Edward Potts Cheyney.

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UNIVERSITY FARM




The Chalk Cliffs



A SHORT HISTORY OF
ENGLAND



BY



EDWARD P. CHEYNEY

PROFESSOR OF EUROPEAN HISTORY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF
PENNSYLVANIA




GTNN & COMPANY

BOSTON NEW YORK - CHICAGO^ LONDON



ENTERED AT STATIONERS' HALL



COPYRIGHT, 1904, BY
EDWARD P. CHEYNEY



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
68.12



TEftc



G1NN & COMPANY PRO-
PRIETORS BOSTON U.S.A.



PREFACE



IN studying and teaching history I have been convinced of the
desirability of making certain fundamental facts absolutely clear
and familiar. An acquaintance with the physical and political
geography of a country makes the events of its history seem real
and natural ; a knowledge of the race elements of a people gives
the strongest impression of the continuity of its history ; a study
of the early political and ecclesiastical organization of a nation
makes comprehensible later changes. I have therefore striven, in
the first place, to give a full and clear description of early insti-
tutions and conditions.

Secondly, I have tried to select from the mass of historical
detail what was significant rather than what was merely conspicu-
ous, what either gave shape and character to a considerable
period of history, or was a clearly marked step in the general
development of the nation. Detached episodes and merely
striking occurrences, especially those in the field of military his-
tory, have been hastened over in order that more attention might
be given to the really great movements and influential men.

Thirdly, I have clung pretty closely to the thread of English
history, only introducing mention of other countries when their
connection with England was especially close. Since England's
story is so long and so eventful, I have felt that it had better here
be told as simply, clearly, and continuously as possible, for its own
sake, rather than to complicate it by including many facts drawn
from the history of other countries.

Finally, I have omitted altogether statements and allusions the
significance of which could not be explained in the book ; and

ill

198630



iv PREFACE

have tried, on the other hand, to give a clear and adequate expla-
nation of all matters that have been taken up. It is true that this
practice may seem to disregard the teacher, who would presumably
be competent to explain those things to which the author alludes
and to interpret what he merely states. On the other hand, the
student must usually deal with the text-book when he is alone,
and may be glad to have everything clear at first ; while the well-
qualified teacher will find a more useful and interesting function in
testing comprehension, providing further illustrations, drawing out
international relations, and adding personal details to the neces-
sarily general statements of the text-book.

The desirability of using outside readings, both of general works
and contemporary sources, in connection with the text-book,
cannot be too strongly urged. Indications of works in which
such readings may be found, further guidance for the teacher's
own study, and suggestions for the preparation of reports on
special topics are added to each chapter. The most useful and
accessible of the works referred to, which might well be provided
in every school library, are named, with their publishers, in an
appended bibliographical list. A book of readings in primary
sources, intended to be used in connection with this text-book,
is being prepared, and will, it is hoped, be of value to teachers
and students in illustrating and giving further significance to the
long and varied history of England.

It remains only to make a grateful acknowledgment to the
many colleagues and friends who have given valuable assistance
and good advice during the preparation of the book, and to those
authors and publishers who have permitted the reproduction of

maps and illustrations.

EDWARD P. CHEYNEY.

UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA,
June 4, 1904.



CONTENTS

PAGE

CHAPTER I. THE GEOGRAPHY OF ENGLAND i

The British Isles. The Coasts and Rivers of England. Sur-
face and Climate. Forests and Swamps. Natural Products.

CHAPTER II. PREHISTORIC AND CELTIC BRITAIN .... 12

Prehistoric Races. Caesar's Invasion and Description of Britain.
The Celtic Races.

CHAPTER III. ROMAN BRITAIN 20

The Roman Conquest. Romanizing of the Province. Growth
of Roman Towns in Britain. Roman Building. Rural Life.
Roads and Industries. Language and Religion. Decay of
Roman Britain. Summary of the Roman Period.

CHAPTER IV. EARLY SAXON ENGLAND (400-830) .... 36

Settlements of the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes. The Early
Kingdoms. The New Race, Language, Religion, and Govern-
ment. Barbarism. The Mission of Augustine. The Conver-
sion of Northumbria and the Scottish Missions. The Synod of
Whitby. Organization of the Christian Church in England.
Revival of Civilization. Internal Strife of the Kingdoms. Nor-
thumbria and Mercia. West-Saxon Overlordship. Summary of
the Early Saxon Period.

CHAPTER V. LATER SAXON ENGLAND (830-975) .... 59

The Incursions of the Danes. Formation of the Danelaw.
The Danes as Traders. King Alfred and his Reforms. Alfred's
Interests and Character. Closer Union of England. Winning
Back of the Danelaw. Rural Life in England in the Tenth
Century. Town Life in the Tenth Century. Literature and
Learning in the Tenth Century. Dunstan. Political Organiza-
tion. Classes and Ranks. Summary of the Late Saxon Period.

v



vi CONTENTS

PAGE

CHAPTER VI. THE DANISH AND THE NORMAN CONQUESTS

(975-1071) 85

Renewed Invasion of the Danes. Danegeld. Reign of Cnut.
Connection of England with Normandy. The Reign of Edward
the Confessor. Duke William and Earl Harold. Invasion by
William. The Battle of Hastings or Senlac. The Conquest of
England. Summary of the Period of Conquest.

CHAPTER VII. ENGLAND UNDER THE NORMANS (1066-1154) 102

The Norman Aristocracy. Military Services. Bishops and
Abbots. The Common People. The Norman French Lan-
guage. Reign of William I. William and the Papacy. Old
and New Customs under the Normans. Domesday Book. Wil-
liam II. Lanfranc and Anselm. Henry I. Conflicts with the
Church and the Barons. Reforms in Government. The Succes-
sion. King Stephen. The Mediaeval Castle. Feudalism. Suc-
cession of Henry of Anjou. Literature of the Norman Period.
Architecture and Building. Summary of the Norman Period.

CHAPTER VIII. THE FOUNDATIONS OF NATIONAL UNITY

(1154-1216) 145

Accession and Character of Henry II. Henry's Dominions.
Lack of Unity in England. Restoration of Order. The Jury
System. The Common Law. The Assize of Arms. Feudal
Taxation. The Church. Thomas Becket. New Revolt of the
Baronage. Scotland, Wales, and Ireland. The Literary Revival
under Henry II. Richard I and the Crusades. King John. Loss
of the Continental Provinces. Struggle with the Church. The
Great Charter. Summary of the Period from 1154 to 1216.

CHAPTER IX. THE FORMATION OF A UNITED ENGLISH

NATION (1216-1337) 186

Accession of Henry III. Architecture. The Universities.
Writers. The Scriptorium of a Monastery. The Friars. The
Towns in the Thirteenth Century. The Gilds. Fairs. Country
Villages. Serfs and Freemen. Written Records. Reign of
Henry III. Papal Representatives in England. Italian Holders
of English Church Positions. Growth of the Power of the Great
Council. Simon of Montfort and the Provisions of Oxford.
Accession of Edward I. Parliament. Statutes. The Confir-
mation of the Charters. The Jews. The Conquest of Wales.
The Conquest of Scotland. Edward II. The Minority of
Edward III. Summary of the Period from 1216 to 1337.



CONTENTS vii

PAGE

CHAPTER X. THE FIRST HALF OF THE HUNDRED YEARS'

WAR (1338-1399) .............. 2 3o



Outbreak of the Hundred Years' War. The Battles of Sluys
and Crecy. The English Long-bow. The Organization of the
English Army. The Capture of Calais. The Black Prince.
Knighthood. The Battle of Poitiers. Peace of Bretigny. Stat-
utes of Provisors and Praemunire. The Black Death. The
Statutes of Laborers. Improvement in the Position of Villeins.
Renewal of the Long War. Parliamentary Agitation. The Poll
Taxes. The Peasants' Insurrection of 1381. Wycliffe and the
Lollards. Increasing Use of the English Language. Piers
Plowman. Chaucer. Reign of Richard II. Summary of the
Period from 1338 to 1399.



CHAPTER XL THE HOUSES OF LANCASTER AND YORK

(1399-1485) .^ ............ ... 264

Reign of Henry IV. Rebellion of Owen Glendower. Joan of
Arc. Wars of the Roses. Edward IV. Towns in the Fifteenth
Century. Foreigners in England. Richard III and Henry VII.
Summary of the Period from 1399 to 1485.



CHAPTER XII. THE EARLY TUDOR PERIOD (1485-1558) . 278

Henry VII. Court of Star Chamber. Strong Monarchy. The
Merchant Adventurers. The New World. The New Learning
and the Invention of Printing. Henry VIII. Wolsey, Foreign
Wars, and the Amicable Loan. The Divorce Question and the
Fall of Wolsey. Submission of the Clergy. Foundations of the
Reformation. The Reformation Statutes. The Dissolution of
the Monasteries. Destruction of Relics and Shrines. Execution
of More and Fisher. Pilgrimage of Grace. Ireland. Stages of
the Reformation. The King's Marriages. Succession to the
Crown. The Protectorate. The Completion of the Reforma-
tion. The Dissolution of the Chantries. Schools. Inclosures.
Fall of Somerset. The Debasement of the Coinage. Close of
the Reign of Edward VI. The Plot for the Succession of Lady
Jane Grey. Queen Mary and the Catholic Reaction. The Span-
ish Marriage. Loss of Calais. The Restoration of the Papal
Control. Mary's Declining Health and Happiness. Summary of
the Period from 1485 to 1558.



viii CONTENTS

PAGE

CHAPTER XIII. THE REIGN OF ELIZABETH (1558-1603) . 330

The New Queen. The Religious Settlement. The Catholics
and the Puritans. The Political Settlement. The Social Settle-
ment. Restoration of the Coinage. The Statute of Apprentices.
Pauperism. Elizabeth's Court. Mary Stuart. The Reformation
in Scotland. Mary and Elizabeth. The Murder of Darnley. Expul-
sion of Mary from Scotland. Elizabeth's Marriage Plans. In-
crease of Puritanism. The Counter Reformation and the Jesuits.
Political Danger from the Catholics. England and the Conti-
nent. The Parties which favored Elizabeth. Industrial and
Commercial Growth. Attempted Settlements in America. The
Search for a Northwest Passage. Hawkins's Voyages. Francis
Drake. The Channel Freebooters. Babington's Plot. Trial
and Execution of Mary Queen of Scots. The Spanish Armada. '
The Successful Period of Elizabeth's Reign. The Elizabethan
Poor Law. Increasing Wealth of England. Dress, Eating, and
Building. Royal Progresses. Elizabethan Literature. Shake-
speare and the Elizabethan Drama. The Close of the Reign.
Summary of the Period of Elizabeth.



CHAPTER XIV. THE PERSONAL MONARCHY OF THE EARLY

STUARTS (1603-1640) 383

James I. The Established Church and the Puritans. The
Royalist and Parliamentarian Ideal of Government. The Hamp-
ton Court Conference. The New Version of the Scriptures.
The Gunpowder Plot. The Proposed Union of the Two King-
doms. The Spanish and French Marriage Negotiations. The
King's Favorites, Somerset and Buckingham. Raleigh. Raleigh's
Last Expedition and Death. Settlements in America. The Pil-
grim Fathers and the Puritans. The East India and Other Com-
panies. Discord between the King and the Nation. Discord
between the King and Parliament. Close of the Reign of James I.
Charles I. Wars with Spain and France. Charles and Par-
liament. The Petition of Right. Disputes on Religion and
Taxation. Personal Government of Charles. Punishment by
Star Chamber and High Commission. The Metropolitical Visi-
tation. The Declaration of Sports. Distraint of Knighthood,
Monopolies, and the Forests. Ship Money. The Earl of Straf-
ford the Principal Minister. Summary of the Period from 1603
to 1640.



CONTENTS ix

PAGE

CHAPTER XV. THE GREAT REBELLION AND THE COMMON-
WEALTH (1640-1660) 431

The Scottish Rebellion. The Short Parliament. The Long
Parliament. Execution of Strafford. Constitutional Reform.
The Grand Remonstrance. The Religious Question. The Irish
Rebellion. Attempted Seizure of the Five Members. The
Militia. The Civil War. The Solemn League and Covenant.
Oliver Cromwell. Presbyterians and Independents. The New
Model Army. Defeat of the King at Naseby. Negotiations
with the King. The Second Civil War. Pride's Purge. The
Trial and Execution of the King. The Commonwealth. Con-
quest of Ireland and Scotland. The Navigation Acts and the
Dutch War. Expulsion of the Xong Parliament by Cromwell.
The Little Parliament. The Protectorate. Summary of the
Period from 1640 to 1660.

CHAPTER XVI. THE RESTORATION AND THE REVOLUTION

OF 1688 (1660-1689) 466

The Declaration of Breda. The Action of Parliament. The
Dissenters. The Declarations of Indulgence. Titus Gates and
the Popish Plot. The Exclusion Bills and the Succession to the
Crown. Dread of Civil War. Execution of Russell and Sidney.
The Triple Alliance. Subserviency of Charles II to France.
Third War with the Dutch. Charles and his Ministers. Claren-
don and the Cabal. Recognition of the Power of Parliament.
Growth of Political Parties. The Attack on the Charters. Cre-
ation of the Standing Army. Milton. Bunyan. The Habeas
Corpus Act. The Plague and the Great Fire. Architecture and
Painting. Science. Chocolate, Coffee, and Tea. Newspapers.
Death of Charles II. Accession of James II. Invasion of the
Duke of Monmouth. The Bloody Assizes. Use of the Dis-
pensing Power. The Two Declarations of Indulgence. Petition
of the Seven Bishops. Birth of a Prince. Invasion of William
of Orange. William and Mary elected to the Throne. The Revo-
lution of 1688. The Bill of Rights. Annual Taxes and the
Mutiny Act. The Toleration Act. Liberty of the* Press. Sum-
mary of the Period from 1660 to 1689.

CHAPTER XVII. FOUNDATION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE

(1689-1763) 516

Battle of the Boyne. Reconquest of Ireland. Massacre of
Glencoe. England and France. Personal and Political Position



FULL-PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS



The Chalk Cliffs Frontispiece

FACING PAGE

English Verdure, Aldenham Park, Hertfordshire 6

The Years 786-790 of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle 68

A Page of Domesday Book 112

Durham Cathedral ^ 142

Bodiam Castle, built in the Fourteenth Century 226

Oxburgh Hall, Norfolk : a fortified Manor House of the Wars of the

Roses 274

Elizabeth and her Courtiers : a Painting of 1571 372

Village of Elstow, Bedfordshire, where Bunyan was born 492

Part of the City of Benares, India 570

Early Railroad Trains 634

Houses of Parliament, built 1852 658



xii



LIST OF SKETCH AND COLORED MAPS



Physical Map of Britain 4-5

Forests and Swamps of Early Britain 9

Celtic Tribes of Britain 15

Roman Britain 24

Settlements of the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes 38

Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms 55

England divided into Bishoprics 56

The Danelaw 62

Principal Early Monasteries 77

England divided into Shires 78

Dominions of Cnut 86

Campaigns of William the Conqueror 99

Dominions of William the Conqueror 106

Dominions of the Angevin Kings 146

Ireland in the Middle Ages 169

Scotland in the Thirteenth Century 223

Wool-Raising Districts of England 232

France according to the Treaty of Bretigny 242

Counties and Towns of England in the Sixteenth Century .... 283

Early Explorations 357

Route of the Armada 365

Parties in the Civil War 442

France and the Netherlands facing page 530

England, France, and Spain in America 560

India in the time of Clive 566

India in the time of the Sepoy Rebellion 650

Canada in 1904 666

Australia and New Zealand in 1904 670

Africa 674

Territories of Great Britain, United States, and Germany .... 676

xiii



GENEALOGICAL TABLES

PAGE

The Norman Kings 113

West-Saxon Descent of the Later Kings 121

Henry II and his Sons 145

Claim of Edward III to the French Crown 231

Yorkist Claim to the Crown 270

Descent of the Tudor Sovereigns "... 278

Relationship of Elizabeth and Mary Queen of Scots 340

Descent of James I 3^3

The Stuart Family 384

Descent of George I 529

The Hanoverian Line of Kings 543

Descent of Queen Victoria , 632



LIST OF BOOKS FOR FURTHER READING



GENERAL WORKS

Green, A Short History of the English People, I vol. Harper.
Green, A History of the English People, 4 vols. Harper.
Bright, A History of England, 5 vols. Longmans.
Gardiner, A Student's History of England, i vol. Longmans.
Traill, Social England, 6 vols. Putnam.
Dictionary of National Biography, 63 vols. Macmillan.
Rhys, Celtic Britain, i vol. S. P. C. K.
Scarth, Roman Britain, i vol. S. P. C. K.
Allen, Saxon Britain, i vol. S. P. C. K.
Hunt, Norman Britain, i vol. S. P. C. K.

Wakeman, History of the Church of England, \ vol. Macmillan.
Montague, English Constitutional History, i vol. Longmans.
Cheyney, English Social and Industrial History, i vol. Macmillan.
McCarthy, History of Our Own Times, 3 vols. Harper.
Robinson, History of Western Europe, i vol. Ginn & Company.
Epochs of Modern History, 12 vols., referring to England. Longmans.
Twelve English Statesmen, 12 vols. Macmillan.
Kingsford, Henry V, i vol. Putnam.
Firth, Cromwell, i vol. Putnam.
Oman, Warwick the Kingmaker, i vol. Macmillan.
Woodward, Expansion of the British Empire, i vol. Macmillan.
Morris, Ireland, f^g^-iSgS, i vol. Macmillan.
Edwards, Wales, i vol. Putnam.

Hume Brown, History of Scotland, 3 vols. Macmillan.
Mackinder, Britain and the British Seas, i vol. Appleton.
Jusserand, English Wayfaring Life in the Middle Ages, i vol. Putnam.
Jessopp, The Coming of the Friars, and Other Essays, i vol. Putnam.
Macaulay, Essays on Burleigh, Bacon, Hampden, Milton, Temple, Clive..
Hastings, Chatham, and Pitt. Various editions.

Other works are referred to in the bibliographical notes at the end of
each chapter.



xvi LIST OF BOOKS FOR FURTHER READING



COLLECTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY SOURCES

Kendall, Source-Book of English History, i vol. Macmillan.

Colby, Selections from the Sources of English History ', I vol. Longmans.

Lee, Source-Book of English History, i vol. Holt.

Translations and Reprints from the Original Sources of European History,
6 vols. University of Pennsylvania. [The separate numbers in this
series referring to English history are The Early Reformation Period
in England ; Documents Illustrative of English Constitutional History ;
England in the Age of Wycliff ; Manorial Documents ; Documents
Concerning Towns and Gilds ; Documents Illustrative of Feudalism, .]

English History Illustrated from Original Sources, 1215-1715, 5 vols. Black.

Adams and Stephens, Select Documents of English Constitutional History,
i vol. Macmillan.

Other sources are given in the bibliographical notes at the end of each
chapter.

A full list of historical novels can be found in Nields, A Guide to the Best
Historical Novels and Talcs, i vol. Putnam.




A SHORT
HISTORY OF ENGLAND

CHAPTER I
THE GEOGRAPHY OF ENGLAND

i. The British Isles. The British Isles are cut off from the
rest of Europe by the waters of the English Channel and the
North Sea, and their people have therefore lived a life much
apart from that of the other nations of Europe. The sea forms
their natural frontier and has given as much independence to
their history as it has detachment to their geographical position.
Although in early times there were frequent invasions from the
continent, as time has gone on and national unity been more
completely attained, the island home of the English people has
proved to be especially easy to defend. At several critical times
good fortune has transformed the narrow seas 1 into a stormy
and impassable barrier, and saved the island from conquest or
from a difficult struggle on its own soil.

In the few instances in which successful invasions and settle-
ments have taken place they have been more gradual in their
progress than they would have been if the invaders had come
by land. The country has had time to absorb Saxon, Dane, and

1 " The narrow seas," or " the British seas," is an expression applied to
the English Channel and that part of the North Sea which lies between
England and Holland. England formerly claimed to have control over
these waters.

I



2 A SHORT HISTORY OF ENGLAND

Norman, and transform them into its own island race. The
same is true of more peaceful influences. Many customs lying
in the realms of language, law, trade, agriculture, and manufactures
have been borrowed or learned by the English from foreigners.
But they have received all these things slowly and gradually, and
have thus assimilated them to their own national customs.

Yet this isolation of England and its detachment from the con-
tinent must not be exaggerated. The width of the intervening
waters is not great. The Strait of Dover where it is narrowest is
but twenty-one miles wide ; the Channel but one hundred and
twenty and the North Sea but three hundred miles where they
are broadest. From a point about half way along the southern
coast of England to another more than one third of the way along
the eastern coast there is a stretch in which the British and the
continental shores are so near to one another that in all but the
most unfavorable weather a few hours' sailing will bring a boat
from one coast to the other.

From a geological point of view it is only in recent ages that
the British Isles have been separated by water from the continent
of Europe. The ancient edge of the continent lay far to the west-
ward of the present coast, and the seas around Great Britain and
Ireland are comparatively shallow waters which have in a late
geological period overspread the lower-lying lands. The earliest
inhabitants of Britain came in all probability by land, not by
water. It is scarcely more than an accident that the coasts of
France, Belgium, and Holland are separated from those of Eng-
land by a shallow sea rather than by a level plain. Both coasts
are comparatively low and provided with numerous harbors.
Hence the countries on the two sides of the narrow seas have
always been easily accessible to one another. They are natural
neighbors, much alike in the character of their coast, surface,
productions, and even population.

There has been much besides these geographical features through
all the later centuries of history to bring about intercourse between




THE GEOGRAPHY OF ENGLAND 3

England and the mainland. Scarcely any great influence that
affected the continental countries failed to make at least some
impression on England. As its history is studied it will be found
that along with its distinctiveness and marked national peculiari-
ties it has had much in common with the other countries of Europe
and has been constantly influenced by them.

Within the group of the British Isles the geographical forma-
tion tends to separate Scotland, Ireland, and Wales from England
and from one another. The long, narrow shape of the principal
island made union of all its inhabitants into one nation difficult.
The English and Scotch at its two ends naturally grew up into
two separate peoples, and the mountains of Wales long kept the
race which inhabited that region separate. The Irish Sea and
St. George's Channel separated Ireland and its inhabitants from
all of these.

Of these four principal divisions of the islands England is
marked out by nature to be the most important. Its territory
is a continuous, unbroken stretch, filling far the largest part of
the larger island ; it is provided with a greater variety of natural
resources ; and it is nearer to the continent of Europe. England
has therefore always been in advance of the other divisions of the
British Isles, and their history has been largely dependent on hers.

In ancient times and the middle ages the situation of England
was on the distant verge of the world as it was then known.
Since the discovery of America and of sea routes around the
world, her position has been much more central and advanta-
geous. In early times, therefore, England was a comparatively
inconspicuous country in Europe ; in modern times she has played
a vastly more important part. Her position as an island and her
location in the far northwest of Europe have given her a particu-
larly favorable opportunity to develop commerce and to found
a colonial empire.

Yet England is a small country. Its area, with Wales, is
58,320 square miles, about equal to Scotland and Ireland



4 A SHORT HISTORY OF ENGLAND

together, somewhat larger than the state of Pennsylvania, and
almost exactly the same as the state of Michigan. It is 365
miles in length from north to south, and 280 miles in its greatest



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