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THE ROAD TO HEALTH



CASTINE SCHOOL DEPT.

no._jL_ date

SEP 5 1955



A^u^^s







Edwina Jones, Supervisor, Physical Education,
Cleveland Public Schools, Cleveland, Ohio.



Edna Morgan, Principal, Paul Revere School,
Curriculum Center for Health and Physical Education,
Cleveland, Ohio.

Paul E. Landis, Supervisor Health, Physical Education,

Recreation and Safety, State Department of Education,

Columbus, Ohio.



Consultant

Charles F. Good, M.D., Directing Supervisor,
School Health Service, Cleveland Public Schools,
Cleveland, Ohio.



LAIDLAW BROTHERS



PUBLISHERS



Copyright, 1949
LAIDLAW BROTHERS, INC.



ART DIRECTOR

MILO WINTER

ILLUSTRATIONS BY

MILO WINTER, R. D. NAVIGATO, MARY MILLER,

A. K. BILDER, and C. P. MALTMAN



Printed in the United States of America



INTRODUCTION

The Road to Health series has several important goals:
( 1 ) to show children what good health is, ( 2 ) to help children
learn how to acquire good health, and (3) to help children
learn how to keep their good health.

The Road to Health series concerns itself with the total health
of children. The concept of total health as expressed in Health
Education, 1948 edition, jointly produced by the American Medi-
cal Association and the National Education Association, includes
these four aspects of health : ( 1 ) the physical, ( 2 ) the mental,
(3) the emotional, and (4) the social.

This series — The Road to Health — heartily endorses this con-
cept. Each volume in the series sets forth a clear and effective
program concerned with physical health. In addition, there is
in each book a definite and carefully planned program of games,
stunts, and other group activities. The inclusion of this material
as a program is a unique feature of this series. It is an organic
part of the series.

In each volume, though more directly in some than in others,
the mental aspects of the child's growth are considered and pro-
vided for. In Tour Health and You, for example, the major
part of the instruction material is devoted to the understandable
aspects of mental health.

Every book in the series, through its approach to children as
participants in group living, contributes specifically and generally
to the emotional betterment of children. The group activity
material presented in each chapter in each book shows the need

3



Introduction



for emotional controls and provides opportunity for practice
in achieving such controls.

The social aspects of total health become a natural part of
any program which is concerned specifically with the mental and
emotional aspects of health as well as the physical. When empha-
sis is laid upon the desirability of the child's success with others —
as is the case throughout this series — it follows in a natural way,
as such a thing should follow, that the children are led happily
toward social competence. Thus The Road to Health series makes
its important contribution to the welfare of children m terms of
their total health.

Full explanations, coupled with demonstrative and explanatory
illustrations, lead the pupil to complete understanding of all con-
cepts. The pertinent story material in the lower grades provides
easy and interesting opportunities for younger pupils to acquire
their basic interest in health information. The series then pro-
ceeds from these narrative techniques to a pattern of specific
exposition of definite facts. At the end of each chapter in each
book a program of review, testing, and suggested activities is
presented. In addition to these guides to better learning, each
volume contains a glossary of terms simply defined, and an index
helpful to pupils.

The authors are happy to acknowledge the critical assistance
provided by the American Medical Association and the American
Dental Association in regard to both text and illustrations. They
wish to give particular thanks to Dr. Charles F. Good, who as
consultant gave liberally of his time and professional knowledge.

The authors and publishers feel that in The Road to Health
series they have provided an honest and helpful guide to pupils
on their way to total health.

The Authors








CONTENTS

PAGE
CHAPTER I— WHY YOU EAT

The Immediate Reasons for Eating 9

Good Eating Habits 11

The Basic Reasons for Eating 12

Activities for Health 20

CHAPTER n— WHERE FOOD COMES FROM

Classes and Sources of Foods 33

Foods from Plants 34

Foods from Animals 39

Activities for Health 46

CHAPTER HI— FOODS AND THEIR BASIC ELEMENTS

What Foods Are 57

The Basic Seven Food Groups 59

Basic Elements an Foods 63

Activity for Health 73

CHAPTER IV— WHAT THE VARIOUS FOODS WILL DO
FOR YOU

Foods as Body Builders 81

Foods as Sources of Heat and Energy .... 90

Activity for Health 101

5




6 Contents

PAGE
CHAPTER V— ADDITIONAL FUNCTIONS OF VARIOUS
FOODS

Foods for the Regulation of Body Functions . .107

Health Protecting Foods and Body Regulators 115

Daily Food Planning 125

Activity for Health 127

CHAPTER VI— BACTERIA

What Bacteria Are 133

Bacteria That Are Helpful 134

Bacteria That Are Harmful 145

How Bacteria Were Discovered 147

Activity for Health 152

CHAPTER VII— HOW BACTERIA GROW

Characteristics of Bacteria 159

Growing Bacteria 163

The Effect of Temperature upon Bacteria . .167

Activity for Health 176

CHAPTER VIII— HOW HARMFUL BACTERIA ARE
CONTROLLED

Harmful Bacteria and Food 185

Controlling Bacteria by Salting, Smoking, and

Drying 189

Controlling Bacteria by Canning 195

Controlling Bacteria by Refrigeration . . . .198

Activity for Health 202

CHAPTER IX— HARMFUL BACTERIA AND THE HUMAN
BODY

How Bacteria Enter the Body 209

The War Against Bacteria 210

Body Defenses against Bacteria 215

Antitoxins 221

Activity for Health 225



Contents 7

PAGE
CHAPTER X— PREVENTING THE SPREAD OF DISEASE

How Disease Is Spread Through Harmful

Bacteria 231

How Disease Is Spread by Human Beings . . . 234

How Disease Is Spread by Water 239

How Disease Is Spread by Milk 244

How Disease Is Spread by Insects 249

Activities for Health 255

CHAPTER XI— PROTECTING YOUR HEALTH

The Importance of Keeping Fit 263

How to Keep Fit 265

Some Things to Avoid 268

Activity for Health 274

CHAPTER XII— YOUR HEALTH

Health in the Home 279

Health in the Community 280

Content of the Health Examination .... 284

A Healthful School Environment 287

The Work of the Health Department .... 292
Activities for Health 295

Glossary 303

Index 315



CHAPTER I
WHY YOU EAT

The Immediate Reasons for Eating

Satisfaction of Hunger. A healthy person usually
has a normal appetite. Appetite is a mild, natural
longing for food. An appetite may be worked up
by sensing the pleasant odors of food. It can be
aroused by the sight of foods you like.

When the longing for food is strong, it becomes
hunger. Hunger is caused by the contractions of
your stomach when it is empty. When you are
hungry, you eat, if it is possible to do so. Satisfying
your hunger pangs makes you comfortable again.
Therefore, you eat to satisfy hunger.

Eating Enjoyment and Taste and Smell. Your
senses of taste and smell make eating a pleasure.
Whether food tastes good or bad depends upon your
own likes or dislikes. But good, wholesome food
which is well prepared usually tastes good. A very
hungry person may enjoy food that has any kind
of flavor or taste.



10



Keeping Healthy



OLFACTORY BULB^^^li



OLFACTORY
NERVES




TONGUE




BITTER
SOUR



SALTY



SWEET



When you eat food you notice how good it tastes.
When food is being cooked you notice certain pleas-
ant odors. That is why you say that the food smells
good. The senses of taste and smell are closely asso-
ciated with appetite.

The sense of taste comes from taste buds located
on the tongue, the inside of the cheeks, and the back
part of the mouth. These taste buds make it pos-
sible for us to distinguish among bitter, sweet, salty,
and sour.

The sense of smell comes from a group of nerves
located in the upper part of the nose. Here is an



Why You Eat H

example of how these nerves work. Odors are given
off from cooking food in the form of vapor or gas.
Such odors spread quickly. They sometimes carry
long distances. They touch the ends of the nerves
mentioned above. Then the nerves carry the sensa-
tion of the odor of the food to the brain, and you
smell the food.

The chewing of food releases from it certain ele-
ments, about which you will learn more in Chapter
Three. These elements stimulate the nerve endings
in the nose.

Good Eating Habits

Importance of Meals. Good eating habits are
important for growth, development, and good
health. Eating at regular times is one good habit.
Eating proper kinds of food is another good habit.
And eating the proper quantities of food is a third
good habit. It is important to eat three meals a day.
Each meal is important. Plenty of time should be
given to each meal. The meal should not be hurried.
Eat slowly and take plenty of time to enjoy your
meal.



12 Keeping Healthy

Pleasant Feelings and Relationships. It is im-
portant also that your mealtimes be pleasant occa-
sions. Gome to the table in a happy frame of mind.
Carry on a pleasant conversation at the table. Good
conversation during mealtime will do much to pre-
vent one from eating too fast. Avoid quarreling
while eating. A good disposition will aid appetite
and digestion.

Meals should be eaten in clean surroundings. At-
tractive eating rooms, free from noise, help to make
meals enjoyable.

The Basic Reasons for Eating

Four Basic Reasons for Eating. The four most
important reasons for eating are the four needs
for food. The first need is for building material.
The body needs food to build all its parts. The sec-
ond need is for material to repair and replace worn-
out cells or tissues. The third need is to supply the
body with heat and energy. The fourth need is to
regulate body functions.

For Building Material. The picture shows two
builders, each using different building materials.



Why You Eat



13





The man is building a wall. His materials are
bricks. He knows just where to put each brick.
He knows which brick to choose for a certain place.
He selects his bricks with care. A brick in the wrong
place or a poor brick in any place would spoil the
wall or building. A good builder uses his material
in the right places.

The girl is building a strong body. Her material
is the food on the table. These foods contain impor-
tant elements. The human body is composed of
cells. Every living cell is dependent upon food for
growth. Cells use the materials in food as the food



14 Keeping Healthy

passes through the body. The cell uses the food for
building more cells.

These elements in the foods are the building
blocks of tissue, muscle, bones, and teeth. The girl
must select the correct foods to maintain the body
and build muscle. She must select foods which are
a source of new tissue. She must select the correct
foods to build her teeth. She must know which
are the best materials for her building.

When the man builder uses the wrong brick, it
shows immediately. When the girl uses the wrong
food, it takes a long time before the body shows the
mistake. It also takes some time to correct the
mistake. Therefore, it is important that the girl
builder should know which materials to use. Learn-
ing which are the right foods to eat and then eat-
ing them will help the body maintain its health.

For Repair and Replacement. A certain number of
the body cells die. When the cells die, they are
quickly replaced by others. The cells or tissues wear
out and must be replaced. Eating is important for
the repair and replacement of cells and tissue. Eat-
ing the proper foods will help the body maintain its
health. Eating proper foods will replace worn-out



Why You Eat



15



parts, and construct new materials in the process
of growth.

For Heat and Energy. In the picture coal is be-
ing fed to the furnace. The coal will be burned and
used up. Heat will result from this process of burn-
ing. Such furnaces are used to heat houses and
buildings. Houses and buildings are also heated by
gas furnaces and fuel oil furnaces. The coal, gas,
or fuel oil burning in the furnace makes heat to
warm your room. A thermometer in the room will
record the temperature. The temperature in the
room can be controlled by using less coal, gas, or fuel
oil in the furnace.

The boy in the picture is eating food. The food
he is eating will be burned and used up. As the




16 Keeping Healthy

food is burned and used up, it will produce heat in
the body. The temperature of the body can also be
measured with a thermometer. In this case you use
a special kind of thermometer. Unless you are ill,
your body temperature always stays close to 98.6
degrees Fahrenheit.

The heat in the body comes from certain kinds
of food that you eat, just as the heat from the fur-
nace comes from the coal, gas, or fuel oil. Thus,
when the food is burned or used up in your body,
it provides heat and energy for you to use in work
or play. A person who is starving or fasting does
not have energy for work or play. Nor does that
person have sufficient body heat. He tends to have
lower body temperature. He moves about little and
has no desire to be active. Lack of proper food
causes a deficiency of the heat and energy needed.

Although the body is like a furnace, it does not
burn food in the way a furnace burns coal. When
all the coal is burned in the furnace, it no longer
gives off heat. The furnace ceases to work. This
is not true of the body. Your body is giving off heat
at all times, even when you are resting or sleeping.
You breathe, your heart beats, and your internal



Why You Eat



17



muscles continue to move. As long as you are alive
your body is at work. You burn your fuel to support
the work which your body is doing. The work of the
body is also increased when you exercise and play.
Cold weather also increases the work of the body.
You put on heavy clothes to keep out the cold air,
but your body is warm anyway. The heat comes
from the food you eat. Your house, that is your body,
has to be heated all day, every day. It has to be




18 Keeping Healthy

heated all night, all through the year. In fact, your
body has to be heated all the time.

All foods give some energy and heat. However,
some kinds of food provide more heat than other
kinds. These foods will be discussed later.

For Regulation of Body Functions. Your body
depends upon food for a supply of substances which
help to regulate body functions. These substances
are known as mineral elements. The human body
contains minerals in varying amounts. Some of
the most important mineral elements found in the
human body are given in the table below :

calcium sulphur magnesium copper

phosphorus sodium iron iodine

potassium chlorine manganese
Other substances which help in the regulation
of body functions are known as vitamins. Vitamins
are also known as the health protecting foods. You
will study about them in Chapter Five. There are
very minute quantities and traces of other elements.
The foods we eat supply these elements. Not every
food we eat contains all the elements we need.

Some foods may supply a certain mineral or sev-
eral minerals. Other foods may not contain these



Why You Eat 1?

same minerals at all. Minerals exist in varying de-
grees in different foods. The mineral elements are
obtained from a great variety of foods we eat.

The Importance of Minerals. The life of a cell
depends upon food. And, unless the food contains
minerals, the cell will not grow. All living cells de-
pend on certain minerals like iron and phosphorus
for growth, life, and activity. However, all the min-
erals play an important part in the life and growth
of the cells. The mineral elements are found in the
muscles, bones, teeth, blood, and all other parts of
the body. They enter into the structure of the body.
They are highly important for the growth of the
cells. They are, however, more important for the
regulation of body processes.

Each mineral element has its own special part to
play in the regulation of body functions. Minerals
control the ability of muscles to contract. Calcium,
sodium, and potassium are important in this re-
spect. Minerals control the ability of nerve tissue
to do its work. Minerals help us digest our foods.
Minerals are also essential to the blood. In fact,
as the minerals enter into every living cell, they
control all the vital processes.



20 Keeping Healthy

Minerals are also important for growth and the
protection of the body from disease. The regulation
of body functions depends on many substances.
Besides minerals and vitamins, water and other
substances help in the regulation of body functions.
Eating a wide variety of foods will help supply a
wide variety of substances which are necessary to
regulate body functions.

Nutrition. Growth, activity, and freedom from
disease all depend upon good nutrition. Nutrition
means feeding or supplying the body with food to
promote growth and development. Good nutrition
is dependent on the kind and amount of food eaten.
Eating the right kinds of food will build strong,
healthy bodies. Eating the right kinds of food will
build keen, alert minds, sound teeth, and strong
bones. These factors and many others are impor-
tant to every person for health and happiness in life

Activities for Health

How to Catch a Ball. Many of your games re-
quire throwing and catching. In any case, knowing
how to catch a ball is important. You use different



Why You Eat 21





kinds of balls in the games you play. Your skill of
throwing and catching is tested as you learn to
throw and catch many kinds of balls. It is impor-
tant to know how to catch a ball.

Watch a person catching a ball. It looks easy.
Arms, hands, and fingers are used to catch the ball.
The thumbs are spread out from the hand. When
the ball comes, there is a place for it. It will be
caught in that place. Other parts of the body as
well as the hands and arms are used in catching.
The elbows and knees are slightly bent. The arms
reach for the ball as if giving it an invitation to
come. When it comes, the arms draw it toward the
body.



22 Keeping Healthy

If the fingers and hands are stiff and tense, the
ball may hit the ends of the fingers. This may cause
serious injury to the finger joints. Wrists and arms
must be relaxed and not held stiff.

Catching a ball is an important and difficult skill
to master. Practice every day is necessary. The
pitcher and catcher in a baseball game take a great
deal of responsibility. They hold key positions on the
team. A key position is one which controls what is
taking place. The catcher gives signals to the
pitcher. Both pitcher and catcher must be men-
tally alert at all times for good control.

Bob Feller was one of the pitchers for the Navy
during the Second World War. Bob Feller pitched
well. All the players on the team knew that he had
practiced many years to become one of the best
pitchers. When he was a young boy, he spent a great
deal of time playing and working outdoors. He
began practicing good health habits when he was
very young. These early habits gave him strong
arms, wrists, and fingers to throw, to bat, and to
catch. Good health habits gave him sturdy legs for
running and balancing. Good health habits gave
him steady eyes to watch the ball. His father en-



Why You Eat _^

couraged him to take the best care of his body for
the big job ahead of him. For five years Bob Feller
was at the top of the list of pitchers in the American
League in striking out batters on the opposing
teams.

Too often a person practices the skill of throwing
without practicing the skill of catching. Throwing
and catching are the twins of baseball, softball, and
many other games related to softball and baseball.
Many of your games require you to throw and to
catch.

With regular daily practice the skill of throwing
will improve. The Greeks in ancient days threw jav-
elins and other objects. Today, you usually relate
throwing with catching. Balls of different kinds
and sizes are thrown and caught. Boys and girls of
different ages may use different kinds and sizes of
balls.

Many of you think you know how to throw well.
You may not know that there are different ways of
throwing. You may not know there is a right and a
wrong way to throw. Each type of throw has a
special use. There are the overhead throw, the two-
hand shoulder throw, and the one-hand shoulder



24 Keeping Healthy

throw. You can practice all three throws. You may
discover that you excel in one. If you find one that
suits you, it becomes easy for you to prefer to use
that one in throwing and catching games.

The Overhead Throw. Tall boys or girls are al-
ways popular in games which are played for points
or a score. Although a player is not very tall, he
may be able to score a point by holding the ball
above his head with both hands and throwing it to
another from that position. By jumping and throw-
ing, a player may be able to throw the ball high.
The ball may be thrown higher than the arms of
the tall guards are able to reach. Guards are play-
ers whose purpose it is to prevent the ball from
reaching another player or a goal or a basket. That
kind of throw is called the overhead throw.

To throw a ball from the overhead position you
should remember these rules.

Practice often and regularly. Hold the ball se-
curely, high over the head. Balance it with both
hands before you throw the ball. Point the fingers
wide apart in holding it. Turn the thumbs back in
holding the ball. Hold the arms high and almost
straight. Bend the elbows slightly. Push the ball



Why You Eat 25

forward with the wrists and fingers. Move the
hands and arms forward in the direction the ball
is to go. Keep the ball high in the air as it travels.

If the player jumps as he throws, the ball will
make an arc as it goes from the player who throws
it to the catcher. If the ball is caught, the opposing
team earns a point or gains an advantage. An ad-
vantage is a position favorable to earning a point.
The overhead throw is a hard one for opponents
to stop or to block.

You throw better and more skillfully as you be-
come stronger. You can control the ball. To con-
trol a ball means to direct it to the player or to the
position where it will earn a point or an advantage.

Two-hand Shoulder Throw. Another kind of
throw is called the two-hand shoulder throw. You
probably are eager to learn all the ways to throw
a ball. With regular practice, you can find out
which is the best for you to use naturally and easily.
You have been told how to improve your way of
throwing a ball. You are probably eleven years old.
Your arms, hands, and fingers have grown large.
They have become strong enough to hold, to throw,
and to control a ball. To control a ball means that



26 Keeping Healthy

when you throw a ball, it will go where you want it
to go. Practicing throwing a ball may be com-
pared with practicing on the piano. If the scales
and exercises are practiced carefully and correctly,
playing pieces on the piano will be more enjoyable
and more interesting. You must practice the skills
of throwing. Many games are throwing and catch-
ing games. You enjoy the games if you are skillful.





3~ 1 •■\ L^ ? i





















Why You Eat 27

When you practice the two-hand shoulder pass,
you hold the ball a little distance above the shoulder.
The thumb and the fingers point up and back. The
ball is held between the palms of the hands. The
hands hold the ball. At the proper time the ball
is thrown. The arms swing forward until the elbows
are almost straight. The fingers point in the direc-
tion the ball is to travel. The weight of the body
is changed from the rear foot to the forward foot.
You will then find that the ball goes straight. It
moves with force and direction. Observing and
practicing a few rules about correct ways to throw
does not mean less fun but more fun. In games
which require throwing the ball to another player,
the two-hand shoulder throw probably is the best
one to use.

The right way to throw calls for control and judg-
ment. Judgment means thinking about a problem
carefully. Strong, steady muscles can move and act
with precision as any part of a machine. Your body
is like a machine. Machines require care if they
are to work smoothly. Proper care of the body re-
quires doing vigorous exercises and eating many


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