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entrenched himself with 3,000 men in the east suburb
of Shao-hing. WeNwei occupied the heights of
Ch'ang-k'i," one mile from Ts'z-k'i city, with 4,000
men, half of whom were under Colonel Chu, 6 and
intended for an attack on Chen-hai. General TwAN"
Yung-fuh c lay concealed outside the walls of Ning-
po with 4,000 men, destined for an attack upon
that city ; and a Colonel with 1,000 more men
guarded the Ningpo and Chen-hai road at Camel
Bridge, half way between the two cities. Boats
were also sunk at Mei Hii; d so as to prevent river
communication; and a reserve force of volunteers was
stationed at Shang-yii city. When the appointed
time came, our men marched towards the west
gate, when, the guard having been killed by our
friends in the city, who also spiked the guns on

Chinese Account of the Opium War, 55

the walls, the men advanced through the gate right
up to the prefect's and magistrate's yamens before
the foreigners knew what was taking place. Then
followed a street fight, and our troops found them-
selves taken in the rear by a foreign force which had
come to the rescue from the north gate. Finding it
impossible to withstand the rockets and guns with
which the foreigners peppered them from the house-
tops, they retired, fighting as they went, with a
loss of 250 men. General Twan, coming up with
reinforcements, turned round and bolted, not even
attempting to rally the men, or even to fall back
upon and defend his camp at Ta-yin Shan. a
General Yu Pu-yuN, who was advancing with
2,000 men from Fung-hwa, as soon as he heard of
the defeat, turned and fled all night long into the
open country. So much for our arms at Ningpo.
Of the force at Ts'z-k'i, a part, that is 500 men,
succeeded in getting into Chen-hai in the same way
as had been done at Ningpo ; but our agents in the
city were too few to secure the persons of the pirates,
and it was daylight before our fire-arms could be
sent for. The enemy then gave us a broadside from
his position on Chao-pao Shan, which drove our men
helter-skelter out of the city. Colonel Chu, with
his reinforcements, lost his way in the wind and rain,
and never came up to Chen-hai at all. So much for

56 Chinese Account of the Opium War,

our arms at Chen-hai. Then it was that the error
of all these hasty arrangements was manifest : but no
irreparable disaster had yet occurred, as our total
losses did not exceed 300 men. The position at
Ts'z-k'i was again re-occupied with 1,700 men, and
the city itself was guarded by volunteers. Yikking
neglected alike to decapitate the cowardly generals,
and to himself advance up to Shang-yii ; and, as
the commander of the local volunteers at Ts'z-k'i
was sent for to consult on the situation, the volun-
teers found themselves left without a head, and so
dispersed. A week later, the enemy sent steam-
launches to burn our fire-boats, and landed between
2,000 and 3,000 men to attack our position near
Ts'z-k'i : as before, their boats were withdrawn
to prevent the men from thinking of retreat.
Colonel Chu met them with 400 of his men
armed with gingalls. Over 400 foreign soldiers
were killed, including their chief Pa-meh-tsun a
[? Bramston], not one of our men being even
wounded behind their shelter. If at this moment the
foreigners could only have been taken in the rear,
we might have gained a complete victory ; or even
if we had had a few hundred men to guard the rear
of our position on the hill, we might at least have
prevented a defeat. We&wei's camp was only a
few miles off; but he refused to send any re-inforce-

Chinese Account of the Opium War. 57

ments until the evening, when it was too late ; for
the foreigners had then taken us in the rear, and
defeated us, Colonel Chu and his son both falling
in the fight. The enemy was exceedingly unlikely
to have gone on to Ch'ang-k'i that night : but the
cowardly Wenwei deserted his position and bolted
during the darkness, distributing lavish rewards to
boatmen and chairmen as he went, so as to escape
the pursuit of the English. As he had bolted, his
troops naturally broke too, leaving all their stores
and arms to take care of themselves. Wenwei
then reported to the Emperor that his camp had
been burnt by " disloyal Chinese ;" whereas the
English had not come up even on the evening of the
following day ! The idea which now suggested itself
was to fix the head-quarters at Shang-yu, entice
the foreign soldiers farther inland, and to try fight
after fight in order to prevent their harrying
Kiang Su province, and in order to discourage them
from placing their demands too high. Yikking and
Wenwei, however, had now completely lost their
heads. They represented to the Emperor that only
seven of our men had escaped alive in one fight,
in which, as a matter of fact, only seven had been
even wounded ; that over a thousand instead of
just over a hundred had been killed at Ts'i-k'i; and
that 17,000 English instead of between 2,000 and
3,000 had landed there. They then retired from

58 Chinese Account of the Opium War.

Shao-hing to Si-hing, whence Yikking finally crossed
to Hangchow. These were our efforts by land.

Our naval programme had been to collect a
force of fishing boats at Cha-p'u, and endeavour to
recapture Ting-hai : over 10,000 marines had been
stationed in various places with this object in view ;
but Yikking continued to listen to the craven counsels
of his aide-de-camp Jungchao," and ordered them
to disperse : he also withdrew the war-junks and
fire-boats, in consequence of which the destitute
fisherman marines now went over to the foreigners.
These were our doings afloat. There was one officer,
Cheng Ting-ch'en, 6 notwithstanding, who had the
courage to disobey orders, and Yikking was half
inclined to listen to Jungchao's advice to have
him executed, only refraining from this dastardly
act owing to the indignant remonstrances of Tsang
Hu-ch'ing, c the literatus who had originally recom-
mended guerilla warfare. Yikking now ventured
back across the river once more, and issued orders in
all directions for all the soldiers to fight as they best
could : the result of this was that over 300 British
and Sikh heads were brought in within a fortnight :
also four English officers and over 50 soldiers,
white and black, were sent prisoners to Ningpo,
with two disloyal Chinese advisers. Meanwhile
Cheng Ting-ch'en, with his fire-boats, managed to

Chinese Account of the Opium War. 59

burn or sink four large men-of-war and about a
dozen boats, during which operations from 500 to
600 foreign sailors were drowned. The magistrate
of Chen-hai also earned a laurel by a bold attack
upon the fleet in the open, off Chen-hai, and Yikking
received a double peacock's feather in consequence ;
whilst the two heroes themselves received propor-
tionate rewards. This created a tremendous com-
motion at head-quarters. Those who had defended
Cheng clamoured for their share of notice, whilst
those who had attacked him vowed that the victory
w T as imaginary . a The Governor Liu Yun-k'o 6
became the mouthpiece of the second clique; but
Cheng closed their mouths by sending four large
boats full of charred and splintered foreign planks,
as well as the heads and original clothes of his
pirate victims. The Governor, however, had
already asked that Ilipu might come to Ningpo
to discuss terms of peace, and the Emperor had
appointed the imperial clansman K'iying c as
Imperial Commissioner, to be assisted by the Acting
Tartar- General at Hangchow and by one Ts'ishen^
as associates. They were ordered not to advance,
nor to take the heads of stray barbarians, the penalty
for doing which was now declared capital. The

« The Repository of 1842, pages 455 and 470, shews that this
victory was purely imaginary. No fight took place at all, still less
was any foreigner killed.

b mM® c m-& d ft ft

60 Chinese Account of the Opium War.

repairs to the Yellow River having now been com-
pleted, Lin Tseh-su was again ordered to Kashgaria,
and the Grand Secretary Wang Ting," who had been
associated with him, died of grief and mortification.
Meanwhile the English made reconnoitring ex-
peditions round Shanghai and up the Yangtsze ;
obtained at Ningpo maps of the Empire and charts of
the Yangtsze and Yellow River; turned our dis-
charged fisherman marines into pilots and guides ;
manufactured a number of small boats for use in the
creeks ; and exacted from the gentry of Ningpo, as
the price of their retirement, an indemnity of
$200,000, withdrawing on board their ships on the
7th of May. Yikking and his party accordingly
reported that he had " forced the British troops to
retire," and had recovered Ningpo. The real facts
were that a steamer had been sent to England to
report the capture of Ningpo, and that six months
later a reply had been received from the King
ordering the ships to proceed again to Tientsin to ask
for open ports and free trade, the retirement of the
troops from Ningpo having nothing whatever to do
with the movements of our armies. Towards the
middle of May the foreign ships at Chen-hai also
left the place for the north, leaving only four ships
and 1,000 men in charge of Ting-hai. The two
promontories 6 at the mouth of the Hangchow River

Chinese Account of the Opium War. 61

had lately silted up so much a that the foreigners could
not get up to Hangchow with ships ; but on the 18th
of May they bombarded Cha-p'u, and landed a force
to attack the east gate. Here they were met by
troops from Shen Si and Kan Suh armed with
gingalls, receiving such rough treatment that they
went round to the south gate. As the Manchu
garrison had been in the habit of callino: the
Chinese u disloyalists, " the Fu Kien braves sided
with the enemy and set fire to the town. The
foreigners then got over the wall and burnt the
Manchu quarter, 6 the Assistant Tartar- General and
the Acting Sub-Prefect losing their lives, and the taotai
escaping to K ashing, which place, as also Hangchow,
was now threatened too. When Ilipu arrived at
Cha-p'u, the English demands were so extravagant
that nothing definite could be arrived at ; and, when
the Governor requested the Emperor's sanction to
the restoration of the score or two of white and black
barbarian prisoners, the foreign ships had left Cha-
p'u. The prisoners were then sent to Chen-hai, and
it was suggested that bygones should be bygones;
but the English would not listen any more. The
Emperor ordered the Tartar-General or one of the
Associates to proceed to Kashing ; and on this Yik-

* See description of the southern sandbanks in the Repository
for 1842, page 290.

& Ever since this the Assistant Tartar-General has had his
office at Hangchow.

atom* :-'-! Ofmm W+

nw csosmd orar north. No sooner had the Imperial
Kttbsg arrived at Kashing, than ho

leueiv e d the Emperor^ orders to go to Canton, and
Pmmmnr* ^as ordered to aot as EttaivQoaaial af
Has was because the Censor Sr Pixg-
i,* had represented that the Nepaalese had
attacked the English garrisons in India, and that
::: fee: r.s£ :: j; :; :„f :e>;u : *;■:• :\i::^/.-
Y1S3G was ordered to see if he eooM not seize
the opportunity In retake Hongkong. When matters
became pressing at Nanking, he was eqna% sndkknly
oixiered back, before he had reached Canton. At this

or two of sampans and small craft; about
i foreign soldiers; and a large sprinkling
of disloyal dmwup, Yikshax having succeeded
in drawing off over 3,000 of these last, the chief

r..r". .: :i:sf rr ■...:„.:-..::.: ::; H :_■; : ^ ;^; : ; r liir
most part shewed a wish to come back to their
allegiance. These disloyalists proposed to pot the

S:;-f 7::is in :rifr. ~>f il"si;:.ire :: :~r -!:;:::
neap tides, join with the Hongkong disloyalists,

z:i-:f ^.i:-::.- i::^ji: :z:.r -■::.:.:: iL~::;L:.i:.r ±r
:':-re:rr. :•■: 21-^11:7 ;.; —i :".: - : : «: Y:z-Za>-
:^L ;:" ±-; .-_: _; II :z:v. — ^.:::. i:-.i~:-Ei
allow it. The Emperor deprived Ydkshax of

:.t.:-:i! :::>= :.: L- ::-.:-£>; i:::~. ll_ ~ll_:-:

fjhinw Ace writ of the Opium War.




p%* and a number of them arrived off Wasting
on the 3rd of the 5th moon ; and on the 5th Niu Kiev
received instructions from Yikkiho to temporize:
but, as he delayed sending his orders to the foreign
fleet for two days, it was already too late. The
Magistrate of Pao-shan city, near Wusung, had
proposed to lay an ambush and entice the foreigners
ashore, leaving the forts to themselves; but the
infatuated Niu Kiem did nothing but allow the
remnants of the troops, who had fled so ignomi-
niously at Ningpo, to plunder the natives, who thus
felt their hearts fill with rancour.

On the 1 6th of June, the General commanding tX the
forts opened fire upon the foreign ships, sinking two,
cutting in two the masts of two others, and causing
the death by drowning of over 200* foreign soldiers.
The foreigners attacked Siao Sha-pei* in boats, routed
with a ridiculously small force the cowardly
contingent from Ningpo, landed a few men, killed
the general with a cannon shot, and put to flight
the several thousa nd soldiers who lined the bank.

«The forces withdrew from Chaj/a on the 2Srd May; the
fate* here appear to be somewhat eonfased, sad cannot be

* So men losses are mentioned in tibe Jteptmbrry.

64 . Chinese Account of the Opium War.

Niu Kien fled to Kia-ting city, and the easternmost
fort was also abandoned ; so that Pao-shan city, with
a vast amount of war materiel, fell into the enemy's
hands ; to the great consternation of Shanghai, which
place was at once abandoned by both the civil and
military authorities, who fled to Sung-kiang. The
Fu Kien marines thereupon became bandits, and
took to burning and plundering. On the 19th eight
or nine foreign ships came up to Shanghai, but
that city was already deserted. Two days later, the
foreigners" took two steam-launches and four or five
sampans up to a point near Sung-kiang, where they
were opposed by 2,000 Shen Si and Kan Suh
soldiers, and retired after a protracted fusillade on
both sides, repeating the operation with the same
results the next day ; so that Sung-kiang escaped.
The pirates next made a reconnaissance towards
Soochow; but their launches were piloted by our
fishermen on to the shallows, and had to go back.
On the 23rd the ships withdrew to Wusung, intend-
ing to enter the Yangtsze. On the 18th of July they
were off Kwa Chou ; but, finding that city deserted,
they turned to Chinkiang on the opposite side.
Hailing, the Assistant Tartar- General 6 over the
Manchu garrison there, was an imbecile creature,

« Admiral Parker with two small iron steamers proceeded
about 50 miles above Shanghai on the 22nd June. — Repository,
page 676.

Chinese Account of the Opium War, 65

and Niu Kien, after failing to close the Wusung
river to attack, should have hastened to Chinkiang,
concerted measures of defence with the Associate
Ts'ishen and the General Liu Yun-hiao," and
assumed supreme command over the Tartar Hailing :
if this had been done, the foreign ships would not
have gone straight on to Nanking, and we might
have tried to burn them ; or, anyhow, should have
treated with them without being at their mercy.
But Niu Kien fled straight to Nanking, and Hailing
told Ts'ishen and Liu to leave him alone and
defend the outer city. He would not allow any one
to leave the city, and slaughtered a number of
disloyal Chinese, thereby exciting a general panic
of indignation. He made no preparations, collec-
ted no stores for defence, and made no attempt
to organize a volunteer force. The thousand or so
of Manchu garrison troops, and the 600 Chinese
troops were scattered about anyhow. The troops
outside the city kept off those pirates who had
landed during a couple of days ; after which the Eng-
lish, 6 whilst making a feint of an attack upon
the north gate, secretly sent a body of men to scale
the wall on the south-west side, and swarmed into
the city, with a loss of only one c or two men. The
English first burnt the Manchu camp, Hailing

a 1&] it ^ b 21st July,

c the depository says we lost 169 killed and wounded.

66 Chinese Account oj the Opium War.

falling at the hands of his own men, a and Chinkiang
was then given over to plunder and massacre. The
Ningpo barbarian chieftain Pottinger wished to
proceed thence to Tientsin at once ; but Morrison
prevented him, saying : — " This is the key to Ohina^s
" rice-tribute supply, and as long as we keep our
" finger on it, we shall have our own way ;" and. so
he did not go. At this moment there were over
eighty foreign ships thundering in the river, and
reaching up as far as I-cheng, 6 where all the salt-
junks were set on fire, notwithstanding the offer of
Tls. 500,000 on the part of the Yang-chow salt-
merchants. On the 9th of August the ships had all
reached Nanking, and the Emperor, anxious about
the tribute-rice communications, gave K^i-ying c
carle blanche to act as he should see fit. The enemy
had already received the King's instructions not to
insist upon a military indemnity or the value of the
opium, if only trading privileges were extended to
the other provinces ; and no more opium would
come to China. It was for this reason that the
foreign army left Ningpo in May, and issued a
"proclamation" at Cha-p'u, saying that they were
going to Tientsin to seek peace in accordance with the
King's commands. Ilipu now sent Chang Hi d and

« The Repository says he committed suicide, and received high
posthumous honours.

>&'& c mik d mm

Chinese Account of the Opium War. 67

others to the foreign ships. The foreign chieftains
demanded (1) twenty million dollars, to be paid up over
a period of three years ; (2) Hongkong as a trading
place; (3) permission to trade at Canton, Foochow,
Amoy, Ningpo, and Shanghai ; (4) foreign officials to
be on terms of equality with Chinese officials ; and
the rest as proposed last year. Chang Hi said that
$6,000,000 had already been given at Canton last
year towards the indemnity and the opium, and
asked if the money demand now made was not
excessive, and the number of ports named too great
altogether. Morrison said: — " This is the sum we
"require, and, of course, not the sum which China
" offers. Moreover, our leading idea now is open
" trade, and not to get money. If we only obtain
" one or two ports for trade, China may decide for
" herself about the indemnity and the opium:" but
the high authorities, instead of giving a prompt
answer, sent back Chang Hi with a message ; and,
whilst he was moving to and fro' during a period of
two days, the enemy had learnt from disloyal Chinese
that new troops were being ordered up, and said
" that we were only trying to gain time, and that
" unless an agreement were come to that day hostilities
11 would commence on the morrow ;" — their desire
being for a speedy peace, as they did not really expect
to get all they asked. But all our leaders now lost
courage, and sent a reply that night, submitting to

68 Chinese Account of the. Opium War.

everything, and not alluding at all to the rule about
opium being excluded from China. The English
were overjoyed, and our leaders followed the example
of those at Canton after the Square Fort had fallen,
and reported to the Emperor that the enemy's guns
were on Mount Chung, a and that the whole of Nanking
rwas at their mercy. They also pleaded that in times
gone by " the Emperor K'ien-lung, when un-
successful in Burmah, had abandoned 5,000 li of
" territory beyond the frontier," thus maligning the
acts of past sacred monarchs by trumping up false
parallels ; for, as a matter of fact, the slab over
the T'ung-pih 6 Gate of Yun Nan declaring that
" China's territory ends here " was put up by
K'aKg-hi, whose maps, still extant, could hardly
accuse his successor of having "lost" 5,000 li
beyond it ! The enemy also said that the document
treating of conditions must bear the seal of the
Emperor c of China, and that they would send it
home by steamer to have the King's seal affixed, and
that the ships would only retire to the sea-board ; but
that their troops at Chusan, Amoy, and Hongkong
must remain three years, until the whole of the
indemnities should have been paid up, when they
would be withdrawn. The treaty was concluded on
the 29th of August by K'mNG, Ilipu, and Niu

a ^iu b mmm

« See Rescript of 8th September 1842. — Repository, page 629,

Chinese Account of the Opium War. 69

Kien, who went in person on board the enemy
Pottlnger's ship [the " Cornwallis"]. Two days
later Pottinger, Morrison, etc., went into the city ;
and had an interview with our officials at the Cheng-
kioh a Temple. 6 For days in succession drafts were
made on the provincial treasuries of Kiang-ning,
Soochow, and An Hwei, and on the salt treasury of
Yanorchow, and several millions of taels were thus
presented to the foreigners. In the middle of October,
as the foreign ships were about to leave, a banquet was
given by our leaders at the Temple, and a few days
later all the ships withdrew to Ting-hai. The Em-
peror now ordered up the Viceroy Niu Kien to be
punished for not having guarded the mouth of the
Yangtsze, and K'iying was appointed in his place.
Ilipu was ordered from Che Kiang to Canton as
High Commissioner for the drawing up of trade
regulations. Yiksfjan, Yikking, Wenwei, and Yu
Pu-yun were are all cast into the Board of Punish-
ments; but the last-named only was executed, — during
the following winter. Punishments according to
their several deserts were also meted out to the
various civil and military officials along the coast
who had lost their towns, and the districts annexed
to the captured places were exempted from the
payment of land-tax.

6 The white flag was shewn on the 11th, and there were
several conferences both ashore and afloat previous to the 29th. —

70 Chinese Account of the Opium War.

This winter there occurred the demand for the
Formosa prisoners. The year before and the next
year happened the breaking of faith on the part of the
Nepaulese, French, and Americans, and the burning
of the factory at Canton by volunteers. The For-
mosa prisoner case arose out of two reconnoitring
visits paid by foreign ships to Formosa in the
autumn of 1841 and the spring a of 1842. One was
wrecked during a storm at Tamsui, and the other
was led upon the shallows by native fishing-craft
at Ta-an.^ In both cases the local volunteers
surrounded and made prisoners of the crews ;
captured one large three-masted ship, two sampans,
twenty-four white, and a hundred and sixty-five black
barbarians, twenty guns, a number of small-arms,
and a quantity of Government property taken by the
said pirates at Ningpo and Chen-hai. The Brigadier
Tahunga c and the taotai Yao Ying^ had sent
several memorials to the Emperor on the subject, 6
and in the spring of 1842 nineteen of the enemy's
ships went to Formosa to take revenge. They were
piloted in by native pirates ; but, our troops having
destroyed the pirate junks, the enemy fired a few
« March 10th. — Repository, 1842.

e These were the cases of the ship M Nerbudda " and the brig
"Ann," the defenceless crews of which were kept in miserable
captivity, and finally massacred in cold blood by the order of the
authorities. Sir Hbjnry Pottingeii's correspondence upon the
subject is contained in the Repository for 1843.

Chinese Account of the Opium War. 71

shots from a distance and decamped. The spies
which they sent into T'aiwan from time to time
were all taken and decapitated; so that Formosa was
preserved entire. The Brigadier and the taotai
received distinguished rewards at the Emperor's
hands ; but, after the Nanking peace, prisoners on
both sides were to be restored, and it was found that
the Emperor had, during the summer, ordered the
decapitation of the 165 black barbarians; so that the
white ones only were restored.** The enemy's eye,
Pottinger, then accused the Brigadier and the
taotai of having wantonly massacred distressed
British subjects. The peace party at Nanking were
jealous of the success gained in. Formosa, whilst the
defeated authorities at Amoy felt particularly small.
Rumours thus flew about ; and K'iying, acting upon
private letters received from the Viceroy 6 and the
General at Foochow, accused the Brigadier and taotai
of obtaining unfair credit. The new Viceroy was
ordered to proceed to' Formosa and report, when it
appeared that the Brigadier and the taotai had
simply quoted the statements sent in by their sub-

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