Edwin Pears.

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LIBRARY

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

RIVERSIDE



FORTY YEARS IN
CONSTANTINOPLE




rHK AlTllOR ].N I9I5



FORTY YEARS IN
CONSTANTINOPLE

THE RECOLLECTIONS OF
SIR EDWIN PEARS 1873-1915
WITH 16 ILLUSTRATIONS




HERBERT JENKINS LIMITED
ARUNDEL PLACE HAYMARKET
LONDON S.W. ^ ^ MCMXVI






THK ANOTIOU VKI SS, J.TT). TIl'TlCF.K KSsKX, ENGLAND.



PREFACE

IN writing my reminiscences of Life in Constantinople
I have been under the disadvantage of depending
almost entirely on memory. When I was compelled
to leave Turkey in the middle of last December I was unable
to bring away memoranda and books which would have
enabled me to fix dates, to give correct spelling of names of
persons and places, and would have recalled a hundred cir-
cumstances, which without such aids I am unable to relate
with desirable exactitude. This is all I have to add by way
of excuse for any inaccuracies and shortcomings in my book.

I could have added many more reminiscences of visitors
who have given me the pleasure of seeing them, some of
them men and women whom all England delights to honour.
Merely to mention their names would lay one open to a
charge of sycophancy. To relate conversation with them
would be a breach of confidence. If, for example, I should
tell the story of one of our legislators who made all haste to
get away from the city because he learned that Abdul Hamid
proposed to invite him to dinner, and who gave as his reason
for getting away that if invited he could hardly refuse, and
that if he accepted he would lose all nonconformist votes,
I should have to miss the point of my story unless I men-
tioned the name, which I should not be justified in doing.

Had space permitted, I should have liked much to speak
at length of visits : of that of Miss Isabel Fry, who spent
time and money for the benefit of Turkish women ; of the
Members of the Balkan Committee, notably Mr. Noel E.
Buxton and his brother ; Lady Boyle and Sir Edward ;
Sir Arthur Evans, and others whose labours for the benefit of
all sections of the community won them the gratitude of



vi PREFACE

Moslems and Christians alike ; of the veteran Frederic
Harrison, who was especially honoured by the best men of
the Young Turkey Party ; of Mr. H. W. Massingham, who
shewed himself greatly interested in Turkish institutions.
These visits were of great value to leading Turks and other
members of the community as setting before them ideals of
conduct and self-sacrifice.

Turkey has long attracted some of our best men and
women. The singular devotion of Miss Edith Durham has
won general respect in all the Western Balkan States. The
massacres at Adana drew Lady Rosalind Northcote and
several others to the aid of the victims. Susan, Lady
Malmesbury, took great interest in the schools and colleges
of the capital. Mr. Edward Clodd wanted to learn every-
thing regarding Moslem and Christian education. The late
Mr. John Westlake, a friend whom I had known from my
Social Science days, always took great interest in the
developments of Turkey. Another old and dear friend from
the same period was Rev. Brooke Lambert, who stayed with
me on three occasions, on one of which during our summer
residence he conducted divine service in our sala at Prinkipo.
Canon Malcolm McCall paid us two visits, and from the time
of the Moslem atrocities in Bulgaria was always keenly alive
to the religious and political questions of the Near East.

I have to express my very sincere thanks to Hariot, Lady
Dufferin, for the excellent photographs of her husband and
herself. I possess one signed by Lord Dufferin, but, like
another of General Skobeleff and others which it was my
intention to use, I have not seen my way to obtain them
from Constantinople. My thanks are also due to Lady
O' Conor for offering to place at my disposal a series of
photographs of her husband ; to Lord Goschen for a photo
which carries my memory back to the time when it was taken
and the men with whom he had to act ; and to Beatrice,
Lady Ellenborough, for permission to reproduce from her
photograph the portrait of Jane Digby, Lady Ellenborough.

EDWIN PEARS.

London, S.W., Sep. 20, 1915.



CONTENTS

PREFACE ......

CHAPTER I

I GO TO CONSTANTINOPLE

A Chance Remark and the Consequences — The Social Science Associa-
tion — Pleasant Relations — I Start for Turkey — First Impres-
sions — Bakshish — The Turks' Incurable Malady — The Comedy
of the Buoys — The Tragedy of the Bridge — An Ideal Coal for
the Navy . - .-.

CHAPTER II

THE MOSLEM ATROCITIES IN BULGARIA

" Our Own Correspondent " — Robert College — Dr. Washburn and
Dr. Long — The Bulgarian Students — Ugly Rumours — "Allah's
Business " — My First Letter — Disraeli's Doubts — I Send Addi-
tional Proof — Incomprehensible Scepticism — Macgahan Sent
to Investigate — Horrible Discoveries — Mr. Walter Baring Ap-
pointed Commissioner — His Report — Disraeli's Strange Conduct
— Death of Macgahan — Conference of Powers, Dec. -Jan., 1877 —
Its Failure — Salisbury Unpopular in Constantinople — " Bravo,
Sir Elliot " — Declaration of War by Russia, April 24, 1877



CHAPTER III

THE RUSSO-TURKISH WAR

The Russo-Turkish War Begins — Battle of Shenova — British Fleet
in Besika Bay — British Colony Still Hostile — British Fleet at
Prinkipo — Leaves Turkey — Did Arrival of British Fleet Prevent
Russian Occupation ? — Baker Pasha and Suliman — Skobeleff
and the Taking of Constantinople — My Visit to Him in Camp —
Remarkable Unanswered Telegram to Czar — Personal Remin-
iscences — Fellow Correspondents, Galenga, George Augustus
Sala — A Correspondent Impostor — Remarkable Solution of a
Prize Case - - . - - - 25



viii CONTENTS

CHAPTER IV
EAST AND WEST

PAGE

The Anti- Russian British Colony — An Address to Sir Henry Elliot —
I Protest — Journalism Extraordinary — Mr. Layard Becomes
Ambassador — The Marquess of Bath — ' ' A Year Behind the
Fair " — Mr. W. E. Forster — A Grand Vizier's Rudeness — Mr.
Hughes's Revenge — " The Only Gentleman in Europe " — British
Tommies and a Turkish Toll Collector — Gallantry and Death —
A Strange Court Scene — The Scots at Hasskewi — How a Lawyer
Cannot be a Jackass - - - - - 43

CHAPTER V

THE REVOLUTION OF 1876

Turkey's Finances — Heavy Losses — The Moral Effect — Outcry
Against the Sultan's Extravagance — His Passion for Building —
Abdul Aziz a Prisoner — His Suicide — A Committee of Examina-
tion — The Trial of Ministers — The Tradition of the Turkish
Palace — Murad Ascends the Throne — He is Deposed and Suc-
ceeded by Abdul Hamid — The Question of a Constitution — A
Revelation of Abuses — The New Form of Government — A
Blunt Speaker — The Traditional Method — A Question of Right
or Wrong - - - - - - 52

CHAPTER VI

ARCH^OLOGICAL INTERESTS AND LADY ELLENBOROUGH

Dr. Paspates and Dr. Schliemann — My First Visit to the Patriarchal
Church — An Impressive Ceremony — The Greek Tradition — The
Site of Troy — Interesting Discoveries — Visits to Nicaea — A Visit
to Damascus — I Meet the Sheik's Wife — A Remarkable Woman
— A Queen of the Desert — Life in the Harem — An Arab Invasion
— The Bedouins' Devotion - - - - 62

CHAPTER VII

THE EGYPTIAN QUESTION

The Arrival of Sir Henry Layard — Russophobia — Ideals About the
Turk — A Scheme of Reform— Sir Henry Disillusioned — Glad-
stone's Greek Letter — A Scandal— The Khedive's Extravagance
— Egypt's Finances — Dual Control — The Succession Changed —
The Khedive Deposed — Turkish Alarm — Saving the Sultan's
Face — Mr. Goschen Succeeds Sir Henry Layard — Bismarck's
Rudeness — The Sultan Obdurate — Mr. Goschen 's Victory — The
Murder of Colonel Cumaroff - - - - 75

CHAPTER VIII

EGYPT

Lord Dufferin Appointed Ambassador — The Revolt of Arabi Pasha
— Turkish Pin-pricks — The Bombardment of Alexandria — Tel-
cl-Kebir — The British Left to Restore Order — Turkey's Help



CONTENTS ix

PARE

Solicited — The Sultan's Refusal — Baker Pasha's Anxiety — Mr.
Gladstone Determined — British Troops Land — Lord and Lady
Dufferin's Services to the European Colony — The Girls' High
School — Lady Dufferin's Popularity — A Courteous but Strong
Ambassador — A Broad-minded Man - - - ^7

CHAPTER IX

ABDUL HAMID

The Sultan's Superstition — Abdul Hamid's Hostility to Armenians —
The Turkish Law of Succession — Its Disadvantages — Abdul
Hamid's Upbringing — A Narrow Environment — The Fleet
Neglected — Abdul Hamid's Sensitiveness to Criticism — An
Unofficial Censorship — A Continuous Foreign Policy — An
Avengement for the Evacuation of Egypt — The Sultan Refuses
His Consent — Lord Salisbury's Rejoinder — A Prosperous Egypt
- — Izzet Pasha — The Two Secretaries — Belief in Astrologers —
The Tabah Affair — The Sultan's "Diplomatic Victory" — A
Suspicious Monarch — An Elaborate Spying System — Blackmail
— The Censors Regard Me as Incorrigible — I am Threatened
with Expulsion — Turkish "Decorations" — A Clever Fraud - 102

CHAPTER X

ARMINIUS V AMBER Y AND ABDUL HAMID

Pere Hyacinthe — Women without Souls — The Khedive's Dictum —
" Free Speech " in Turkey — The Sultan's Interference — Sir
Henry Bulwer and Plataea — His Dummy Library — Arminius
Vambery — A Chance Encounter — A Polyglot Gentleman —
Vambery's Advice to Abdul Hamid — The Sultan's Anger — A
Suppressed Book — The White Slave Traffic — A Courageous
Englishwoman — An American's Mistake — A Splendid Work - 121

CHAPTER XI

THE SULTAN'S SUMMONS

Sir Edward Thornton — Mr. Sunset Cox — A BrilUant Speaker — Sir
William White — His Friendship with Dr. Washburn — The
Sultan Sends for Me — The Ideal Dragoman — I Refuse a Decora-
tion — Haji All's Astonishment — The Sultan Persists — The Secre-
tary's Ignorance — A Visit from a Spy — The Decoration Again
Offered — A Significant Hint — The Value of a Turkish Decora-
tion — The Order of the Mejidieh Conferred on a Fighting Cock 134

CHAPTER XII

THE ARMENIAN MASSACRES

Popularity of " The Bosporus Bull " — The Sacredness of the Sultan's
Tougra — Baron Calice's Subtlety — Sir Philip Currie — Turkish
Tobacco — The Armenians and Their Culture — Lord Byron and
Their Tongue — The Desire for Education — Palmerston's Epigram
— The " Yes Sirs " — Abdul Hamid and the Murdered Turk — An



X CONTENTS

PAGE

Armenian Tragedy — The Sultan's Resolve — Organised Massacre
— A Terrible List of Victims — Death or Conversion — An Ar-
menian's Report — A Great Outcry — Mr. Gordon Bennett in Con-
stantinople — The New York Herald's Investigations — Abdul
Hamid's Mistake — Mr. Hepworth's and Mr. Fitamaurice's Re-
ports — "Voluntary" Conversions — The Massacre in Urfa
Cathedral - - - i^^

CHAPTER XIII

THE TURKISH METHOD

Turkish Fleet Neglected, but Added to Under Strange Circum-
stances — Kutchuk Said Takes Refuge at British Embassy — Is
Protected by Sir Philip Currie — Girding on the Sword of Osman
— Hamdi Bey — Allaverdi — Bishop Wordsworth's Visit — Lady
Currie's Popularity — A Cultured Woman — The Spy's Invita-
tion — The Young Turks' Indiscretion — The Secretary's Dilemma
— A Counter Offensive — An Uncompromising Retort — Espion-
age — The Englishmen and the Female Spy — The Armenian
Patriarch — An Impressive Ceremony — The Patriarch's Cordiality 1 70

CHAPTER XIV

SIR NICHOLAS O'CONOR

Sir Nicholas O'Conor at Constantinople — Our Meeting at Sofia —
Stambuloff Sends for Me — My Lost Luggage — I Enter the Palace
Looldng Like a Brigand — Stambuloff Comes to See me Oft —
The State of Macedonia — Robber Chiefs as Protectors — Exodus
of the Inhabitants — Hilmi Pasha's Reforms Shelved — The Rival
Churches — An Appeal to Rome — The Eternal Question of Reform
— Formation of a Revolutionary Party — Dr. Nazim's Adventures 189



CHAPTER XV

BARON MARSCHALL VON BIEBERSTEIN

The Baron's Greeting — The Fire-eaters at Home — Fehim Effendi's
Escapades — Abdul Hamid's Protection — The German Ambassa-
dor's Ultimatum — Fehim's Banishment and Death — Sir Nicholas
O'Conor's Thoroughness — Our Sunday Excursions — A Turkish
Superstition — Hannibal's Tomb — Egyptian Affairs — Death of
Sir Nicholas O'Conor — The Kaiser's Protest — Baron Marschall's
Methods — A " Thorough " Man ... - 205

CHAPTER XVI

THE REVOLUTION OF 1908

Secret Committees — Sir Philip Currie's Anger — Turkish Procrastina-
tion — The Sick Man of Europe — Abdul Hamid a Bar to Telephones
— Condition of Army and Navy — Ignorant Officers — Disaffection
General — The Salonica Committee — Methods of Secrecy — The
Third Army Corps — Enver and Niazi in Revolt — The End



CONTENTS xi

PAGE

Approaching — Corruption and Tyranny — Espionage Everyvrhere
— Turkish Women Involved — The First Shot — The Decision of
the Fetva Emin6 — The Troops Refuse to Fight — Wholesale
Promotions — Afraid to Tell Abdul — The Court Astrologer
Requisitioned — ^The Sultan Bows to the Storm — A Wave of
Popularity — Spies Abolished and Liberty Proclaimed — General
Rejoicing - - - - - -218



CHAPTER XVII

THE YOUNG TURKS IN POWER

Popularity of Great Britain — ^The Waring Guard — Great Britain's
Disinterestedness — Abdul Hamid's Oath — Prisoners Released —
A Grave Mistake— Ugly Rumours — A New Ministry Under
Kiamil — Abdul Hamid and the Kaiser's Letter — Success of the
Revolution — The Palace Staff — Abdul Hamid's Orders — Von
der Goltz suspected — Turks' Vagueness as to the Constitution —
I visit the Sheik-ul-Islam — A Remarkable Man — The Secret
Methods of the C.U.P. — A People Transformed — An American
Lady's Adventure — " Yasak " — A Precipitated Revolution —
The Austrians and the Albanians — A Difficult Situation — ^The
Sultan's Favourites .... - 239



CHAPTER XVIII

THE COUNTER REVOLUTION OF APRIL 13, 1909

The Unemployed — Turkish Anti-Semitism — Javad Bey Appointed
Minister of Finance — The Reactionaries — A Military Revolt —
Disturbing Reports — The Sacred Law — Mahmud Mukhtar's
Loyalty— His Flight — My Son's Prompt Action — Surrounded —
The Dragomans and the Sultan — An Interrupted Turkish Bath —
A Matter of Life or Death — Mukhtar's Escape — A Hail of
BuUets — The Meaning of the Movement — A Surprise to the
Cabinet — Nazim Pasha's Escape — Dissatisfaction with the
C.U.P. — The Comedy of the Steamers — Absurd Anomalies —
Turkification and Tyranny — The Nationalists — Official Murders
— ^What Occurred at Salonica — The Army of Deliverance — A
Systematic Counter-stroke — The Tables Turned — The Exodus
from the Palace ..... 257

CHAPTER XIX

ABDUL HAMID DEPOSED

Enver's Significant Words — A New Era — A Precipitated Coup —
The Sultan's Attitude — The National Assembly Decide Upon
Deposition — Abdul Hamid Informed — He Pleads for His Life —
His Cowardice — Mahomet V. — Abdul Hamid is Packed Off —
Refreshing the Harem — The New Sultan Proclaimed — A Kindly
Man — Defying Abdul Hamid — Turkish Misrule — Fostering
Religious Hatred — The Caliphate — The Jehad — Bribes for
Reactionaries - - - 282



xii CONTENTS

CHAPTER XX
STRUGGLES OF THE COMMITTEE OF UNION AND PROGRESS

PAGE

A Question of Responsibility — The Adana Massacre — A Commission
of Enquiry — Examining Yildiz Kiosk — Embarrassing Discoveries
— Hanging Reactionaries — TheC.U.P. Visits France and England
— Javad Bey's Mission a Failure — The C.U.P.'s Blunders — Turki-
fying Everything — A Foolish Boycott — A Secret Struggle — A
Jehad that Failed — The Sultan's Progress — A Severe Criticism —
Hakki Pasha's Comment — A Struggle for Life — Damat Ferid
Pasha — The Dogs of Constantinople — Their Unwritten Laws — A
Terrible Fate — Great Fires in Stambul — Young Turks' Vigorous
Action — An Insanitary Hospital — Fire Insurance Claims — The
Turks and Life Insurance — A New Law — Absurd Clauses — My
Drastic Excisions — Decentralisation — A Cumbrous System —
The Gendarmerie — The Modern Woman Phase — Miss Isabel
Fry's Work - - - 297

CHAPTER XXI

ANNEXATION OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

Prince Ferdinand declares himself King — Reorganisation of the
Turkish Navy — Difficulties with Albania — The Balkan League
— Its Successes — Dissensions — Mediation of the Powers — Ortho-
dox and Bulgarian Churches Agree for Common Action — My
Last Interview with Marschall von Bieberstein — Coup d'etat —
Assassination of Nazim Pasha — Forced Resignation of Kiamil —
Arrival of Sir Louis Mallet — Quarrel between Bulgaria and
Serbia — Assassination of Shevket Pasha — British Relief Com-
mittees in Constantinople - - - - 322

CHAPTER XXII

AUGUST-OCTOBER, 1914

Lull Before the Storm — Turkish Ministers Favourable to England,
Excepting Enver Pasha — Arrival of Goeben and Breslau —
Constant Declarations of Neutrality by Turks — British Ships not
Permitted to Pass Into the Aegean — Disadvantages of British
Ambassador — Hard and Fast Rule Between Diplomatic and
Consular Service — Irritation of Turks at Pre-emption of Ships
Built in England — Constant Series of Attacks Against England
in Constantinople — Finding Turks Would not Declare War
Germans in Command of Turkish Fleet Bombard Odessa - 339

CHAPTER XXIII

THE AMERICAN AMBASSADOR AT CONSTANTINOPLE

I Wish to Remain in Constantinople After Declaration of War — I am
Arrested — Imprisoned — Released by Intervention of the
American Ambassador— I Leave Constantinople — Journey to
Dedeagatch — Thence to Piraeus, Malta, Marseilles, and England
— Incidents of the Voyage — Noble Conduct of Mr. and Mrs.
Morgenthau Towards French and British Refugees — The
Y.M.C.A. in Constantinople - . . . 334



CONTENTS xiii

CHAPTER XXIV

PAGE

SHORT AND PERSONAL - - - - 366

CHAPTER XXV
THE PAST AND THE FUTURE

Among the Archaeologists — Rev. John Peters — Professor Hilprecht
— George Smith — Hittite Investigators — Mr. Hogarth, Mr.
Garstang, and Professor Sayce — Distinguished Explorers for the
Palestine Exploration Fund — My Archaeological Work in Con-
stantinople^Rev. Dr. van Millingen — Bishops of Salisbury,
Peterborough, and Gibraltar — Dr. Spooner, Canon Shoobridge,
and Other Clergymen — Visit of Mr. Choate, Ambassador, to St.
James's — Visits to Renowned Historical Sites, Ephesus Es-
pecially — British Colony in Turkey — Thoughts on the Future
of Turkey and Notably of Constantinople - - - 3G8

INDEX - - - - - - 381



ILLUSTRATIONS

TO FACE PAGE

The Author in 1915 Fi-oiaisf^iece

Constantinople from the Bosporus 6

Sir Henry Elliot 16

Jane Digby, Lady Ellenborough 72

Sir Henry Austin Layard 80

Group of Ambassadors at Constantinople 84

The Marquess of Dufferin and Ava 88

The Marchioness of Dufferin and Ava g8

Sir Nicholas R. O'Conor igo

KiAMiL Pasha 244

Abdul Hamid 246

Mahmud Mukhtar Pasha 260

Nazim Pasha 268

Mahmud Shevket Pasha 282

Hakki Pasha oQg



Talaat Bey



358



FORTY YEARS IN
CONSTANTINOPLE



CHAPTER I

I GO TO CONSTANTINOPLE

A Chance Remark and the Consequences — The Social
Science Association — Pleasant Relations — I Start
for Turkey — First Impressions — Bakshish — The
Turks' Incurable Malady — The Comedy of the Buoys —
The Tragedy of the Bridge — An Ideal Coal for the Navy.

DURING the year 1872 I had worked hard. I was
General Secretary of the Social Science Asso-
ciation, and in that capacity had edited its
Transactions and its Sessional Proceedings, in addition to
being occupied with its affairs nearly every day and on one
day a week usually until near midnight. I had also become
Secretary of a very important International Prison Con-
gress, at which every nation in Europe had official repre-
sentatives, and to which the United States sent no less
than eighty. When the Congress was over I was un-
animously requested by the Council to edit its Transactions.
The volume thus produced, called Prisons and Reformatories
at Home and Abroad, has long since been sold out, but
remained for eleven years, until a further International
Prison Congress was held in Europe, a standing book of
reference. During the same year I was editor of the Law
Magazine, to whose pages I largely contributed. I wrote
various articles for the School Board Chronicle and for other
papers. I had become a Member of the North Eastern
Circuit, and was beginning to acquire practice in England.

I B



2 FORTY YEARS IN CONSTANTINOPLE

I wai working too hard and felt that my health was giving
way.

In January, 1873, I was at dinner at Hampstead with the
late Frederic Hill, a man who, like his brothers. Sir Rowland
and Mr. Matthew Davenport Hill, was always keenly
interested in certain branches of Social Science. Taking in
Mr. Hill's daughter to dinner, who was then Mrs. (now Lady)
Scott, I enquired after the absence of her husband. She
informed me he was remaining at home in order to examine
two sets of papers, one regarding an opening at the Bar in
Constantinople, and the other regarding another opening in
Alexandria. I said, half in jest, half seriously, " Ask him to
let me see the set which he rejects." Next day I received
a letter from him, sending me a batch of papers and inform-
ing me that he had decided to go to Alexandria, because
doctors had informed him that it would be better for his
health than Constantinople.

I looked through the papers sent me, and found that an
English solicitor who had taken over the professional work
of Mr. (afterwards Sir Charles P.) Butt, who subsequently
became Judge of the Admiralty and Divorce Court, had
recently died and that a successor was desired. I had never
been to Constantinople, but the prospect of a change of
climate and scene for two or three years appealed to me
and to my wife. I felt that I could not continue to
work at the high pressure of the past year, and thought
that by my work in editing, writing, and revising, I
was drifting away from my legal professional work which
I liked. I called upon an Irish Member of Parliament
who had been established at the Bar in Constantinople,
who kindly gave me particulars about the climate and
work. I next visited Mr. Butt, who was practising at
the English Bar, but who had been in busy practice in
Constantinople for a few years. He gave the information
I wanted and tlien told me the story of his having been
in a great collision case in Constantinople and of his being
opposed by Mr. Brett, who was already at the time of our
conversation Mr. Justice Brett. This gentleman had



I GO TO CONSTANTINOPLE 3

greatly approved of Butt's conduct of his case, and advised
him to come to England, promising that he would do his
best to get him appointed as his Junior. This had given Mr.
Butt his opening. After a long interview, in which the already
successful barrister treated me with the fraternal kindness
that Members of the Bar usually shew each other, he advised
me to get leave of absence and to go and give the place a
three months' trial. Upon that advice I acted,

I applied to the Council of the Association for three months'
leave of absence, frankly stating that I was going to look
into the professional business which had been established by
Mr. Butt, and that if it suited me I should not return. The
Council granted my request, but with the candid expression
of a hope by the most prominent members that I should not
like it and should return.

As I did not return, I may be allowed to say that my four
years' work at the Social Science Association will afford me
to the hour of my death pleasant recollections of a number
of devoted men and women who were the salt of London life.
The Association had done, and when I left it was doing,
useful work. It had amongst its contributors not merely
statesmen such as Lord Brougham, Mr. Gladstone, Lord
Derby, Sir Stafford Northcote, Lord Carnarvon, and others
belonging to both the great poHtical parties, but social
reformers hke Florence Nightingale, Miss Mary Carpenter,
Sir Walter Crofton, Frederic Hill ; political economists, of
whom the greatest was probably John Stuart Mill, not to
speak of writers like Matthew Arnold, F. D, Maurice,
Frederic Harrison, Charles Kingsley, and a host of others.



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