 117, 118, 154, 167, 169,
212, 235, 255, 266, 303, 304,
340, 369, 387
" Boxers" (earliest), 35

— (later), 37,40,41, 303

— (midway), 41, 304
"Boys," 277
Branco St., 114, 151
Brava, 80
Bravery, 273
Braves, 263
Brazil, 120, 148, 297
Bretschneider, Dr. E., 15, 19, 79,

134
Brick inscriptions, 344, 350

— tea, 163, 169
Brigade generals, 260
British interests, 3 {see English)
Buddhism, 22, 63, 65, 282, 296,

305, 330, 339
Buddhist pilgrims, 51, 62, 65
Budget, 205, 207, 210, 219
Buffaloes, 45
Bukur, 55
Bulgars, 134

BuUion, 66, 57, 154, 216, 248, 283
Burma, 8, 13, 22, 35, 37, 40, 62,

74, 99, 100, 139, 145, 172, 197,

304, 387

— Convention, 109



Burma Expedition, 99, 366
Burmese, 43, 47

— races, 8
Buruts (see Kirghis)
Butter, 234

Button rank, 186, 260

Byu, 387

Byzantines, 66 (see Greeks)

Cabinet Council, 246

Cadastral lands, 190, 253

Cail, 75, 80

Cairo, 83

Calatu, 75

Calcutta, 63, 72, 83, 149

Calendar, 73, 373

CaUcut, 76, 80

Caliphs, 31, 70

Cambalu, 79, 303, 387

Cambay or Cambaia, 71, 75

Cambodgia, 37, 51, 79, 387

Camels, 46, 84, 169

Camels' wool, 167

Camphor, 54, 56

Campichu, 74 (see Kan-chou Fu)

Camul (see Hami)

Canal, Grand, 11, 208, 239, 245

Canals, 237, 241

Canfu, 32, 56, 72, 75

Cannibalism, 289

Cannon, 88, 89, 95, 258

Cansay, 78 (see Kinsai)

Canton, 6, 10, 23, 48, 49, 54-6,
57, 65, 67, 71, 77, 87, 94, 96,
98, 106, 111, 120, 224, 258

— Arabs at, 32, 54, 67

— decline, 55, 71

— dialect, 26, 358

— factories, 94, 106, 109, 141

— mosque, 83

— River, 62, 222

— trade, 154

Cantonese, 20, 30, 274, 285
Capitals of China, 4, 10, 27, 34,

37, 52, 65, 70 (see Peking,
Nanking, Hangchow, Si-an Fu,
etc.)

Capitao do Mar, 88

Carpi ni, 77

Carthaginians, 48

Carts, 66, 73, 131 (see Waggons)

" Cash," copper, 56, 206, 213, 291

Caspian, 67

Cassia, 152

Cassini Convention, 105, 151, 366

Caste, 45, 183, 258, 272, 339, 357

Catchment areas, 6, 13

Catchpoole, 90



398



INDEX



Cathay, 79

Cathayans, 33 (see Kitans)

Cathedral at Peking, 107

" Catherines," Chinese, 20, 31, 46,

323
Cattle trade, 56, 84, 170
Catulphus, 67
Caucasus, 67
Cavalry, 262
Cave-dwellers, 9
Celestial Mountains, 59
Census, 193-204
Central Kingdom, 4, 343
Ceylon, 36, 51, 54, 63, 71, 77, 80,

83, 146 (see Tea)
Chagan Khan, 126, 387

— Kuren, 82, 387
Chambers of Commerce, 383
Ch'ang-an, 23, 392 (see Si-an Fu)
Chang Chi-tung, 104, 185, 187,

241, 266, 268, 369
Chang-chou Fu, 74, 96, 197 (see

Zaitun)
Ch'ang-ch'un, 84
Chang Hiin, 251, 378, 379
Chang Kien, 242
Chang K'ien, 47, 61, 64
Ch'ang-lu salt, 238
Ch'ang-sha (and Fu), 22, 61, 161,

387
Chao Confederation, 32, 69 (see

Nan-chao)
Chao-k'ing (Shiu-heng), 87, 88
Chaosien, 21, 29 (see Corea)
Chappedelaine, Pere, 107
Charing Nor, 10, 69
Charlemagne, 27
Charles, iSing of Bumania, 121
Chavaimes, Professor, 17, 65, 77,

132
Chefoo, 98, 247, 387

— Convention, 100, 142

— trade, 169, 175
ChehKiang, 19, 56, 197, 248, 254

— salt, 226
Chemulpo, 387
Ch'en dynasty, 27
Chen-shou-sh'i, 261
Cheng Ho, 58, 79

Ch'eng-tu (and Fu), 12, 174, 202,

388
Chesterfield, Lord, 295
Chevalier, Pere, 12
Ch'ih-feng, 175
ChihLi, 19, 34, 180,239
Chikin-talas, 74 (see Talas)
Children, 286-8
Chili-Peru war, 120



China, 1, 191

— divided, 24, 27, 51, 55, 128,
193, 257, 328, 339

— Early, 4-6, 313

— Inland Mission, 99

— Old, 20, 23, 328 (see Old)

— Proper, 1

— United, 18, 28, 33, 35, 193, 198,
240, 321, 330, 346

China's Sorrow, 11, 236 (see

Yellow River)
Chin-cheo, 90 (see Ts'iian-chou)
Chinese abroad, 40, 94, 118

— banners, 256

— designations for (see National)

— language, 7, 343-64

— legations, 100, 118

— missions, 99, 118

— shipping, 150, 157, 160
Chinese Characteristics, 271
Ching, Commander, R.N., 270
Chingnampo, 388
Chinkiang, 98, 165, 226, 388

— trade, 165

" Chits," 276, 388

ChoUn-uye, 85

Chosen, or Chaosien, 116 (see

Corea)
Chou cities, 15, 388
Chou dynasty. Early, 18, 330

Tungusic, 27

Chou-ts'un, 175

Chu-an Hwei, 382

Chu, Kiang or River, 14 (sec

West River)
Ch'u, Kingdom, 5, 35, 160, 222
Chukchis, 132
Ch'un, Prince, junior, 268, 371

senior, 211

Ch'unghou, 104
Chungking, 9, 158, 248, 388
Ch'ungming Is., 227
Chusan Is., 96, 388
Chuvashes, 136
Chu Yiian-chang, 35
Ciampa, 32, 37, 75, 77, 388
Cigarettes, 46, 147
Circumcision, 298
City gates, 264 (see Gates)

— walls, 317
Civil Law, 311
Civilian officers, 261, 318
Clarke, Rev. S., 10
Classics, 346

Clavijo, 78

Clerks, Law, 338, 341 (see Secre-
taries)
Clippers, 157



INDEX



899



Clothing trade, 147
Coal, 80, 167, 1G8
Coast districts, 6

— trade, 144, 160
Cobdo, 81, 137
Cochin, 80

Cochin-China, 23, 57, 107, 318

(see Indo- China)
Codes, ancient, 314, 32G, 334, 339

— modern, 335, 337, 341
Coffee, 92

Co-hong system. 111, 141 (see
" Hongs")

Coilon, 75 {see Quilon)

Colleges {see Schools, Universities)

Cologan, Sen., 118

Colonies, 21

Comari, 75

Compass, 60, 86

Compradores, 141, 255, 276, 388

Concubines, 284, 300

Condor, 79 {see Kunlun)

Confucian era, 43, 47

Confucius, 17, 111, 295, 301, 309,
319, 345, 385, 388

Confucius LXXVI., Duke, 385

Confucius' History, 17 (see An-
nals)

Conquests of Han Wu Ti (see
Wu Ti)

Conservatism, 164, 222, 225, 232

Constantinople, 67

Constitutions, 370, 372, 375, 380

Consular jurisdiction, 99 («ee
Extraterritoriality)

Consuls, status, 189

— Chinese, 90
Contract law, 312

Coolie business, 94, 118, 120, 170,

388
Copper, 44, 56, 206, 211, 219

— coins, 43, 291 {see " Cash ")

— standard, 143
Cordier, Prof. H., 58, 96
Corea, 14, 21-3, 29, 33, 39, 47,

53, 116, 131, 165, 264, 286, 388

— Americans in, 113

— conquests, over- runnings, re-
ductions of, 21, 22, 29, 30, 35.
39, 53, 192

— language, 26, 360

— Italians in, 119

— "Imperial," 116, 121, 171

— Japanese province, 171

— opening of, 170, 171, 365

— Tripartite, 192

— the word, 388
Corean general, 32



Corean trade, 65

— words, places, etc. {passim in
Glossary)

Cormos, 75 (see Hormuz)
Cosmas, Alex., 63
Cosmetics, 147
Cossacks, 103, 136, 389
Cotton, 45, 85, 157, 159, 160, 167,
173

— American, 166, 170

— fabrics, 49, 142, 145, 152, 155

— yarns, 145, 159, 168 (see Yarns)



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