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THE 'HALF MOON" ON THE HUDSON, 1«)9



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RE-EMINENT in natural beauty, the Hudson begins to gather strength as a well-defined
river about one hundred and eighty miles from New York City, although the actual
source is near the center of the Adirondack Mountains. For thirty miles further the bed



of the
is narrow and obstructed with rocks, and its career as a statel}' and useful highway of
commerce actually commences at the city of Troy, one hundred and fifty miles from the
sea. From this point no river in the world, not excepting the famous Rhine, can offer to
the traveler such a variety of beautiful and sublime lowland and highland scenery and such a
wealth of legendary or historical associations.

Long before the discovery of the " River of the Manhattes," in 1609, by the intrepid Henry
Hudson, an Ivnglish sailing-master in the service of the Dutch East India Company, the savage
tribes along the banks of the great stream had felt its charm and had invested it with romance
from source to mouth. The staid Netherlanders were not a sentimental race, but they also
succumbed to the witchery of the Hudson, and peopled every valley and highland with fairies,
sprites or goblins.

The importance of the Hudson as a direct route from the coast at New York to the strongholds of Canada was
demonstrated under English rule. lu the hope of holding this strategic highway the valley was occupied by both the
American and British forces during the Revolution and it became the theatre of war for several years and the scene of
many sanguinary struggles on land and water. It was here that the blackest page in American history, the treason of
Arnold, was planned, and here it was defeated by incorruptible patriotism.

From all this has developed a mass of legend and tradition, an inexhaustible mine, in which the "Genius of Sunny-
side," Washington Irving, found abundant material and inspiration for the entrancing tales which first drew the
attention of the world to the wonderful beauty of this lordly river.

The inhabitants of the Hudson \'alley have cultivated the arts of peace undisturbed since the Revolution. It was
here that the application of steam as a propelling power for vessels was put in practical operation, and the opening of
the Erie Canal and the wholesale building of railroads along either shore have enabled the populous and prosperous
river cities to build up an immense local trade and to promote manufacturing enterprises of world-wide reputation.
lUit no amount of commerce or trade adds to the great and enduring charm of the Hudson. This will forever lie in
its enchanting scenery and romantic memories, neither of which an aroused and enlightened public opinion will permit
to be obscured or destroyed by ruthless private interests.

PUBLISHED BY L. H. NELSON COMPANY. Portland. Maine.

PROPRIETORS OF NELSONS INTERNATIONAL SERIES OF SOUVENIR BOOKS
COPR.. 1906. 1910. BY L. H, NELSON CO.. PORTLAND. ME 40TH THOUSAND



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THE HUDSON OF TODAY AT NEW YORK
Where the Hudson River flows between New York City and the Jersey shore, it bears the local name of "The North River." The volume of traffic on these waters
is enormous. Big liners, tugs, ferries and canal boats are continually passing. The available North River water front of New York is about 13 miles. Below 43d
Street on the New York side, the shore is lined with great steamboat docks, warehouses, and ferry slips, while the Jersey City and Hoboken side is equally crowded.
Many famous trans-Atlantic lines have docks on the Jersey shore. The completion of all the great tunnels, and the contemplated Hudson River Bridge is expected to
greatly relieve the river surface from crosswise passenger traffic.




THE LANDING OF HUDSON. 1609.
Henry Hudson, an English navigator m the employ of the Dutch East India Company, passed through the Narrows and anchored in the North (.Hudson) River
on September 11, 1609. Later, in an effort to find a passage to India. Hudson explored the great stream bearing his name as far as Troy. The "Half Moon" (or
"Halve Maen"' in Dutch) was a tiny craft for the strenuous voyaging of the intrepid Hudson — of less tonnage than an ordinary harbor tug of today, and with
a total crew of only twenty. During the pageants of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration, Henry Hudson in command of the replica "Half Moon" is impersonated by
Lieutenant Lam of the Royal Dutch Navy.




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FORT LEE, NEW JERSEY
The town of Fort Lee is situated opposite Washington Heights, New York. The Palisades begin here in a huge promontory which was fortified in 1776 by
the erection of two redoubts, the larger named Fort Lee in honor of General Charles Lee. It was abandoned by the Americans after the capture by Lord Howe
of Fort Washington on the opposite sncre. Fort Let is now a popular resort. A great hotel occupies a commanding location, and there are abundant maani of
refreshment and amusement. Several steamers connect with New York during the summer mootht.




THE SOUTHERN END OF THE PALISADES

The famous Palisades of the Hudson begin near Fort Lee. New Jersey, and form the western wall of the river for ten miles, extending to the Tappan Zee. It is ■
rough basaltic trap rock with a precipitous front, nearly uniform in height, rising from an altitude of 350 feet near Fort Lee to 550 feet at the northern extremity.
The peculiar vertical formation characteristic of basalt, suggested the name to the early discoverers. This long gray wall, half bare of trees and practically unin-
habited, is one of the most extraordinary natural wonders of America.




The Terrace



Close View



Minarets

THE PALISADES OF THE HUDSON
Nothing can be more picturesque than this long gray rampart with its rocky summit eroded or rent into countless turrets and minarets. A closer view reveals a
grandeur of height and a wealth of color which cannot be appreciated from the center of the river. It is worthy of note that only three breaks in the entire
length of the Pahsades are of sufficient width to allow wagon roads to descend to the water's edge.




THE NORTHERN END OF THE PALISADES
The Palisades reach their highest elevation near Indian Head, directly opposite Hastings on the eastern shore. These rocky battlements practically cease at the
boundary line between New Jersey and New York, where the Hudson begins to widen into the Tappan Zee. By the old Dutch river voyagers the end of the
"Verdrietegh Hoeck"' (grievous place) as they called the Palisades, was always approached with stolid delight.




THE PALISADES FROM LAKE AVENUE WATER TOWER. YONKERS
South and north of the business center of Yonkers are many splendid avtnues bordered with beautiful residences. Many of the men who have won fame in the
commercial, financial, or literary life of New York, have made their homes here. Opposite on the further shore of the Hudson extend the gray walls of the Palisades.
The contrast between the two banks of the river is remarkable — the western a desolate mass of rock, the eastern an abode of wealth and refinement.



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THE OLr MANOR HALL. YONKERS
The old Manor Hall is tht pride of the city of Yonkers. The front piirt was built in 1682 by Frederick Philipse. the first Lord of the Manor of Philipsburf. It
was completed by the addition of the back part in 1746. The building remained in the possession of the Philipse family until 1779, when because of the torvlim ot
the Frederick Philipse of that day— the third Lord of the Manor— it was confiscated by an act of the Legislature of New York. It was lised by pnvate families
until 1868. Since 1872 it has bten the City Hall of Yonkers. The old structure has had the best of care and is a perfect specimen of colonial architecture.




RESIDENCE AND GRAVE OF WASHINGTON IRVING
Washington Irving was the first American, as Bryant has pointed out, to adequately describe the beauties of the Hudson. His setting of the old legends of the
rrcat river has made them an imperishable part of American literature. The home of the distinguished author was at "Sunnyside." a vine-clad cottage surrounded
by grand trees in Irvington near Tarrytown. overlooking the Tappan Zee. Although much abroad, this was his home from 1837 until his death, November 28, 1869.
Irving is buried in the cemetery at Sleepy Hollow. The grave is marked by a plain slab of white marble bearing the name and dates only. The path leading to
the plot is worn smooth by the feet of visitori.




SLEEPY HOLLOW SCENES
Sleepy Hollow is the narrow valley of the Pocantico Creek which flows into the Hudson about half a mile above Tarrytown.



This quiet spot was made famous



the world over by Washington Irving's tale of Ichabod Crane and his unsuccessful wooing of Katrina Van Tassel. Irving's description of Sleepy Hollow as



"little valley, or rather a lap of land, among high hills, which is one of the quietest spots in the whole world" yet remains true.
across the Pocantico over which galloped the wretched schoolmaster with the Headless Horseman in mad pursuit.



The lower view shows the bridge




RIVER FROM KINGSLANDS POINT. TARRYTOWN
Kingsland's Point projects into the Hudson just north of Tarrytown. It is marked by a lighthouse. Here the river has widened into the broad Tappan Zee. so
named by the early Dutchmen, from the Tappan Indians whom they found along its western shore. This beautiful expanse of water, over two miles wjde. is a
pleasing relief from the monotony of the Palisades, and il lined on both sides with places famous in history or in the romances of the Genius of iunnyside.




MONUMENT COMMEMORATING THE CAPTURE OF ANDRE, TARRYTOWN
Half way to Sleepy Hollow on Broadway stands this fine monument surmounted by a bronze statue of John Paulding. The inscription reads: "On this spot the
25th day of of September, 1780, the Spy, Major John Andre, Adjutant General of the British Army, was captured by John Paulding, David Williams and Isaac Van
Wart all Natives of this County." Andre had safely passed the American pickets and was left by Dr, Smith almost within sight of the British lines. He ">«•=
stopped by the three men, an irregular outpost, who searched him and discovered the incriminating papers in his stockings. Andre was sentenced by
martial and hung as a spy upon a hilltop in Tappan. His three captors were awarded medals and pensions by Congress.



was
court-




STONE HOUSE ON TREASON HILL. HAVERSTRAW
This old stone house was the scene of the culmination of the negotiations between General Benedict Arnold and Major John Andre for the surrender to the British
leader, Sir Henry Clinton, of West Point and other important defences held by the American forces. It stands prominently on the hillside about a mile north of the
Hmverstraw station on the West Shore Railroad. The eminence is known as Treason Hill. Here Andre passed the day of September 22. 1780. after the early
departure of the traitor to his post. In the evening accompanied by Dr. Joshua Hett Smith, his host. Andre set forth to pass the American lines, an attempt
frustrated by three patriots near Tarrytown.




STONY POINT
The rocky promontory of Stony Point, brilliant in American History, juts forth from the west bank of the Hudson about three miles below Peekskill. It was
strongly fortified by the British during the Revolution. Washington determined upon its capture and assigned Mad Anthony Wayne to the task. who. on the
evening of July 16. 1779. silently led 1.200 Americans to the base of the hill. The assault began at midnight. In the face of a fierce storm of bullets and grape the
patriots swept over the parapet and carried the works with the bayonet. Five hundred prisoners and nearly $200,000 worth of ordnance and supplies were captured.
Thirty-three acres, covering the field of the exploit, were purchased by the State of New York a few years ago, A lighthouse now crowns the eminence.




SOUTHERN GATEWAY TO THE HIGHLANDS OF THE HUDSON
The "Southern Gateway" is formed by Dunderberg (Thunder Mountain) on the left bank and Manito on the right, both rising to an altitude of more than 1,000
feet. Beyond Manito is the profile of Anthony's Nose. During the Revolution the river was strongly defended here where the banks were high and curved and
the rough nills were a protection against flank attacks. In 1777, between Dunderberg and Bear Mount, Sir Henry Clinton lead the British and Hessians to a
successful assault on Forts Clinton and Montgomery, and by the same road, in 1779, the Continentals of Mad Anthony Wayne marched silently to the brilliant
capture of Stony Point.




DUNDERBERG FROM PEEKSKILL

The pretty town of Peekskill, settled by the Dutch in 1664. is located upon the eastern bank of the Hudson almost directly opposite Dunderberg Mountain. Here
the river makes a great sweep through the "Southern Gateway to the Highlands." The enormous mass of the Dunderberg and Bear Mountains fills the western
horizon, it was upon Dunderberg in the good old times that the rollicking goblins were wont to make merry during the sudden thunder-gusts which swept down
from the Highlands upon the old Dutch river navigators.




ANTHONY'S NOSE
The curious ridge, 1.228 feet high, which slopes down to the river on the right above Manito bears the extraordinary name of Anthony's Nose. Just why is
hardly understood by sober-minded historians, although Irving has made the matter the subject of one of his droll Knickerbocker traditions. In 1777 a boom and
chain were moored from Anthony's Nose to a point of rocks on the west bank, near the present iron railroad bridge, yet known as Chain Point. This obstruction
was destroyed by the British after the capture of the highland forts.




THE HUDSON FROM WEST POINT

West Point, about 50 miles from New York, was an important fortified post during the Revolution. It is now famous as the seat of the United States Military
Academy, the finest military college in the world. Nearly 5.000 Cadets have graduated since its formal opening in 1802. From the Siege Batteries looking north
may be obtained a wonderful view of the "Northern Gateway." with Old Cro' Nest and Storm King on the left and Bull Hill (Mount Taurus) and Breakneck on the
right. In 1779 a chain was stretched across the Hudson from Gee's Point to Constitution Island which appears at the right foreground of view. Sixteen links of
this chain arc preserved at Trophy Point




LIGHTHOUSE AND OLD CRC NEST
The massive rounded crags of Old Cro" Nest overshadow the left bank of the Hudson a few miles above West Point. The name, probably suggested by the
abundance of crows which frequent the summit, is applied to the whole ridge which fronts the river for a distance exceeding two miles and attams a height of 1,416
feet at the highest point. Cro* Nest has a place in American literature, being the scene of Joseph Rodman Drake's classic fairy story in verse, "The Culprit Fay."





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STORM KING

North of Old Cro' Nest, the dome-like bulk of Storm King guards the western bank of the "Northern Gateway to the Highlands of the Hudson." This great
mass of rock towers 1.629 feet high. It was known to the early Dutch as The Klinkerberg (Echo Mount) and to later prosaic generations as Butter Hill from
its fancied resemblance to a huge pat of butter. Storm King is an unfailing weather-gauge to the surrounding country and its present dignified name, given by the
poet Nathaniel P. Willis, is singularly appropriate.




NORTHERN GATEWAY TO THE HIGHLANDS OF THE HUDSON
The majestic "Northern Gateway" rivals the "Southern Gateway" in grandeur. On the eastern bank the rugged front of Breakneck Mountain rises to a total
height of 1.787 feet, a counterpart of Storm King on the opposite shore. Back of Breakneck appears the flank of Mount Taurus, and in the rear of Storm King
looms the ridge of Old Cro' Nest and the hills of West Point in the distance. Pollopel's Island lies at the foot of Breakneck. It was once the custom among the
old river captains to souse the new hands when passing Pollupel's to make them immune against the Highland goblins.




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TOWER OF VICTORY. NEWBURGH
Erected to commemorate the disbandment of the victorious American Army at
Ncwbureh in 1783. It stands in the northeast corner of the Headquarters grounds,
and is 63 feet high. In the center of the atrium is a bronze statue of Washin'^ton
The memorial cost $67,000.



TEMPLE HILL MONUMENT. NEW WINDSOR
The camp ground of the American Army in 1782-3 was near Temple Hill a few
miles from Newburgh. Peace was proclaimed in a large public building on this
eminence, and from here the soldiers marched home on furloughs which became
perpetual. This monument, erected by the people of the neighboring towns, marks
the Bite.




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THE HUDSON AT NEWBURGH, 1809
During the passage of centuries since the "Half Moon" with a fair wind sailed by this portion of the Hudson described by Juet. the mate, as "in the midst of
sublimest scenery" its natural beauty has not suffered seriously from the hand of man. The artist shows the Hudson at Ncwburgh was fair to look upon in
Fulton's time, and the attractive city of today has been selected as a central point for the rendezvous of the naval pageants participating in the festivities of this
year. While the replicas of the "Half Moon" and "Clermont" and attendant vessels lie in beautiful Newburgh Bay, a general celebration takes place in the Hlll-
■idc City.




RONDOUT CREEK AND THE HUDSON
In 1675 the Dutch New Netherland Company chose the meetins-place of the waters of Rondout Creek and the Hudson as the site of one of their fortified trading
posts, hence the name of the town of Rondout. now incorporated as a part of the city of Kingston. Here landed the British expedition to destroy Kingston. Tfie
hills along Rondout Creek are noted for their cement rock which is mined. prcii.i;ef| fui maikct anrl shipped m enormous quantities. The mouth of the Creek is
well-protected by strong breakwaters and a lighthouse.




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cUh\ (liissioiM? luniseabMiil M>76. WheicindM
SI^.N ATEol STATE ofM:>\ ^OUkwaslield
in E. KINGSTON
The Old Senate House is the most interesting of the many historical buildings yet standinj; in Kingston. Here the twenty-four members of the first Senate of
New York State met September 10, 1777, and were in session until the burning of the town by the British the following month. The sturdy walls of the old
structure withstood the flames and it was repaired. It afterward became the home of Gen. John Armstrong, Secretary of War in President Madison's Cabinet.
The State purchased the property a few years ago. and the building now contains a valuable museum of colonial and revolutionary relics.




THE OLD STATE HOUSE, ALBANY
The first legislature to convene in Albany met in 1797. No especial building was completed for the use of the lawmakers until 1808 when the Old State House
was erected on the hill in front of the site of the present magnificent State Capitol. In half a century the old structure became cramped quarters and m 1878 the
legislature removed to the unfinished newer building. The Old State House is now used in connection with the Capitol by the State Comptroller and btate Engineer.




ENTRANCE TO WATERVLIET ARSENAL, WATERVLIET



At Watervliet across the Hudson from Troy, is located the famous Watervliet Arsenal, one of the great manufactories of the United States Government for the
tnaUin^of ordnance and ordnance supplies. Here is a thoroughly equipped modern gun-shop from which has been turned out the largest gun ever built in the vrorld.
The Arsenal and grounds now embrace about 100 acres of land. During the Civil War 1,500 men were employed here.




INTERESTING SIGHTS NEAR TROY
The Old Waterford Bridge, crossing the Hudson between Troy and Waterford. was completed in 1804 at a cost of $50,000. It is 800 feet long and 30 feet wide.
For many years it was the finest bridge in the country. The Old Burden Water-wheel was designed and constructed by Henry Burden in 1838-39. This "Niagara
of Water-wheels" is of the overshot variety, is 60 feet in diameter and has 1.200 horse power. Around the periphery are 36 buckets, 6 feet 3 inches deep. It is
not used at this time. The Burden Falls are an interesting beauty spot south of Troy.









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COHOES FALLS AT COHOES— "THE SPINDLE CITY"
These magnificent Falls, 90 feet high, are less than a mile from the center of the busy manufacturing city of Cohoes — situated a few miles northwest of Troy on
the banks of the Mohawk near its junction with the Hudson. These Falls, aside from their picturesque beauty, afford a cheap and never-failing water power for
the great manufactories of the city. Here arc the "Harmony Mills" with nearly 300.000 spindles, employing 3500 persons, and turning out about 2.000.000 yards
of cotton goods each week. Near this point the Mohawk is crossed by a fine double-truss iron bridge, 900 feet long, affording a rare view of the Falls.



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Online LibraryEdward JohnsonThe Hudson River → online text (page 1 of 1)