Edward Lear.

Journals of a landscape painter in southern Calabria, &c online

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JOURNALS



A LANDSCAPE PAINTER.



/




'''HJ.VJ.S KVKOtt



JOURNALS



or



IN



SOUTHERN CALABRIA,

&C.



BY EDWARD LEAR,

AUTHOR OF "JOURNALS OP A LANDSCAPE PAINTER IN ALBANIA," ETC.



RICHARD BENTLEY, NEW BURLINGTON STREET,

^ubltsfjcr in rtrinatg to P?er fHajestg.
1852.



LONDON :
BRADBURY AND EVANS, PRINTERS, WHITEFR1ARS.





PREFACE.

To the present Volume of Journals but little
preface is requisite : they were written during
tours made in the autumn of 1847, throughout
the southern of the three Calabrian Provinces,
and in that of Basilicata.

Few places visited by the author have not
already been fully described in the accurate
and interesting travels of the Hon. Keppel
Craven.* Mr. Swinburne has written a
notice f of many places in Calabria, though
his observations are principally confined to the



* " A Tour through the Southern Provinces of the Kingdom of
Naples," by the Hon. E. Keppel Craven. 1821.

t " Travels in the Two Sicilies," by Henry Swinburne, Esq.
1785.



vi PREFACE.

coast ; and the western road by the sea has
been well and amusingly treated of in a little
book called " A Tour in Calabria," by Arthur
Strutt. * The older notices f of the province
are so confused or so cumbrous, as to be little
read or known.

While some villages in this, the most southerly
portion of the beautiful kingdom of Naples,
have, however, hitherto remained unexplored by
Englishmen, and others, till now unillustrated
by views, are for the first time made known to
the public, the general aim of the writer to
make his journal a Landscape-painter's Guide-
Book will stand as an apology for his having
sometimes described ground already better
treated of in the above-mentioned works.

The mode of travel which I and my fellow-



* "A Pedestrian Tour in Calabria and Sicily," by Arthur J.
Strutt. 1842.

t Alberti (Era Leandro), " Descrit. di tutta 1' Italia." Venetia :
1596.

P. Marafioti(Grirolamo),"Antichitadi Calabria." Padova: 1601.

Griustimani, " Dizionario del Eegno di JSapoli." 1797.



PREFACE. vii

wanderer adopted while these journals were
written, was the simplest, as well as cheapest
we performed the whole tour on foot ;
except that in Basilicata some of the high
roads were well got over in a carriage. In
Calabria, a horse to carry our small amount of
baggage, and a guide, cost us, altogether, six
carlini daily* no very heavy expenditure ; but
as there are no inns in that province except on
the coach-road, which skirts the western coast,
the traveller depends entirely on introductions
to some family in each town he visits.

The tour in the more northern provinces
was undertaken under somewhat different
circumstances. The long journeys on the high
road, or over the plains near the east coast of
Italy, do not offer sufficient inducement to
pedestrian exercise. In no country, perhaps,
can greater contrasts be found, than between
the far-stretched campagna of Apulia or the



Little more than two shillings.



viii PREFACE.

dreary ridges of part of Basilicata, and the
fertile gardens, the wondrous coast scenes, or
the purple gorges of the heart of Calabrian
mountains.

Wishing to confine these journals strictly
to the consideration of landscape, I have said
as little as possible of events which occurred
in 1848, and their sequel. Yet it is but right
to add, that some provincial families, whose
suspicions and apparent want of hospitality
marked them in our eyes as unlike their com-
patriots, were but too well justified in keeping
themselves aloof from any strangers, whose
motives for visiting this country were but little
understood, and whose presence might possibly
have compromised them in the event of
disturbances which, they may have been aware,
were on the eve of occurring.



LONDON ,

September 15, 1852.



CONTENTS.



CHAPTEE I.

i

Anticipations of Calabrian journeying. Arrival at Eeggio ; Police,
Dogana, &c. The "Giordano" inn. Chances of obtaining
goat's milk. Beautiful situation of Reggio. Its gardens. The
Bergamot orange. The Villetta Musitano. Friendliness of
the Eeggiani. Consigliere da Nava, &c. Introductory letters.
Plans for visiting the interior. Search for a guide. Ciccio
the silent. "Dighi, d6ghi, daghi, da; dogo." Absence of
pointed hats. Departure from Eeggio. Road to Motta San
Giovanni. Don F. Maropoti's house. Conversazione of
neighbours. Opinions about England. Hospitable reception .



CHAPTEE II.

Landscape round Motta San Giovanni. Second day's tour. The
"toe" of Italy. Extensive prospects. Lofty mountains.
First view of Bova. Fiumaras, or dry torrent-beds. Peasants
of the district ; their complaints of the devastation of the river.
Reach Bagaladi. Speculation as to our hosts there. Don
Peppino Panutti and his agreeable wife : their cordiality.
We remain at Bagaladi and postpone Conduf6ri till to-morrow.
Striking scenes in the valley. Village of San Lorenzo.
Cheerful comfort of our host's house. Travels of his wife, and
the cause thereof. Repose of night scene 18



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER III.

Page

Leave Bagaladi, and set out for Conduf6ri. Fatiguing hills.
Bova once more a long way off yet. Woodland scenery.
Tracts of beautiful landscape. Cicadas. Descent to another
fiumara. Arrive at Condufori. .Greek language spoken.
House of Don Giuseppe Tropseano repulse therefrom. Alarm
of the hostess. Our retreat to an osteria. Forlorn Calabrian
accommodations. " Turchi " spectators. Unprepossessing
Cyclopean girl. Pursue our way. Intense amusement of the
silent Ciccio. Ascent to Amendolla. Magnificent prospect.
Laborious ascent. Good-natured peasants. Bova is reached
at last. House of Don Antonio Marzano. Another hospitable
reception . . . . . . . . . .25



CHAPTER IV.

Situation and appearance of Bova. Traditional visit of C. J. Fox
thereto. Kemarks on the origin of the Bovani. Changes about
to take place in the aifairs of Bova. Its Marina, or sea-port.
The Bishop, Delightful quiet and beauty of scenery. Exquisite
view of Etna. Honey. Luxuriance of the prickly pear, or
cactus. Kemain at the Palazzo Marzano. Sonnet by Don
Antonio. Arrangement of places to be visited on the route to
S ta Maria di Potsi. We leave Bova with regret. Descent from
the mountain. The Cyclopean girl of Condufori again. Con-
tinued scenes of forest or valley. Mid-day, and approach to
Palizzi. Its singular situation, and castle. Narrow streets
and stairs : wild Calabrese town. Beautiful Palizzana. Brown
Cupids. The Taverna of Palizzi : its inhabitants and furniture.
Astonishment and questions of the host, &c. Political
motives imputed to wandering artists. Strange appearance of
Palizzi from below. Prickly pears and other difficulties.
Departure from Palizzi. Hill of Pietrapennata : its most



CONTENTS. xi

Page
exquisite forests. Approach to Staiti : its Calabrian character

and singular aspect. Costume of women. Don Domenico
Musitaui : his disagreeable house. Hospitality qualified by
circumstances. Silkworms and their disagreeables. Contrast
between the various abodes in such tours . , 35



CHAPTER V.

Explore Staiti. Feeding among the silkworms. A dinner party.
Silkworm pie, &c. We resolve to return to forests of
Pietrapennata to-morrow. Sociable peasantry. Discomforts of
Staiti. Return to the forests. Extreme beauty and variety of
the environs of Pietrapennata. The Archpriest of the village,
and his hospitable welcome. Return at night to Staiti.
Uncomfortable evening. Speculations on S u Maria di Polsi.
"We descend to the sea-shore again. Reach Motta Bruzzano.
Cultivated grounds. Beautiful bits of scenery. Good wine at
Bruzzano. The silent Ciccio urges us to proceed. Good
qualities of our guide. Extreme heat. Ascent of the hill of
Ferruzzano, and descent to the shore once more. Fatiguing
walk to the convent of Bianco. Disappointment at the monas-
tery. Ascent to Carignano, and halt there. Further ascent
by beautiful woods to S ta Agata di Bianco. The Baron's house.
The usual hospitable welcome with the addition of luxuries
and refinements. Difficulty of passing the evening hours.
The family supper party 52



CHAPTER VI.

Descent from S ta Agata. Glorious scenery : refreshing woods.
We turn towards the Aspromonte mountains. First sight of
San Luca, where a guide for the monastery of Polsi is to be.
procured. Descent to a fiumara, and long walk in it.



CONTENTS.

Page

Oleanders. San Luca. Welcome at the house of Don
Domenico Stranges. Hearty and jovial family of brothers.
Immense amount of questions concerning the produce of
England. Invitations to remain at San Luca. Late start for
the monastery with a guide, besides Ciccio. Ascent of the
stream : grand mountain scenery. Heights of Aspromonte.
Magnificent oleander-trees. Impressive solitudes. Necessity
of haste the day wears. Climb among oak woods. Ascent
to the Serra. Ciccio's forebodings. Darkness overtakes us.
Light of the monastery far below. Descent to its gates.
Pleasant reception by the Superior. Wonder of the monks.
The Superior's lecture upon England and the English. The
Thames Tunnel poetically considered. Conventual accommo-
dations of S ta Maria di Polsi. Storm and wind . 66



CHAPTEE VII.

Mountain mist. Description of the scenery round the monastery.
Simple peasantry of these mountains. Lionising the church
and convent. The Superior and his conversation. We decide
on starting for Gerace to-morrow. Legendary foundation of
the Convent of S u Maria di Polsi. Praises of our guide Ciccio.
Ascent to the Serra, and descent to the valley and fiumara of
San Luca. The brothers Stranges again. More hospitality
and questions. We set off for Bovalino. Tiresome journey by
the fiumara to the sea-shore. Hot sandy paths. Olive-grounds.
Ascent to Bovalino. The Count Garrolo his hospitality and
volubility. Supper and the subdued Contessa . . . .75



CHAPTEE VIII.

View from the heights of Bovalino. Last words of Conte Garrolo.
Descent to the valleys of Ardore ; pursue our road to the
sea-shore again. Arrive at Torre di Gerace. Site of ancient



CONTENTS. xiii

Page
Locris. Ruins. We strike inland towards Gerace. Cross the

fiumara Merico. Long ascent to the picturesque city of Gerace.
Description of Gerace : its frequent earthquakes ; its cathe-
dral, &c. Norman castle. Its inaccessible position. Extensive
prospects. Palazzo of Don Pasquale Seaglione. Agreeable
and hospitable reception. Large rooms and comfortable house.
High winds frequent at Gerace. Beautiful views of Gerace.
Constant occupation for the pencil. Vino Greco of the
Calabrese. Locrian coins. A treatise on ancient Locris, and
our appreciation thereof. The medico of Gerace . . .87



CHAPTEE IX.

"We remain at Gerace, and draw constantly. Evening visit to the
Sott' intendente. Cathedral of Gerace. Church of S. Fran-
cesco. We leave the Palazzo Seaglione, and descend to the
river Novito. Arrangements to return to Gerace, so as to visit
all this province before proceeding to Calabria Ulteriore II.
Town of Siderno ; dress of the women. General civility of the
peasantry and of all orders of people. Descent to the sea-
shore. Magnificent appearance of Eocella. Approach to the
town. Night comes ere we ascend the rock. Search in the
darkness for the Casa Manni. Hospitable reception by the
family of Don Giuseppe Manni. Ancient palace. Our fatigue
and inaptitude at conversation. Endless interrogatories. The
Rocellesi are decided in their opinions as to our native produc-
tions. Their rejection of our fruits and vegetables as wholly
fabulous . 96



CHAPTEE X.

We pass the morning at Eocella Its magnificently picturesque
character. We leave Eocella and the sea-side. Cross the
river Alaro. Eich vegetation. Ascent to Stignano. Vast



r CONTENTS.

Pago

herds of goats. Two pointed hats from the province of
Catanzaro. The family of Don Cicillo Caristo. Evening in
the balcony. Little owls. Hospitality as usual. Somewhat
of dullness. Prospective costumes in Northern Calabria.
Fete of the Madonna. Drums and noise. We grow weary of
Stignano. The dinner. New idea for a valentine; Cupid
among the maccaroni. We set off to Stilo. The river Stillaro.
Grand character and architectural beauty of Stilo. Its
magnificent situation. Its well-kept streets. House of Don
Ettore Marzano. Agreeable host and thoroughly cordial
reception. Difficulty of selecting views among a multitude of
fine points. A visit to Bazzano. Courteous manners of
peasantry. Daily thunderstorm. Agreeable stay at Stilo.
Fly-flappers. Life at Stilo. Conversazione. Plans for con-
tinuing the tour 104



CHAPTEE XI.

Departure from Stilo. Early morning. Town of Motta Placa-
nica. Its extraordinary appearance. Cross the river Alaro.
Ascent to Castel Vetere. Palazzo of Don Ilario Asciutti.
The grandfather of the family ; his eloquence. The dinner.
Discourse on flesh, fowl, and fish. Our host is angry at our
early departure. We appease him, and depart. We descend
the valley of the river Meano. Come in sight of Rocella.
Ascend the river Eomano, and reach Gioiosa at dusk.
Reception at the house of the Baron Eivettini. Interview
with the Baron. Card-playing. Doubts and questions. The
evening meal. " Why ? " Coming events cast their shadows
before 115



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER XII.

Page

The anxious Baron. Passports. Coffee with sugar. Drawing
the town of Gioiosa. Its beautiful situation. " Why ? " Bee-
eaters. Sugar-plums. We leave the Casa Rivettini and
Gioiosa. Eecross the rivers Romano and Novito. Ascent to
Agnano. Copper-mines. Visit of the King of Naples to
them. The fortunate donkey-driver. View of Canalo from
the ravine of the Novito. Strange position of the village.
The Passo del Mercante. Don Giovanni Rosa. His hospitable
welcome. The careful Ciccio. Magnificent mountain scenery
and environs of Canalo. Content and simplicity of old Don
Giovanni Rosa. Paradise and Canalo. Roast squirrels and
fungi. Ornithological cookery. Geographical ornaments of
the Palazzo Rosa. Wondrous and majestic scenes. We leave
Canalo : recross the Novito, and ascend to Gerace. Return
to the Casa Scaglione. Preparations for ftes. Episcopal
injunctions against dancing. Quiet repose of Gerace. Arrival
of peasantry for the fte. Procession of the image of a patron
saint. Beautiful scenery on the castle rock. Moonlight.
ThefSsta 128



CHAPTER XIII.

We leave the Casa Scaglione, and the east side of Calabria Ulte-
riore Prima. Ascend the central ridge of mountains. Come
in sight of the Western sea. Descent to the immense plains
of Gioia, Terranova, &c. Complete change in the character of
the scenery. Dreadful earthquake of 1783. Descent to
Castelnuovo. Reception of Don Vincenzo Tito. Character
of the environs of Castelnuovo. Olive-woods. Plans for
to-morrow. Vast olive-grounds. Town of San Giorgio.
Costume of its female inhabitants. Polistena. Visit to the
house of Morani the painter. Portraits of Sir Walter Scott



i CONTENTS.

Page

and of Pio Nono. Hospitality of Don Vincenzo Tito. De-
parture from Castelnuovo. Road through the olive-woods.
Radiceua. The destroyed town of Terranova. Immense
olive-plains from the mountains to the sea-shore. We reach
Oppido late, and find no friends there. A disagreeable night's
shelter . 146



CHAPTER XIV.

Olive-woods on the way to Gioia. Fiumara, or River Marro.
Burning heat. Rice-grounds. Melon-gardens and elevated
look-out houses. Malaria. King-fishers. "Wearisome walk.
Arrival at Gioia. Its character for very bad air and deadly
fevers. We set off towards Palmi. High-road travelling in
Calabria. Approach to the city of Palmi. View of the
Lipari Isles. The angry landlady and the good inn. Break-
fast. Beautiful situation of Palmi. We send Ciccio to
Bagnara by the road, and go ourselves by sea. Fine coast
scenery. Beautiful position of Bagnara. Carriage-road to
Scilla. Its position. Its rocks and castle. Opinion of
Calabrians of our drawing. Boat to the rock of Scilla.
Squabble with the innkeeper. We leave the town : halt at
Villa San Giovanni. Retrospective glance on our thirty days'
tour, and plans for the future. We reach Reggio once more.
Consigliere da Nava 162



CHAPTER XV.

Arrangements. Ciccio and his pay. Plan to see some fine forests
near Reggio to-morrow ; and to visit Pentedatilo before
starting for the other Calabrian provinces. Morning calls at
Reggio. Set out to Gallicd. Ciccio's house. The village of





CONTENTS. xvii

Page
Calanna. Fine views of the Straits of Messina, and Etna.

We find no fine trees on the hills of Basilico, and return late
to Reggio, We cross to Messina, and I return to Eeggio
alone. I set off by the road to Me"lito, and reach that town
by Ave-Maria. Wonderful views of the crags and town of
Pentedatilo. The discomforts of the house of Don P. Tropaea.
Agitation and distress of his family. The supper. Revela-
tions of revolution. Announcement of disturbances. The
supper party breaks up. The bed-room. The midnight
adventure. I leave M61ito. Ciccio's foreboding silence. The
River Alice. Amazing views of Pentedatilo its ravine and
rocks its strange form. I ascend to the town ; surprise and
alarm of its inhabitants. Proceed to Montebello. Indian
"figs. The revolution and its shadows. "The Peutedatilo
Tragedy," a tale of horrors. Ascent to Motta S. Giovanni
and return to Reggio. Commencement of the revolutionary
movements of 1847-8. Appearance of Reggio. Absurd waiter
at Giordano's hotel. Interview with Consigliere da Nava.
Explanation of various doubts and circumstances throughout
our tour. Processions of the insurgents, &c. An anxious

morning. I escape from Reggio, and reach Messina. P

and I embark for Naples in a Malta steamer. Farewell to
Calabria Ulteriore Prima ! . 180



CHAPTEE XVI.

Return to Calabria not advisable. A tour to Melfi and part of
Apulia resolved on. We set off to Avellino. Travelling with
the eyes open. Beautiful character of the country round
Avellino. Convent of Monte Vergine. Vineyards and villas.
Costume and appearance of the women. Ascent of Monte
Vergine. Historical notices of the convent. Extensive pros-
pect from the mountain. Arrangements for visiting Melfi,
&c. We leave Avellino. Highroads and caratelle. Uninter-
esting drive to the valley of the Galore, and Grotta Minarda.

6



iii CONTENTS.

Page

Anticipations of Apulia. Attempt to reach Frigento.
A guide hired. We leave Grotta Minarda. Unpicturesque
approach to the hill of Frigento. The lonely osteria.
Don Gennaro Fiammarossa and his hotel. We return to
the lonely osteria, and make the best of it. Wheat beds,
with onion curtains. Departure from Frigento. Barren
and dreary scenery. The Lake of Mofette ; its appearance
and qualities. Dead birds. Rocca San Felice. Ascent to
St. Angelo de' Lombardi. No carriages nor carriage-roads.
The old man and his ass. We seize on a roast fowl, and make
ourselves as comfortable as circumstances permit . . . 209



CHAPTEE XVII.

Departure from St. Angelo de' Lombardi. Country expands into
wide grassy downs. Distant view of Monte Voltore. Undu-
lating plains. Arrival at Bisaccia. Inhospitable place.
Difficulty of procuring food. Guide refuses to proceed, and is
bribed by a dish of fish. We leave Bisaccia. Arrive in sight
of the great plains of Apulia. Costume. Nearer view of
Monte Voltore. Eeach Lacedogna. Vain endeavour to hire
a horse. We find a chance vetturino. Monteverde. Fine
views of Monte Voltore. Towns on the mountain : its charac-
ter, lake, &c. Cross the river Ofanto. Enter Basilicata.
Approach to Melfi. Its castle, drawbridge, &c. &c. Signor
Vittorio Manassei. Pleasant reception. Magnificent accom-
modations. Comforts of Melfi. Historical notices of the
city, &c. View from the modern part of the castle. Pic-
turesqueness of Melfi and its environs : agreeable hours
indoors. Doria gallery. Family dinner. The vineyard and
the pergola. The old hall Buttered toast and other Melfi
luxuries. We continue to stay at the castle. Arrangements
for visiting Minervino, Venosa, Monte Voltore, and Castel del
Lago Pdsole. Don Sebastiano il Fattore . 227



CONTENTS.



CHAPTEE XVIII.

Page
Leave Melfi. Eegrets for old Dighi, D6ghi, Da. The magnificent

Don Sebastiano. Lavello. We prefer walking to riding.
Mid-day halt. View of Monte Voltore. Apulian plains
their great flatness and paleness. Approach to Minervino.
Its appearance streets, animation, &c. Plain of Cannse.
Monte Gargano, &c. Don Vincenzino Todesche : his warm
and friendly reception. The family supper. Don Vincen-
zino's hospitable opinions. "Weary ride from Minervino by
the stony Murgie. Immense extent of Apulian pianura.
Eemarkable beauty of Castel del Monte. Its architectural
interest. Eeturn to Minervino. Tradition concerning the
architect of Castel del Monte. We leave Minervino. Eepu-
tation for cordiality enjoyed by the south-eastern provinces
of the Eegno. Halt at Monte Milone. Oak woods. Views
of Venosa and Monte Voltore. Picturesqueness of Venosa :
its streets, &c. Palazzo of Don Nicola Eapolla, and agreeable
reception there. His family. Luxuries and refinements.
The castle of Venosa : its modernised ulterior, prisons, stables,
&c. Agreeable stay at the Casa Eapolla. Venosa Cathedral.
Church of La Trinita. Euined church and monastery of
the Benedictines. Amphitheatre. Another day at the Casa
Eapolla. "We leave Venosa. High roads, commerce, and civi-
lization. Skirts of Monte Voltore. Towns of Eapolla and
Barile. Large town of Eio Nero. Indications of its wealth
and activity. House of Don P. Catena : its comfort and good
arrangements. Our hospitable welcome. Signor Manassei
again. Evening musical party at Eio Nero .... 242



xi CONTENTS.

CHAPTEE XIX.

Page
Visit to the Monastery of San Michele del Voltore. Beautiful

woods. Exquisite scenery, and position of the convent. The
lake. The fe"sta. The pilgrims. Thoughtful attentions of
Don Pasqualuccio Catena. Eain. Noisy night neighbours.
Another morning at the lake and convent. We leave San
Michele. Extreme loveliness of the scene. Return to Eio
Nero. Eoad to Atella. Arrive at Castel del Lago Pesole.
Its situation and slender claims to the picturesque. Italian
evening. Filippoli. Departure from Castel del Lago Pesole.
Avigliano. Potenza. Vietri di Basilicata. Beautiful
scenery. Eboli. Pesto. Eeturn to Naples. Accounts of
the late earthquakes at Melfi, &c. &c 266



ILLUSTRATIONS.

Page
MAP OF CALABRIA ULTERIORE PRIMA (to face title).

REQGIO . v - 6

BOVA 36

PALIZZI 48

FORESTS OF PIETRAPENNATA 56

S. MARIA DI POLSI 76

GERACE 92

ROCELLA . . . . . . . . . - . . " . 104

STILO - . . . 110

GIOIOSA . . . . . '. . . . . . .130

CANALO . . . . . . . ... ." . . 140

SAN GIORGIO . , . .156

PALMI . .- . . . . . -. . , . , . . 172

BAGNARA 174

SCILLA 176

PENTEDATILO 190

MAP OF BASILICATA, &c. (to face half-title) 209

CONVENT OF MONTE VERGINE 214

MELFI 238

CASTEL DEL MONTE 250

VENOSA 258

S. MICHELE DI MONTE VOLTORE . . 268



JOURNALS



A LANDSCAPE PAINTER.



JOURNALS

op

A LANDSCAPE PAINTER IN
CALABRIA, &c.



KINGDOM OF NAPLES.

CALABRIA ULTERIORE PRIMA. (SOUTHERN CALABRIA, OR PROVINCE OF REGGIO.)

CHAPTEE I.

Anticipations of Calabrian journeying. Arrival at Reggio ; Police, Dogana,
&c. The " Giordano " inn. Chances of obtaining goat's milk. Beautiful
situation of Reggio. Its gardens. The Bergamot orange. The Villetta
Musitano. Friendliness of the Reggiani. Consigliere da Nava, &c.
Introductory letters. Plans for visiting the interior. Search for a guide,
Ciccio the silent. "Dighi, ddghi, daghi, da; dogo." Absence of
pointed hats. Departure from Reggio. Road to Motta San Giovanni.
Don F. Mardpoti's house. Conversazione of neighbours. Opinions about
England. Hospitable reception.

July 25, 1847. The very name of Calabria
has in it no little romance. No other province
of the kingdom of Naples holds out such pro-
mise of interest, or so inspires us before we



JOURNALS OF



have set foot within it, for what do we care
for Molise, or Principato ? or what visions are
conjured up by the names of Terra di Lavoro,

or Capitanata ? But Calabria ! * No sooner

is the word uttered than a new world arises
before the mind's eye, torrents, fastnesses, all
the prodigality of mountain scenery, caves,
brigands, and pointed hats, Mrs. Radcliffe



* Calabria is situated at the most southern extremity of the
Kingdom of Naples. Its division into three provinces (the sub-
divisions and population of which will be found below) is of very
recent date. From the thirteenth down to the end of the last


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