Diaz. In fact, under modern conditions, the peacefully
disposed Powers of the civilised world have a moral right
to claim the maintenance of universal peace and to protest
against any deeds or words likely to provoke an outbreak
The most novel and distinctive features of my scheme,
perhaps, are â€” first, the proposal to convert this moral right
into a social rule subscribed to for their mutual benefit by
the members of an International Peace Union as a step
towards its recognition as legal right confirmed by an improved
international law ; and, secondly, the provision for a partial
insurance against loss from war for pacific Powers at the
expense of the belhgcrent. A third fresh point is, I believe,
that of having the responsibility for any outbreak of hostilities
authoritatively ascribed by a court of experts in International
Law to one or other or all of the combatant States. Fourthly,
the suggestion that the British litigant's right of challenging
jurors should be adapted to an International Arbitration
Court, which was made before I noticed that M. Mouravieff,
the Russian Minister of Justice, had shown that he was
indifferently qualified for the position of president of a court
of arbitrators. In the present condition of national politics
no minister is likely to make a good international arbitrator,
even if he has had a legal training. The English Lord
Chancellor and the law officers of the Crown ought, as political
lawyers ex-uljicio, to be ineligible for service as arljitrators
between States, even after they have ceased to hold office.
In fact correct methods of arbitration have not yet been
evolved. Sir Edward Fry seems to have experienced surprise
l62 SAFEGUARDS FOR PEACE.
as well as gratification at the Dogger Bank decision.
His words, spoken in French, are reported as follows :â€”
" He was glad to express in the name of his friend Baron Taube
and himself their sincere thanks for the kindness and courtesy
they had experienced on all sides during the inquiry. As
juris-consults they were both glad to see legal ideas and rules
prevail in the diplomatic sphere. They were in favour of
peace, and were proud to see five illustrious admirals, chosen
by five of the greatest nations of the earth, devote themselves
to the service, not of war, but of peace. One of the greatest
poets of his own country had said, ' Peace hath her victories
no less renowned than war,' and it seemed to him â€” though
perhaps it was a dream â€” that in the work of the Commission
he discerned the beginning of one of those great future victories
Yet it must be frankly admitted that the results hitherto
achieved by amateur or diplomatic arbitration have been
beyond expectation valuable and successful. But this
grateful admission does not preclude the introduction of a
more scientific system.
The development of International Law into a lucid and
fairly complete body of rules would probably reduce the
occasions for arbitration and mediation, since there would be
fewer opportunities of nations getting at variance owing to
honest misunderstanding of their rights and duties, while
diplomacy would be more influenced by considerations of
justice and less by opportunism and self-seeking.
In conclusion, I appeal to idealists, who denounce every-
thing that pertains to war, to deny themselves the luxury of
denunciation, and to try to work harmoniously with lovers
of peace who accept the necessity of being ready to behave
like the walrus described by a French author thus : â€” Cet
animal est tres mcchant ; quand Von attaque, il se defend. I
believe that since practical men have taken up the peace
question seriously, many of the enthusiasts have tried
to adapt their aspirations to the actual condition of
affairs, instead of hindering their cause by acrimony and
SAFEGUARDS FOR PEACE. 163
I also appeal to statesmen, imperialists, and patriots.
While there is time, before the ceaseless intensification of
the horrors of war has overwhelmed the desire for peace
beneath the apathy of despair or insensate craving for revenge,
before the masses sink exhausted under the successive additions
to the burden imposed by the enormous cost of armaments,
before the growth of populations has in many States stimulated
the national desire for territorial expansion to the point of
irresistible fury, ere the day of salvation pass into a chaotic
night of convulsion and ruin, let men of affairs and men of
leisure, let thinkers, speakers, and writers hasten with one
accord to contribute practical help towards the institution
of some organisation capable of making International Law
satisfactory, and of minimising the chances of war, thus
almost insuring the maintenance of universal peace.
O cease ! Must hate and death return ?
Cease ! Must men kill or die ?
Cease ! Drain not to its dregs the urn
Of bitter prophecy.
The world is weary of the past,
O might it die or rest at last !
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