University of California
Form L 1
This book is DUE on the last date stamped below
JUL Z 1 1&24
^PH 2 4 192S
MAY 1 o 192i,
to I M f
JUN 2 9 1S2?
U..;;?r:SITY OP C.UFORNIA
LOS ANGELES. CALlF,
EDWARD K. SI RONK;, J;
Professor of Vocational lUuca^ioa
Carneg;ie Institute of Technology
WARWICK & YORK, Inc.
Warwick & York, inc.
Warwick & York. inc.
To My Father and Mother
PREFACE I q, p t^
Certain principles have been established as fundamental to good
teaching. Theoretically, all psychologists are agreed that a course of
study should proceed from the known to the unknown and from the
concrete to the general ; that students should learn by doing ; that the
problem or project method of teaching is superior to memorization of a
textbook ; that functional not faculty psychology should be taught ; that
individual differences in students should be taken into account ; that a
beginning course should be designed for the benefit of the great ma-
jority who never go farther; etc.
The aim of this course is to meet these and other ideals of teaching
in an introductory course of psychology designed primarily for the
use of prospective teachers. Instead of beginning with the most
uninteresting phases of psychology and those most unknown to stu-
dents, the course takes up concrete experiences of everyday life,
relates them to the problems of learning and individual differences, and
so develops these two topics. Each general principle is discovered by
the student out of his own experience in solving specially organized
problems. Only after he has done his best is he expected to refer
to the text and by then the text is no longer basic but only supple-
mentary, clearing up misunderstandings and broadening the whole
viewpoint. Behavior as a whole is considered from the start ; grad-
ually it is subdivided and subdivided, so that finally such topics as
"memory" or "attention" can be discussed without fixing in the mind
of the student the idea that they are separate entities. And in general
the course is prepared on the assumption that the majority of students
are never going to specialize in psychology and should consequently
be given the most interesting and useful facts and principles of psy-
chologv, regardless of whether or not they are usually reserved for
As the author has planned it, this course is followed by two com-
panion courses. The first covers the general topics of how to re-
member, how to get attention, economical learning, analysis and
reasoning, method of teaching, drill and thought work, development
of ideals, how to study, etc. The second course takes up man's
instinctive equipment and applies both the instinctive and habitual
principles of behavior to social, educational and industrial problems.
Following such a broad survey of the most useful phases of psychology,
can come the m.ore detailed and systematic study of psychology on the
part of students who are genuinely interested and can devote more
than a year to the subject.
Xli INTRODUCTORY I'SYCHOLOGY FOR TEACHRRS
The course is conducted in a radically different way from prevailing:
courses. The student is immediately introduced to problems of be-
havior taken as a whole and only after he is fairly familiar with psy-
chological procedure, terminology and point of view is he given his
psychological background. The odd numbered lessons present prob-
lems to be solved and the even numbered lessons supply in a general
way answers to the problems, together with a broader interpretation of
the facts than the average student will discover for himself. For ex-
ample, Lesson 7 outlines the familiar mirror-drawing experiment.
This is performed, say on Monday. That night the experiment is written
up and handed in at the class-hour on Tuesday . That hour is devoted
to a general discussion of what was discovered in the experiment on the
learning process. At the close of the hour Section No. 4 is g^ven the
class containing lessons 8 and 9. The class reads over Lesson 8 on
Tuesday evening. .\t the next class-hour Lesson 9 is taken up in the
laboratory in the same way as Lesson 7. Each topic is handled as
follows: (i) the student performs an experiment illustrating the prin-
ciple to be emphasized, (2) he solves the problem as best he can an<l
hands in his report, (3) he has the benefit of a class discussion upon
the subject at the next class-hour, (4) he reads over what the author
has to say on the subject, (5) he receives back his own corrected
paper on the subject, (6) he reviews the subject once about every eight
class-periods. All class discussion is based upon the laboratory experi-
ences, not upon the author's presentation of the subject. The latter
is only a supplementary aid, to correct misunderstandings and to fur-
nish the student a standard by which to check his own work.
Individual diiTerences are amply provided for in such a procedure.
The poor student obtains a concrete grasp of the main ix)ints of the
course. The able and industrious student adds to this minimum a very
much broader and more detailed understanding of the whole subject.
The rate of progression is such that even the ablest student realizes that
he is not getting all that there is in the course. All are thereby stimu-
lated in a way that is not true when the rate is slow enough to discuss
thoroughly every detail mentioned in the text.
The course can be conducted as a 4-hour coutm.' over one quarter,
or 2 hours over two quarters, or 3 hours over one semester. The laiiora-
tory equipment can he su[)plied for $100.
The text is printed as a book or in the form of 17 lxx>klets. The
advantage of the booklets is to prevent the student reading ahead.
This is important as the even numbered lessons contain the answers to
most of the problems. Where students read ahead they lose the train-
ing resulting from working problems out for themselves. Experience
has shown thcv do about as good work as those who do not read aheati
during this first course. In the second course, however, they commence
to fall by the wayside, due to a lack of grasp of the subject matter
which is secured by students who work out the y)rinciples for them-
So many have been of general inspiration and help in this work that
space will not permit special mention of their services. Several who
have used the text in its mimeographed form have aided in a very
definite way in revising and clarifying sections. They are : Miss Kate
Anthony, vState Normal School. Cape Girardeau, Mo.; Professor
C. M. Faithful, Tennessee College, Murfree.sboro, Tenn. ; Pro-
fessor S. C. Garrison, ("ieorge Peabody College for Teachers; Profes-
sor W. A. McCall, Teachers' College, Columbia University, and Profes-
sor J. Roemer. Sam Houston Normal Institute. Huntsville. Texas.
Professor Y. Shoninger. George Peabody College for Teachers, helped
me very considerably in writing up the description of a "sight-sijelling
lesson." To all these 1 owe very much. But I owe most to my wife,
who has aided botli in matters of expression and of content and has
checked tables and "proof read" every new form of the material,
whether script. ty]>ed or mimeographed or printer's proof.
I desire also to express my appreciation for the courtesy of authors
and publishers for permission to reproduce illustrations. I am indebted
to The \merican Book Company for a figure from D. J. Hill's 'The
Elements of Psychology' : to Dr. S. A. Courtis and the Department of
Education. University of Indiana, for a figure from the 'Second In-
diana Educational Conference Report' ; to Dr. Cotn-tis and The World
Book Company, for figures from 'Standard Practice Tests': to Dean
I. R. Angell and Henry Holt and Company for figures from 'Psychol
ogy'; to Dr. J. D. T.ickley and Longsmans. Green and Company, for a
figure from 'The Nervous System'; to Dr. W. B. Pillsbury and The
Macmillan Company for a figure from "Fundamentals of Psycholc^y' ;
and to Dr. K. L. Thorndike for figures from 'Educational Psychology',
CarneLHo Institute of Technology. August i. loio.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
What is Phycliology ? i 5
THE LHARXINC; PROCESS
Silnatif'ii, Bond, Response â€” Sicjlit Spelling Lesson _â– 15 ^
Learning the alphabet â€” How to porforni an experiment â€” How to
plot a learning curve â€” How to v.rite up an experiment â€”
Characteristics of learning curves 5 23
Learning Mirror-Drawing â€” Speed and accuracy â€” Plateaus.... 7 32
Different Types of Learning 9 42
Review fo At>
Attitude, Feeling and Method as Related to Learning 11 48
Learning a Vocalml.'iry â€” Rote n-ieni<ir\ â€” \>>nei;(live shifting.. 12 57
Retention â€” Effect of time interval upon retention â€” Relearning
Primary and secondary retention â€” Memory span J5 69
Factors Affecting Strength of Bond â€” Repetition â€” interference â€”
Intensity â€” Reorganization â€” Recenc.v â€” Effect 17 Sf
Reflexes. Instincts, Habits â€” General Summary â€” Review lO 02
I X DI VI DUAL DIFFERENCES
The Average Deviation as a Measure of Individual DifTerences. . 20 oS
Individual Differences as Found in (a) Mirror-Drawing, (b)
Kansas Silent Reading Test, (c) Simple arithmetical
processes 21 1 oo-
22 J 03
Effect of Environment. Here<lily and Training 24 U5
Normal Surface of Distribution â€” Theory of â€” Applied to typical
individual differences â€” Overlapping of children in the grades 25 I2(<-
4 IXTKOlH'CiOkV I'SVCllOKOC.Y I'OU TKAClI liKS
TABLli UF COXTEXTS (Continued)
Methods of Grading Students 2/ 140
I>iagnosis of Ability in terms of Learning Curves â€” Diagnosis of
ahililyâ€” Use of learning curves in teaching 28 143
Udividual Dififerences and Educational Procedureâ€” Courtis
Standard Practice Tests ^ 30 I59
Coefficient of Correlation 3^ 169
Review 32 I77
SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF PSYCHOLOGY
Introduction 34 180
Mechanism by which Situations Stimulate Usâ€” Cutaneous and
kinaesthctic sense-organsâ€” The eyeâ€”Other sense-organs 35 184
Space Perception 37 201
Mechanism by which Responses are Madeâ€” -Muscular action-
Fatigue and exhaustion ' 38 205
Mechanism of the Connecting Systemâ€” The neurone and
synapseâ€” The lower and intermediate levelsâ€” The upper level 40 215
Summary 41 228
(General Review of the Course 42 229
LESSON 1â€” WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY?*
Some 01 you are doubtless familiar with the story from which the
follovvin<;- im-i(lent is quoted. â€¢ Rut it bears repeating'.
S2un had never told his love; he was, in fact, sensitive about it.
This meeting with the lady was by chance, and altho it afforded
exquisite moments, his heart was beating in an unaccustomed man-
ner, and he was suffering from embarrassment, being at a loss, also,
for subjects of conversation. It is, indeed, no easy matter to chat
easily with a person, however lovely and beloved, who keeps her
face turned the other way, maintains one foot in rapid and con-
tinuous motion thru an arc seemingly perilous to her equilibrium, and
confines her responses, both affirmative and negative, to "U-huh."
Altogether, Sam was sufficiently nervous without any help from
Penrod, and it was with pure horror that he heard his own name and
Mabel's shrieked upon the ambient air with viperish insinuations.
"Sam-my and May-bul! Oh, Oh!"
Sam started violently. Mabel ceased to swing her foot, and both
encarnadined, looked up and down and everywhere for the in-
visible but well-known owner of that voice. It came again, in
"Sammy's mad, and I am glad,
And I know what will please him,
A bottle of wine to make him shine,
And Mabel Rorebeck to squeeze him!"
"Fresh old thing!" said Miss Rorebeck, becoming articulate.
And, unreasonably including Sam in her indignation, she tossed
her head at him with an unmistakable effect of scorn. She began to
"Well. Mabel." said Sam plaintively, following, "it ain't my fault.
I didn't do anything. It's Penrod."
"I don't care â€” " she began pettishly, when the viperish voice was
*The relationship between class-room work and assignments will be shown in each
Section by an outline, as follows:
Discuss Lesson I
Visit Ist Grade
6 INTRODUCTORY PSYCHOLOGY TOR TEACHERS
"Oh. oh. oh!
Who's your beau?
Guess I know:
Mabel and Sammy, oh, oh, oh!
I caught you!"
Then Mabel did one of those things which eternally perplex the
slower sex. She deliberately made a face, not at the tree behind
which Penrod was lurking but at the innocent and heartwrung Sam.
"You needn't come limpin' after me, Sam Williams!" she said, tho
Sam was approaching upon two perfectly sound legs. And then
she ran away at the top of her speed.
"Run, nigger, run â€” " Penrod began inexcusably. But Sam cut
the persecutions short at this point. Stung to fury, he charged upon
the sheltering tree in the Schofield's yard.*
Why is it that this account is interesting to us? Why did Sam and
Mabel enjoy bein^- together? Why were they so nervous and uneasy?
Why did Penrod call out as he did? Why did Mabel get mad at Sam?
Why did she run away? Why did Sam get mad? What happened
when Sam reached Penrod?
At this point some of my students have seemed to stop and, with
lifted eyebrows, to question silently, "Is this a game of twenty ques-
tions? and twenty foolish questions at that? Can this be psychology?
It is. All these questions are real psychological problems, quite as
pertinent to the science of psychology as the dignified and dry-as-
dust queries you doubtless expected.
What then is i^sychology?
In commencing any new course of study it is necessary to have some
idea of what the whole thing is about. At the same time it is ex-
tremely difficult to obtain a clear notion since most of the details arc
unknown to the beginner. It is only after one has experienced details
that he is in a position to understand any summary of them. Conse-
quently the following definition is just to aid the student in orienting
himself. Only toward the end of the course will he be prei)ared to
grasp its full meaning.
Psychology may best be defined as the science of behavior.
There is the definition. The matters dealt with in the next ten sec-
tions will give some of the various fields included in its bounds.
( 1 ) A crowd surrounded the automobile of Dr. John Linder of
1509 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn, yesterday, when the physician
stopj)ed at Glenmore and Vesta Avenues after a dog had dodged
beneath the auto's wheels and had been killed. There were men and
"Booth Tarlcinglon - "Penrod and Sam," 1916, pp. 220-222.
LESSON I 7
women in the throng and they seemed to think that the physician
had not tried to avoid the dog.
Dr. Linder endeavored to explain that the most expert of motor-
ists could not have dodged the dog, which ran barking beside the
wheels of his auto and finally slipped under them. The crowd
muttered angrily about motorists who had no thought for human
lives, let alone the life of a dog, and Dr. Linder, realizing that the
crowd soon might become dangerous, tried to start his car.
His action aroused several men in the crowd who had been work-
ing themselves into a fury, and one of them struck out at the doctor
with his fist. The physician ducked, and reaching in his pocket,
jerked out a glittering object of nickel which he thrust into his as-
sailant's face, exclaiming: â€”
"Stand off. Get back from this car. I'll shoot the first man who
interferes with me."
The man who had struck at the physician, with all the rest of the
crowd, fell back hastily, and Dr. Linder, seizing the opportunity,
applied the power to his car and slipped away. John Cargill, a
blacksmith of the neighborhood, noted the number of the doctor's
car, however, and hurried to the New Jersey Avenue Court where
he got a summons for the physician, calling on him to show cause
why he shouldn't be punished for violation of the Sullivan Law
against carrying weapons. The physician had scarcely arrived at his
home when the summons was served and he hurried back to court
in his automobile.
Cargill was present and Dr. Linder, after explaining the accident
to Magistrate Naumer, declared that Cargill had been particularly
"He had a mob at his back," said the doctor, "and I was really
afraid they would attack me."
"But your revolver?" questioned Magistrate Naumer. "Do you
not know that under the present law you may not carry a weapon
without a permit?"
"Why, I only threatened the crowd with this," replied the phy-
sician as he pulled something from his pocket and snapped it into
the Magistrate's face. There was a small report, and Magistrate
Naumer clutched spasmodically at the desk in front of him. Then
he burst into a laugh as he observed the glittering nickel cigar
lighter which Dr. Linder held in his hand.
Dr. Linder would not make a charge against Cargill, and the
smith hurried out of the courtroom to the accompaniment of laugh-
ter in which every one joined.'^
*.\ew York Times, 1 I I
8 INTRODUCTORY PSYCHOLOGY FOR TRACHERS
Why should a crowd become ani^rv because a dog had been killed r
Would Cargill have become as angry if he had been alone as he did
when surrounded by a crowd ? Why did the crowd think Dr. Linder had
a gun ? Why did Cargill want the doctor arrested ? Why did the crowd
in the courtroom all laugh at Cargill ? Why have you also enjoyed Car-
(2) A frequent sight is that of little boys fighting. Why do
they like to fight? Why does a woman want to stop them fighting?
Why will men pay half a million dollars to sit in the broiling sun
and see a prize fight?
(3) Consider any advertisement before you. What situation is
depicted? Does it in any way express your feelings? Could the ad-
vertisement be changed so that it would present a situation that
would make you really want the commodity advertised?
(4) Consider the following cases: â€”
( I ) A college professor discovers that a wealthy old bach-
elor keeps a large amount of money hidden in his house. After
weeks of clever work he discovers where this money is kept and
finally obtains a pass key. One night he enters the house, secures
the money and on being discovered by the bachelor, kills him.
(2) A young man by the name of Black from a prominent
family is engaged to marry Miss Smith. Mr. Jones, altho knowing of
the engagement, deliberately makes love to Miss Smith and event-
ually supplants Black. WTien Black discovers the fact, in a fury
of rage, he kills Jones.
(3) C is attacked bj - a burglar in his own home and after a
struggle, kills the burglar.
(4) D recklessly drives his auto thru the streets of a village
and kills a young boy.
(5) E attacks two little boys in the woods and after tor-
turing them for sometime, finally cuts one of them to pieces with
In these five cases a man has killed another human being. Each is a
murderer. Why shouldn't all be hung for their crime? Your answer,
of course, is that the circumstances are different. Can we conclude
that the five men are different sorts of men on the basis of the drcum-
stances which are presented? How can we evaluate their conduot? in
terras of their action, or in terms of the situations which confronted
Ihem, or in terms of both situation and response ?
(5) All respectable school teachers spend some time every
year condemning prize fights, bull fights, gambling, drinking, etc.
LESSON 1 9
Elspecially is this true of women teachers. Yet two of my acquaint-
ances when visiting the exposition at San Diego several years ago.
rode down to Tia Juana, in Mexico, and very much enjoyed a
prize hght, lost a quarter at each of the gambling tables in the
"joint" there, and afterwards loudly berated their fate because
they arrived too late for the bull-fight. Is it conceivable that the
diflFerence in the situations which confront them at home, in the
school, or at Tia Juana, is responsible for strong condemnation of a
prize fight in one place and attendance at and enjoyment of one in
Do you think it possible to set down all the details making up the
situation which confronts one and then to record the response made
to this complex situation? If we knew all the details would we be
able to prophesy what a person would do? Cannot I be certain that
you will say to yourself "7" ^nd then "cat" after reading the next two
sentences ? What does 3 and 4 make ? What does c-a-t spell ?
(6) A man, walking with a friend in the neighborhood of a
country village, suddenly expressed extreme irritation concerning
the church bells, which happened to be pealing at the moment. He
maintained that their tone v/as intrinsically unpleasant, their har-
mony ugly, and the total effect altogether disagreeable. The friend
was astonished, for the bells in question were famous for their singu-
har beauty. He endeavored, therefore, to elucidate the real cause un-
derlying his companion's attitude. Skilful questioning elicited the
further remark that not only were the bells unpleasant but that the
clergyman of the church wrote extremely bad poetry. The causal
'complex*' was then apparent, for the man whose ears had been
offended by the bells also wrote poetry, and in a recent criticism his
work had been compared very unfavorably with that of the clergy-
man. The "rivalry-complex" thus engendered had expressed itself
indirectly by an unjustifiable denunciation of the innocent church
bells. The direct expression would, of course, have been abuse of
the clergyman himself or of his works.
It will be observed that, without the subsequent analysis, the be-
haviour of the man would have appeared inexplicable, or at best
ascribable to "bad temper. " "irritability, " or some other not very
satisfying reason. Most cases where sudden passion over some trifle
is witnessed may be explained along similar lines, and demonstrated
to be the effect of some other and quite adequate cause. The ap-
parently incomprehensible reaction is then seen to be the natural
resultant of perfectly definite antecedents.*
Â«B. Hart, The Psychology of Insanity. 1912, p. 73-7-J
10 INTRODUCTORY I'SVCHOLOGY 1-*0R TEACHERS
Did }0u ever "fly off the handle" at a perfectly innocent jierson?
Have you ever ridiculed a person's clothes when the only trouble with
the clothes was that the wearer had beaten you out in an examination?
If your friends w^ere aware of one or more of such complexes, as
Hart has described above, would it help them in understanding your
conduct? Would it help them to prophesy what you would do next?
(7) Now I want to be a nice, accommodating patient; anything
from sewing on a button, mending a net, or scrubbing the floor, or
making a bed. I am a jack-of-all-trades and master of none!
(Laughs; notices nurse.) But I don't like women to wait on me
when I am in bed; I am modest; this all goes because I want to get
married again. Oh, I am quite a talker; I work for a New York
talking machine company. You are a physician, but I don't think
you are much of a lawyer, are you? I demand that you send for a
lawyer. 1 want him to take evidence. By God in Heaven, my
Saviour, I will make somebody sweat! I worked by the sweat of
my brow. (Notices money on the table.) A quarter; twenty-five
cents. IN GOD we trust; United States of America; Army and
The preceding paragraph and the one that follows are verbatim
copies of the remarks of tw.o different individuals. The former is that
of a maniac and illustrates what is called "flight of ideas" ; the latter is
that of a dementia praecox patient and illustrates "incoherent speech."
"What liver and bacon is I don't know. You are a spare; the
spare; that's all. It is Aunt Mary. Is it Aunt Mary? Would you
look at the thing? What would you think? Cold cream. That's all.
Well, I thought a comediata. Don't worry about a comediata. You