Edward Sprague Rand.

Orchids; a description of the species and varieties grown at Glen Ridge, near Boston, with lists and descriptions of other desirable kinds : preface by chapters on the culture, propagation, collection, and hybridization of orchids; the online

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Online LibraryEdward Sprague RandOrchids; a description of the species and varieties grown at Glen Ridge, near Boston, with lists and descriptions of other desirable kinds : preface by chapters on the culture, propagation, collection, and hybridization of orchids; the → online text (page 9 of 25)
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A WORK on Orchids would be incomplete did it fail
to give a descriptive list of the different species, and
to point out those most worthy of cultivation. There are
many Orchids which though curious have insignificant
flowers and are not worth a place in a collection unless
mere botanical research or curiosity are the objects.
Again, in choosing plants an amateur is seldom able from
a catalogue to select those which for brilliancy of color
and size or singularity of flower are most desirable, and
few possess the knowledge requisite to make a good se-

In the following list the finest plants, which for bril-
liancy and abundance of flower or for fragrance are desir-
able, are marked with the letter A. Those which are well
worth growing, but not as fine as the first class, by B.
The less attractive plants, "C. Those which for insignifi-
cant flowers should be rejected, R.

A small collection of choice Orchids will give more
pleasure than a large house full of more common species ;
and it should be remembered that a good plant requires
no more care and occupies no more room than a poor
one. The general treatment needed for each plant is
noted, and more especially any peculiar culture which in-
dividual varieties may require.

Where it has been possible the work where any species


or variety is figured is indicated, that any one having ac-
cess to a Botanical Library may ascertain the appearance
and study the description of the plant in a more extended
form than we have been able to transfer to these pages.

Acanthophippium. Blume. Terrestrial.

Name obscure ? ffyiinria., a saddle cloth. Xenophon.
B. Acanthophippium bicolor. Ceylon . B. R., 1730.

Maud, Bot, 4, 200.

Flowers roundish, of a fine orange color tipped with
purple and deep red.

B. Acanthophippium javanicum. Batavia. B. R., 32, 47.

B. M., 4492.
Blume, Orch., 49.
Lem. Jard., 35.
M. O. P., i.

Petals and sepals pale yellow, striped and marked with
purple. The lip is narrow and is of peculiar form and
furnished with many recurved teeth ; the ground color is
pale yellow tinged with purple.

C. Acanthophippium striatum. Lindley. Nepaul,

B. R., 1838, 68.

Perianth pure white at the base, striped with delicate
purple ; the lip richly marked with purple.

R. Acanthophippium sylhetense. Sylhet . . G. & S., 177.
The perianth is creamy white, tinted with rose.

The flowers are produced plentifully at the base of the
pseudo-bulbs on short peduncles. The plants should be


grown in well-drained pots, in a rich compost of peat and
leaf mould, with a mixture of broken potsherds. They
should be kept in the coolest part of the house, almost
dry during the resting season. As soon as growth be-
gins, water lightly, increasing the supply according to the
strength of the shoots ; if possible give bottom heat as
soon as the plants begin to grow.

The flowers may by a little management be had at any
season ; they are rather pretty, somewhat fragrant, and
remain a long time in bloom. There are, however, so
many finer Orchids that except in a large collection none
of the species are worth growing.

Acineta. Lindley. Epiphyte.

Name from o/ctVrjTos, immovable.

B. Acineta Barkeri. Mexico . . Pax. Mag., 14, 145.

B. R, 1843, 99-
I. H., 44.
SYN. Peristeria Barkeri ; Bate man. Mexico.

Flowers yellow, in spikes about a foot long, produced
from the bottom of the basket, blooms in summer, and
if kept dry will last a long time in perfection. There are
several varieties differing in intensity of color.

A. Acineta Humboltii. Venezuela . . B. M., 4156, var.
SYN. Peristeria Humboltii. Fl. des Ser., 992.

Anguloa superba. Lindley. B. R., 1843, 18.

M. O. P., i.

Flowers large, deep chocolate spotted with crimson.
The spikes are produced in the same manner as in the
former species but about a month earlier ; they last only
a short time in perfection.


A. Acineta longiscapa. Venezuela.

A species bearing great resemblance to Acineta Hum-
boltii, but with smaller flowers and blooming in winter.

Flowers large, on a long slender pendulous spike, ten
to twenty in number, very fragrant. A free blooming
plant of easy culture. This species is not found in Eu-
ropean catalogues, but is not rare in American collec-

There are other species. Acineta densa, from Costa
Rica, is remarkable for a close spike of deep yellow
flowers, and is probably a variety of Acineta Barkeri ; fig-
ured in Floral Magazine, pi. 16.

Acineta erythroxantha, cryptodonta, and sella-turcica, are
figured in Reich. Xen., pi. 70.

These plants should be grown in baskets they send
their flower-stems down through the bottom, and care
should be taken that nothing arrests the downward
growth of the bud. All species are evergreen, with short
pseudo-bulbs and leaves about a foot high.

They require a liberal supply of water at the roots
during the growing season.

Aoranthus. Lindley. Epiphyte.

Name from a-fip, the air, and &?0(fc, a flower.
C. Acranthus arachnitis B. M., 6034.

This is a curious plant from Madagascar. The foliage
is broad, green ; the flowers on very long peduncles, of
very peculiar shape, yellowish green.

The plant may be grown oh a block or in a pot, with
fresh sphagnum and good drainage. It requires the hot-
test house.
Acranthus grandiflorus is figured . . . . B. R., 817.



Acropera. Lindlcy. Epiphyte.

Name from &Kpos, the end, ir^pcc, a pouch.

A. Acropera armeniaca. Nicaragua . B. M., tab. 5501.

Bat. 2d Cen., 116.

Flowers very large, rich apricot color, in long, pendent
racemes all summer. A rapid grower, of easy culture,
and by far the best of the genus. As yet it is a rare

B. Acropera Batemanni.

A species resembling that last described, but not so

C. Acropera luteola. Mexico.

SYN. Acropera lutea.

Flowers orange-yellow, very plentifully produced in
hanging bunches ; very fragrant.

C. Acropera Loddigesii. Mexico . . . . B. M., 3563.
SYN. Maxittaria Gatteoti.

Flowers pale yellow marked with purple.

There are also the sub-varieties, Acropera aurantiaca,
Loddigesii aurea, fusca, purpurea, which differ only in
intensity of color.

This species is very common and is a pretty free grow-
ing and free flowering plant of easy culture.

These plants are of easiest cultivation. The flowers
are more curious than beautiful, and are plentifully pro-
duced in pendent bunches. Grow in pots or baskets,


giving abundant waterings during the formation of the
bulbs. If grown in pots elevate the plant well above the

Ada. Lindley. Epiphyte.

A complimentary name.

Ada aurantiaca. New Granada . . B. M., 5435.

Bat. 2d Cen., 113.
I. H., 3, 107.

A beautiful cool Orchid, native of high latitudes in
New Granada. Foliage evergreen, broad, drooping.
The flower spike terminal about ten inches long, droop-
ing; flowers clear orange-yellow, somewhat distantly
placed on the spike, never opening fully. It is a free-
growing plant, requiring an airy situation and not close
heat. With us it has done best when placed near the
door of the Orchid house, where the frequent opening
made a change of air. Pot in peat and moss, with good
drainage, and never allow it to get dry. It is a good
plan to have it grow in live sphagnum.

If well grown it freely produces its beautiful flowers at
all seasons, which, from their rich and rare color, are
very effective. There is but one species, and the plant
is not common.


A name signifying air plant, formerly given to some
species of Angrcscum.


Aerides. Loureiro. Epiphyte.

Name from a-fip, the air.
A. Aerides affine. Sylhet .... Wallich.

SYN. Epidendrum geniculatum. B. R., 1841.

B. M., 4049, as A.

SertO., 15.
War. Orch., 21.

A free flowering but slow-growing plant. Foliage light
green, a foot long flowers white and pink, spotted with
purple, blooming on long spikes in June and July, and
lasting three or four weeks in perfection. Unfortunately
it is destitute of fragrance.

Aerides affine superbum and ntajus are fine varieties,
with larger and richer colored flowers.

Aerides ampullaceum. SYN. of Saccolabium ampullaceum.
Aerides Brocket. SYN. of Aerides crispum.
Aerides cormitum. SYN. of Aerides odoratum.

A. Aerides crispum. Bombay . . Pax. Mag.. 9, 145.
SYN. Aerides Brookei. B. R., 1841, 126.

Fl. des Ser., i, 15.
I. H, 123.
B. R., 1842, 55.

The finest species. The stem is purple, foliage dark
green, ten inches long. The perianth of the flower is
white, delicately tinted with purple toward the middle ;
the labellum is striped with pale purple, shading to the


richest and loveliest hues. Flowers in June and July, and
lasts two or three weeks in perfection.

The length of the flower spikes and size of the flowers
distinguishes it from other species. This species should
never be allowed to get entirely dry.

A. Aerides Lindleyamim. Coonoors . Wight, Ic., 1677.
A very fine .variety, spike long and branching; sepals
and petals white ; lip large, rich rose.

A. Aerides Warneri. Bombay.

A variety of more slender habit, with smaller foliage.
Flowers white, with rosy spots.

A. Aerides cylindricum B. M., 4982.

SYNS. Cymbidium cylindricum. Wight, Ic. 1744.

Epidendrum subulatum.
Aerides vandarum.

A singular and rare species, with long terete stems
resembling Vanda teres. Flowers large, solitary or in
pairs, from the axils of the leaves white or blush, the
base of central lobe touched with yellow.

A. Aerides Domini anum.

A garden hybrid between Aerides affine and FieldingiL
Flowers rich rose color. A rare plant.

Aerides Fieldingii. India Jen. Or., 20.

One of the finest Orchids in cultivation ; commonly
known as the Foxbrush Aerides. The plant grows three
or four feet high, and produces, in great profusion, long
branching spikes of white rosy-spotted flowers, often
clear bright rose. Blooms in May and June.


Aerides Huttoni. See Aerides Thibautianum.

B. Aerides japonicum . B. M., 5798.

A dwarf, stiff-growing species ; leaves about seven
inches long and one inch broad ; flower spikes six inches
long. Flower greenish white, with dark violet blotch.

Aerides guttatum. See Saccolabium guttatum.

A. Aerides Larpenta. East Indies.

SYN. Aerides fakatum.

A fine species. Flowers cream color, spotted with
light rose, in June. Foliage rich and green.

A. Aerides Lobbii. Moulmein I. H., 559.

A free growing and blooming species, of which there
are many varieties. Flower spikes long and slender;
flowers rosy pink and white.* One of the best of the
genus. Blooms in June.

A. Aerides maculosum. Bombay . Lem. Jard., 54.

B. R., 1845, 58.

Pax. Mag., 12, 49.

A dwarf, slow-growing species. Leaves close and com-
pact ; flowers from among the upper leaves in clusters ;
lip large ; crimson sepals, and petals pale rose, spotted
with purple. A strikingly beautiful plant.

A. Aerides Schroderi. Bombay . . Card. Mag., 2, 121.

Pes., 33.

Apparently a natural hybrid, between Aerides crispum
and Aerides maculosum.

A fine, free growing plant, with dark green foliage.


Flowers delicate white, tinged with lilac and spotted with
rose ; lip, rose.

A. Aerides McMorlandi.

A rare species, producing long branching spikes of
peach and white flowers.

A. Aerides margaritaceum. East Indies.

A pretty species with spotted leaves. Flowers pure

A. Aerides Mendeli. East Indies.

A rare species, with flowers the size and shape of Aer-
ides Larpentcz, but pure white, tipped with rose.

Aerides mitratum. Moulmein B. M., 5728.

A rare species, allied to Aerides cylindricum. Flowers
in short spikes, white, with purple lip.

A. Aerides nobile. Moulmein. . . War. Orch., i, n.
A fine species, probably a variety of Aerides suavissi-
mum, blooming from June to September. Spikes two or
three feet long, often branched; flowers white, shaded
and spotted with rose.

A. Aerides odoratum. India, China, and

Cochin China . B. R., 1485.
SYNS. Aerides cornutum. B. M., 4139.

Limodorum latifolium. Maund, Bot.,

Epidendrum Flos-aeris. 4, 180.

Fl. Cab, 75-
Lindley, Rox-
burg, 1485.

Foliage light green, blossoms white, stained and shaded


with pink ; very fragrant. Blooms in June and July, the
flowers remaining three weeks in perfection.

Variety majus is a larger growing plant, with longer
spikes of bloom.

Variety purpurascens has flowers of darker pink and
broader foliage.

A. Aerides quinquevulnerum. Philippines. Pax. Mag., 8,


Sert. O., 30.
Jen. Orch., 30.

The petals and sepals are white, spotted with purple ;
at the end of each a spot of deep violet purple ; the top
of the labellum is green, the sides are pink, and the cen-
tre is deep crimson ; foliage light green, about one foot

Blooms in July and August, and lasts about two weeks.
There are two varieties, one with lighter-colored flowers
than the other.

Aerides Farmeri.

A rare variety with long spikes of white flowers.

A. Aerides roseum. India ... I. H., 88.

Pax. Fl. G., 60.

B. M., 4049, as qffine.

Lem. Jard., 200.

A fine dwarf species ; leaves a foot long, spotted with
brown. Flowers rose-colored, with crimson spots, in June
and July. This species requires less moisture than the
other kinds.

This species is sometimes confounded with Aerides
affine. A ready distinction is found in the jagged ex-


tremities of the leaves of the former, of which there is
no sign in Aerides roseum.

Aerides roseum superbum.

A fine variety with much larger and more highly col-
ored flowers.

Aerides rubrum. Madras Hills.

A pretty species with dark green foliage and pink flow-
ers on short erect spikes.

A. Aerides suavissimum. Malacca . . Pax. Fl. G., 66.

Lem. Jard., 213.

Foliage ten inches long, light green spotted with small
brown spots, sepals and petals white ; the lip has a
blotch of yellow in the centre edged with white ; racemes
long branched.

Blooms in July, August, and September, lasting in good
condition three weeks.

Flowers delightfully fragrant.

Aerides tesselatum. See Vanda Roxburghii.

B. Aerides testaceum. Ceylon . . Fl. des Ser., 1452.

SYN. Aerides WightiL B. M., 5138.

Flowers orange-yellow ; lip beautifully particolored.
There are, however, many varieties, varying from sulphur
to white. In some the flower is pearly white with pink
centre, as in a plant which has flowered beautifully with
us for the last two years.

The habit of the plant is dwarf. It grows freely on a
block of cork without moss.

A. Aerides Thibautianum. Java.

A handsome species with long spikes of rosy flowers


with bright amethyst lip. Also known as Saccolabium

B. Aerides Veitchianum. India.

A pretty little species with dark green leaves covered
with small spots ; flowers white and pink.

A. Aerides mrens. Java . . . B. R., 1844, 4 1 -

Maund, Bot., 14, 187.

A beautiful species, desirable for its light green foliage ;
the flowers are peach color or creamy white spotted with
purple, very fragrant.

Blooms in May and June, lasting a long time in per-

Aerides mrens Dayanum. East Indies.

A very fine variety, white and pink flowers on a long

The varieties purpurascens, grandiflorum, and super-
bum, from Java, are all desirable.

This species is the earliest to bloom ; the flowers are
deliciously fragrant and very freely produced.

Aerides Wightianum. See Aerides testaceum.

Aerides Williamsii. India .... War. Orch., i, 21.'

A rare species, with close, long, dark green foliage;

flowers in immense long drooping spikes, pink and white.

These plants are all peculiarly beautiful, uniting rich
evergreen foliage, graceful habit, and elegant flowers of
exquisite fragrance. The stem of the plant is straight or
slightly bent, with leaves attached on opposite sides ; the
plants have large fleshy roots shooting horizontally from
the lower part of the stem. The racemes of flowers are


one to three feet in length, often branched. They are of
easy growth.

They should have a good supply of heat and moisture
in the growing season, which is from March to the latter
part of October. At this season the day temperature
should range from 70 to 80 ; the night temperature in
March and April, 65 to 70, and afterward 70 to 75.

The plants may be grown in baskets, in pots, or on
blocks. Sphagnum moss and broken potsherds are the
best of potting materials. They should never- be allowed
to become wholly dry, as the roots are liable to shrivel
and the bottom leaves to fall off. They require but a
short season of rest, and the moss should always be kept
damp, but during the resting season no water should be
allowed to rest at the base of the leaves.

They are propagated by cutting them in pieces, having
a root attached to each piece ; some are, however, easier
to increase than others. No collection of Orchids can be
complete without some of these charming plants.


An old name of Angrcecum.

Aganisia. Lindley. Demarara. B. R., 26, 32.

Name from ayavts, lovely.

A. Aganisia pulchella is a very pretty and rare Orchid.
The root stock is creeping, producing at intervals of
about two inches small pseudo-bulbs, each supporting a
single dark green leaf. The flowers are borne on a short
erect scape from the base of the bulb ; they are white
with yellow blotch, with red eye in centre of the lip. It
may be grown either in a pot with moss and peat, or on


a block, but requires at all seasons plenty of heat and
water. Syringe the roots freely in the growing season.

Ansectochilus. Blume. Terrestrial.

Name from avoiKTJs, open, and x e ^ os > lip-

These beautiful foliaged plants are not of easy growth,
and are far oftener lost than preserved in good condition.

They require a short season of rest, during which water
must be less freely given, and want of attention in this
respect results in the loss of the plants. The stem and
leaves should have plenty of light (not sun), and air, yet
the plants must be grown under bell glasses, but these
should be tilted so as to admit air and the condensed
moisture be wiped off several times a day.

They are somewhat subject to the attacks of green fly,
red spider, and thrips, for which slight fumigation must
be given.

In Chapter X. we have given lists of the best species,
with notes of our own experience in their culture.

Some of the species are figured as follows :

A. Dawsonianus Fl. des Sen, 1800.

Jen. Orch., 43.

A. Lobbii Fl. des Ser., 519.

A. Lowii Fl. des Ser., 370,

as Cheirostylis.

A. Reinwardtii Blume, Orch., 10.

Bel. Hort., 1861, 18.

A. Roxburghii ...... Blume, Orch., 12.

Bel. Hort, 1861, 18.


A. setaceus B. M., 1208,

Fl. des Ser., 2, 15. var. 4123.

B. R., 2010.

A. Ordiana Jen. Orch., 43.

Angrsecum. Du Petit Tkouars. Epiphyte.

Name from the Indian name Angrec.

A. Angrczcum bilobum. Cape Coast Castle. B. M., 4159.

SYN. Angracum apiculatum. B. R., 27, 35.

A lovely small-growing Orchid with long drooping ra-
cemes of snow-white flowers, tipped with pink, and
slightly fragrant.

The leaves are cloven at the point, whence the name.
This species should have plenty of moisture at the roots ;
grow on a block or in a basket. Blooms in autumn.

B. Angr&eum caudatum. Sierra Leone . . B. M., 4370.

B. R., 1844.

A desirable species with greenish-yellow, long tailed
flowers ; lip pure white. It is rather curious than beauti-
ful, but remains long in bloom, and is always a conspicu-
ous plant. Blooms all summer.

B. Angrcecum Chailluanum. Sierra Leone. B. M., 5589.
A rare species, allied to and somewhat resembling that
last described. Flowers white, .with long, greenish tail,
in pendulous spikes.

B. Angrmum titratum. Madagascar . . B. M., 5624.
A pretty species with pale yellow flowers, of dwarf



C. Angrczcum distichum. Sierra Leone . B. M., 4145.

B. R., 1781.

Flowers snowy white with yellow lip. A charming lit-
tle plant with compact foliage, unlike any other Orchid.
It is not showy, but very curious. Should be grown on a
block with moss.

A. Angrizcum eburneum. Madagascar. B. R., 1522.
SYNS. Limodorum eburneum. B. M., 4761.

Acrobion eburneum. Bat. 2d Cen., in.

B. M., 5170, var.

This is a fine Orchid with light green leaves eighteen
inches long ; the flowers greenish white ; lip of ivory
whiteness. The flowers are produced in upright spikes,
and when the plant is strong very abundantly. They
have, at night, the fragrance of Narcissus poeticus. The
plant is of stately growth, and ornamental when not in
bloom. Lasts three months in full beauty.

A. Angrcecum eburneum virens.

A very pretty variety with greenish-white flowers, on
more slender spikes. A very free bloomer in mid-winter.

A. Angr&cum Ellisii. Madagascar . Fl. Mag., 2, 191.

A rare Orchid ; leaves ten inches long by two inches
broad ; dark green on the upper side, paler below.

Flower-spikes two feet long, arching, bearing from
eighteen to twenty-four flowers ; pure white and very fra-
grant; tail six inches long, light cinnamon color. The
profile of the flower is an exact resemblance of a cocka-


Angr&cum falcatum. China and Japan. B. R., 283.

SYN. Limodorum falcatum. Sert. Bot., vol. 7,

as Limodorum.
B. M., 2097.

A pretty little plant with narrow, dark green foliage.
Flowers pure white, fragrant, with long tail and large for
the size of the plant. With us this species grows freely
in a block in the cool house.

B. Angrcecum pelluddum. Sierra Leone . B. R., 30, 2.

A very pretty plant resembling a Phalcenopsis in growth,
with drooping racemes of delicate, crystalline, snow-white

May be grown in a basket.

B. Angrcecum pertusum. Sierra Leone . B. M., 4782.
This species is in growth very much like an Aerides.
The pure white flowers are produced in March, in close,
drooping spikes, and are very graceful and elegant.

A. Angrcecum sesquipedak. Madagascar. War. Orch., 31.

Bat. 2d Cen., 151. I. H., 475.

Jen. Orch., 3. B. M., 5113.

This magnificent plant was brought by Rev. Wm. Ellis
from Madagascar, where it grows in great profusion, cov-
ing trees from top to bottom. The stems are three or
four feet high, the foliage a foot long, dark glaucous
green ; flowers six inches in diameter, ivory white, with
tail from ten to eighteen inches long. It is a very free-
growing and flowering plant, blooming when very small.
We have now (January, 1876) a plant only a foot high,
with two breaks, producing seven spikes of bloom. The


flowers are powerfully fragrant, almost unpleasantly so,
at night.

A. Angracum superbum. Madagascar. Thouars, Or. Afri.
SYNS. Angrtzcum virescens (Lind). tab. 62, 63, 64.

Acrobion superbum (Sprengel).

This species differs from eburneum in being of stronger
growth, the lip of the flower is more square, and the
flowers are larger.

These plants require the same general treatment as
Aerides. They must all, except A.falcatum, be grown in
the hottest house, with plenty of moisture. If well
treated, they never fail to flower freely, and are especially
desirable as they mostly bloom in mid-winter. The
flowers of all last long in perfection.

There are many other species, all natives of Africa,
but a large portion have insignificant flowers.

Anguloa. Ruiz and Pavon. Epiphyte.

Dedicated to Francesco de Angulo.

A. Anguloa Clowesii. Colombia . . War. Orch., 33.

B. R., 1844, 63. Pes., 17.

B. M., 4313. M. O. P., 2.

A beautiful species, with bright yellow sepals and
petals, and pure white lip.

Blooms in June and July, the flower lasting long in
perfection, if kept in a cool house.

Anguloa macrantha.

A rare variety, with bright yellow flowers, spotted with


Anguloa eburnea. New Granada. . Bat. 2d Cen., 159.
Pseudo-bulbs dark colored, leaves bright green.
Flowers large, pure white, lip spotted with pink. By
some considered the same as A. uniflora.

A. Anguloa Ruckerii. Mexico . . M. O. P., 3.

B. M., 5384. War. Orch., 2, 10.

Bat. 2d Cen., 144. B. R., 1846, 41.

A fine species, flowering at the same time as the pre-
ceding. Perianth yellowish-green, thickly covered with
small spots of deep crimson. The fragrance of the
flower resembles Lycaste aromatica.

Anguloa sanguinea has flowers of rich blood color.

Online LibraryEdward Sprague RandOrchids; a description of the species and varieties grown at Glen Ridge, near Boston, with lists and descriptions of other desirable kinds : preface by chapters on the culture, propagation, collection, and hybridization of orchids; the → online text (page 9 of 25)