Clapholte greate y c C. - iii I.
iiii d .
5 1 *
Parmacet the pounde :
Musty meale the laste
Musty malte the quarter
Vynyger the tonne
Osmondes the barrel
Arsnicke the C. pou~d
Emery stones the hundreth
Horschowes the hu~dreth
Lynnen clothe the elle
Bacon the fleche
Bell mettell the C. poud
Hatwoll cours the C.
^f The rate outwarde of clothe.
One long cloth makyth one shorte cloth and vii yardes.
vi Statutes for a clothe.
vi Strayghtes for a clothe.
vi Stokbredes for a clothe.
vi Cardinall whightes for a clothe.
vi Tauestockes for a clothe.
iiii Iselonde dossen for a clothe.
iiii pe~ny stone whightes for a clothe.
iiii Narrow northe" dosse~ for a clothe.
iii Karsayes for a clothe.
iii Neubery whightes for a clothe.
Fyfty goadescotten for a clothe.
ii Brode northern dossen for a clothe.
ii Bridge waters for a clothe.
ii Florentyse for a clothe.
One bastarde longe for a clothe.
And the thirde parte of a clothe.
One bastarde shorte for a clothe.
^[ The contente of measures.
One Flemisshe elle makithe iii quarters of a yarde englisshe.
ii Flemisshe elles makithe one yarde dz. englisshe.
iiii Flemysshe els maketh iii yardes Englysshe.
xx flemisshe elles makithe xv yarde englysshe.
A thousande Flemisshe elles makith vii C. and 1. yardes en-
Med, that x flemisshe elles makith vi elles englishe.
A. C. Flemisshe elles maketh lx elles englysshe.
ii C. flemisshe elles maketh a C. and xl elles englisshe.
One Lyons elle makith v quar.
One frenche elle ters of a yarde en.
One englisshe elle glysshe.
^f The brach of Italye.
v braces makithe iii yard englisshe.
X bracks makith vi yardes englisshe.
xv braces mekith ix yardes englissh.
xx braces makith xii yardes englissh,
A hundreth braces makythe lx yardes Englisshe
^[ The Paunes of Ieane.
iii Pawnes makythe one yarde Englysshe.
vi Pawnes makythe one yarde dz Englisshe.
xii Pawnes makethe iii yardes Englishe.
xxiii Pawnes makyth vi yardes Englisshe.
xlviii Pawnes makyth xii yardes.
f The Vares of Spay ne.
iiii Vares dz makythe iii yardes Englysshe.
ix Vares makithe viii yardes Englysshe.
xviii Vares makithe xvi yardes fcnglysshe.
xxxvi Vares makith xxxii yardes Englysshe.
[ Dyfference of wayghtes.
q Fyrst of the wayght of Troye the trewe once wayeth
xxvii d. whych were coyned trmpore Henrici Sexti.
A poifde of thys wayght wayeth xii ounces.
A gallon of wyne wayeth viii pou~de.
A busshel of wheate co~teynrth in measure viii gallons.
A qunrtorne of all m:>.ner of grayne moten by a bushell co*-
teineth viii busshels.
By thys wayght is bought and solde golde, siluer, perle, pre-
cious stones and iewels.
Also breade is solde by thys wayght.
^f Auncell wayghte.
Aunee.1 wayght is a di.^ceyuable and a false wayght, wherfore
it is forbydden by the kynges acte of parliamente.
^[ Tower Wayght.
A pounde of Tower wayght wayeth of the Troy xi Ounces j
The poifde of Troy wayght wayeth xii ounces.
The pou~d of tower wayght in golde of englysshe coyne,
xxvi li x s.
The one of the tower wayght waieth in golde xl s.
And the coynage of a pou de of golde of the tower wayght is
viii s. vid.
The coynage of the ounce is viii d.
5[ Lyinge wayghte.
Thys Lyinge and Haburdy peyse is all one the pounde co~tein-
yng xvi ounces of trove.
By thys wayght men bye and sell all rrtaner of marchaun-
dyses, as ieade, iron, tynne, copper, stele, waxe, woad, and
sylkes, threde, he~pe, flaxe, ropes, tallowe, and al rrianer of
suche other marcc'aundyses.
^[ Sprvce wayght.
The rewta in Spruce lande is, that who so euer byeth any mar-
chaundyses there by wayght he shall bye it by these wayghtes
folowynge viii lyspoundes facit. c. li. xx. lispoundes facit a
shyp pounde one shyp pounde facit. C. C. 1. 1. xx. shyp
poundes facit, v. M. 1. 1.
[[ Of marthaundyses in dy tiers countreyes.
^[ Fyrste in Spruce la~de very good wolloh clothe, Couer-
lettes, Tynne, ieade and baye sake.
W\ Into Iselande. Course Englysshe clothe, malte, bere, wyne,
sallettes, & gauntlettes, long swerdes, lynnen clothe, amber
bedes, knyues, pointes, glasses, and combes, fresshe butter
^| For Irelande.
5f Good marchandyse for Irlonde is wollen cloth, spisery.
habardassher ware and spanyshe Iron.
5f The rewle of Ostelage in Spayne.
'% Fyrste the ropes and ca~uas of the bales, be for the oste ex-
cept ye take the goodes out unsolde agayne
In primus a brode cloth payeth xii
A scarlette - ' - xxxiiii
A longe clothe - - xviii
A northen dasen - vi
vol n, 'i A. karsaj
A karsay - - v
A karnall whyte - - ii
A statute - - ii
A pece of cotton - - vi
A dossen karsay - - i ii
A westerne dossen - u
A pece of cbamlet - - iiii
A tabull of chamlettes - C C xl
A pece of sat ten - - 1
S gas & saynteomers worstedes - v
A dossen of calues skynnes - vii
A drye hyde - - ii
A pece of tynne - - xxx
A sowe of leade - - xx
A bagge of alome - - xvi
A bagge of galles - - xvi
A bagge of pepper - - Ixx
A butte of dates - - x!
A bagge of'grayne - - Ixx
A barrell of vessell - - lx
A cheste of suger - - xxvii
A serone of sope - x
A barrell of pepper - - Ixx
A kyntall of pepper - x
A sacke of orchell - xx
A barrell of tallovu: - - x
A pipe of tallowe - - xxxiiii
A barrell of dates - - xxxiii
A pipe of pepper - C
5[ The rewle of saynt Georges chappell at saynt Lucas
in Spayne, wherby Englyss/ie me have theyr priui-
T Fyrste a skarlet clothe - xxxiiii
A london clothe - - viii
A bristowe or hampton clothe - viii
A northern dossen - - iii
A karsay - - iii
A brode mede - - iii
A bridge water - - iii
A. pece of cotton - ii
A pece of worstede - - vi
Tauestockes tawntons moltons - i
And salte hydes a laste - - xxxiiii
Diye hydes a laste - i
A pype of tallow - - viii
A barrell of tallowe - - ii
A great blocke of tynne - - xii
A smalle blocke of tynne - - vi
A smalle pece of leade - - ii
A barrell of wrought peuter - iiii
A tonne of oyle x
A tonne of alome - - x
A tonne of wyne - - vi
A tonne of fygges and ray sons - v
A cheste of suger - - viii
A bagge of annessedes, comny, or ryce - ii
A butte of dates - - vi
A serone of sope, a bale of paper, a pece of Chamlet ii
A kyntall of waxe - - iiii
A kyntall of almondes - - i
A rone of grayne - . - iii
A kyntall of pepper - - x
A sacke of orchell - - vi
And all other wares not rehersed the quarter in the hundreth.
FINIS. J. H.
i! A Caueat for Commen Cvrsetors vvlgarely called
Vagabones, set forth by Thomas Harman, Esquier.
for the vtilite and projfyt of hys naturall Cduntrey.
Newly agmented and Imprinted. Anno Domini.
M.D.LXFIl. Vewed, examined and allowed, ac-
cording vnto the Qneenes Maiestyes Iniunctions.
[Wood cut, rudely executed, of a horse and cart with
two rogues fastened at the tail and a man whipping
them.) Imprinted at London in Fletestret at the
signe of the Faulcon by IVylliam Gryfjith, and are
to be solde at his shnppe in Saynt Dunstones Chnrche
yarde in the IVest. # qto. extends to H ii.
* Back of the title a representation of the three distinct articles
necessary to make a birch broom, placed vertically, and described as
" Thre thinges to be noted all in their kynde,
A staff, a beesom, and with, that wyll vvynde.' 1
And over the same, lying as a broom united,
" A beesome of byrche, for babes verye fyt,
A longe lastinge lybbet for loubbers as meete,
A wyth to wynde vp, that these wyll not keepe,
Bynde all vp in one, and vse it to sweepe."'
i. l 2 -\ valuable
A valuable Correspondent has, in the preceding pages
of this volume, communicated an account of a similar
work with the present, called The Fraternitye of (Jaca-
bondes, &c. of which the first edition is supposed to
have appeared in 1565 : hut it it is probable it was
printed earlier, and is alluded to in the following passage
of our author's Fpistle Dedicatory. " There was a few<-
yeres since a small breefe set forthe of some zelous man
to his countrey of whom I knowe not, that made a lytic
shewe of there names and vsage, and gaue a glymsinge
lyghte not sufficient to perswad of their peuyshe pel tinge
and pickinge practyses, but well worthy of prayse." In
another place he says, " these two names a Jarkeman
and a Patrico be in the old briefe of vacabondes, and set
forthe as two kyndes of euell doers:" and which are in
the list already given in the present volume at p. 14.
Thomas Harman, the author, calls himself a " poor?
gentleman ; [to] haue kepte a house these twenty yeares,
where vnto pouerty daylye hath and doth repay re, not
without some releife as my poore callinge and habylvtie
maye and doth extende," and afterwards has *' 1 haue
hadde some of them brought before me when I was in
commission of the peace."
The Dedication is rather inconsistently, for such a work
addressed " to the Rvght Honorable and my singular good
Lady Elizabeth Countes of Shrewsbury," though founded
upon her benevolence and charitable disposition. " I wel, (he
says) by good experience vnderstandinge and consideringeyoui
most tender, pytyfull, gentle and noble nature, not onelye
hauinge a vygelant and merciful! eye to your poore indygente
and feable parishnores, yea not onely in the parishe where
your honour most happely doth dwell, but also in others, in-
uytoninge or nighe adioyninge to the same. As also abottn-
dantly powrynge out dayly your at dent and bountifull chary-
tie vppon all such as commeth for reliefe vnto your luckeh
gates. I thought it good,. necessary, and my bounden dutye
to acquaynte your goodness with the abhominable, wycked
and detestable behauor of all these rowsey, ragged rabblement
of rakehelles, that vnder the pretence of great misery, dyeases
and other innumerable calamities whiche they fayne through
gu-at hipocrisye do wyn and gayne great almes in all places
whfve they wyly wander, to the vtter deludinge of the good
geuers, deceauinge and impouerishing of all suche poore
housholders both sickc and sore, as nether can or maye walke
abroad for reliefe and comforte, where in dede most mercy is
to be shewed,"
He also observes " as far as I can learne or vnderstand by
the examination of a nombcr of them, their lauguag, which
they terms peddelars Frenche or canti~g began but w in these
xxx yeres, lytle aboue, and y l . the first inuenter therof was
hanged all saue the heade; for that is the fynall end of them
all, or els to dye of some filthy and horibie diseases : but much
harme is don in the mean space by their continuance, as some
x. xii. and xvi. yeres before they be consumed and the nom-
ber of them doth dayly renew. I hope their synne is now at
y e . highest, and that as short and as spedy a redres wyl be for
these, as hath bene of late yeres for the wretched, wily wan-
deringe vagabondes, calling and naming them selues Egiptians,
depely dissemblinge and longe hydinge and couerringe their
deepe decetfull practises, fedinge the rude common people
wholy addicted and genen to nouelties, toyes, and newe" inuen-
tions, delytinge them with the strangenes of the attyre of their
heades and practisinge paumistrje to suche as woulde knowe
The derivation and defence of the title to the work,
with some amusing observations on the language then
used, is given in
" The Efiislle to the Reader. Although good Reader I wright
in plain term'cs and not so playnly as truely, concerning the
matter meaning honestly to all men, and wyshe them as much
good as to myne owne harte, yet as there hathe bene so there
is nowe, and hereafter wylbe, curyous beds to finde fauttes,
wherefore I thought it necessary now at this seconde impres-
sion to acquaynt y\ with a great faulte as some takethe it, but
>!one as I meane it, callinge these Vagabonds Cursetors in the
intytelynge of my booke as runneres or rangers aboute the
eountrey, deriued of this Laten word (cvkro) neither do I
wryght it Cooresetores with a duble o;> or Cowresetors with a
w which hath an other singnification; is there no deuersite
betwen a gardein and a garden, maynteynaunce & mainte-
nance, streytes and stretes, those that haue vnderstanding
knowe there is a great dyrference, who is so ingnorantby these
dayes as knoweth not the meaning of a vagabone, and yf an
ydell leuterar should so be called of eny man, would not he
thi~k it bothe odyous and reprocbefull, wyll he not shonne
the name? Ye and where as he maye and dare, w l . bentbrowes
l l 3 wyll
wyll reueng that name of ingnomy, yet this playne name
yagabone is deryucd as others be of" Laten wordes, and now
yse makes it commen to al men, but let vs loke back four C
yeres sithens, & let vs se whether this playn word vagabon was
ysed or no, I beleue not and why, because I rede of no such
name in the old estatutcs of this realme vnles it be in the mar-
gente of the booke, or in the table, which in the collection and
pryntinge was set in, but these were then the com~en names
of these leud leuterares, faytores, robardesmen, drawlatches, &:
valyant beggares, yf I should haue vsed suche wordes or the
same order of wryting as this realme vsed in kynge Henry the
thyrd or Edward y c . fyrstes time: a oh what a grose barberous
fellow haue we here his wryting is both homely and darke
that wee had nede to haue an interpretar, yet then it was verye
well and in short season a great change we see well this dely-
cat age shall haue his tyme on the other sydej elequence haue
T none, I neuer was acquaynted with the muses, I never
tasted of Helycon. But accordinge to my playne order, I haue
set forth this woike symplye and truelye with such vsual words
and termes as is among vs wel known and frequented."'
The characters described are " a ruffler; b a Vpright
man; c a hoker or Angglear; d a Roge ; e a Wykle
a [Roberdesmen, wastors and drawlatches, are names used in
Stat. 5 F.d. 3. c. 14. Feitors and vagabonds, 7 Rich. 2d. C. 5.]
b " So called in a statute made for the punishment ofVacabonds
in the xxvij yeare of kvng Henry the eight late of most famous
memory Eyther he hath serued in the wanes, or els he hath
bene a seining man and weary of well doing, shakinge of all
payne, doth chuse him this ydle lyle, and wretchely wanderes
ab-jiit the most shyres of this realme."
' " Some bee seruing men, artificers and laboryng men traded
. -\i in husbandry. These not minding to get their lyuing with
y e . suet of their face, but casting of all payne wyll wander alter
their wycked maner."
ri < Peryllous and most wicked knaues and be deryued or pro-
cede forth from the vpright men, they commenly go in fiese ier-
kynes and gaily stopes ftp gaily slopes] poynted benethe the kne
They customably carry with them a staffe of v or vi foote
long, in which within one ynch of y e . tope there of is a 1 i tie hole,
bored through in which hole they piitte an yion hoke and with
the same they v.yil plucke vnto them quicly any thing y l . they
may reche ther with. .... I was credebly informed that a hoker
came to a (aimers house in the ded of the night, and putting backe
* drawe window of a low cha~ber, the bed standing hard by the
Roge ; f a prvg^er of Prauncers ; k a Pallyarde ^ h a Fra-
ter;' a Abraham man; k a fresh water Mariner, or
Whipiacke; 1 a Counterfet Cranke ; ,n aDommerar;" a
dronken Tinckar ; a Swadder or Pedler ; p a Jarke man,
sayde wyndowe, in which laye. iii. parsones a man and two bygge
boyes, this lioker with his staffe plucked of their garme~ts which
lay vpon them to kepe them warme with the couerlet and shete
and iefte them lying a slepe naked sauing there shertes, and had
away all cleane, and neuer could vnderstande where it became: I
verely suppose that when they wer wel waked with cold they
surely thought that Robin goodfelow (accordinge to the old
saying) had bene with them that night."
e "Neither so stoute or hardy as the vprightman. Many of
them will go fayntly, and looke piteously, when they see either
meete any person, h.iuing a kercher as white as my shooes tyed
aboufe their heade, with a short staffe in their hand, halting, al-
though they neede not, requiring almes, &c."
f " He that is borne a roge, he is more subtil and more geuen
by natare to all kinds of knauery, then the other."
8 Horse stealers. " These go commonly in jerkins of leather
or of white frese, and carry little wandes in their hands."
k " Called also Clanperdogens, these go with parched clokes,
& haue their Morts with them which they cal wiues."
I " Cary blacke boxes at their gyrdel, wherin they haue a brief
of the Queenes maiesties letters pater.tes geuen to such a poore
spitlehouse for the reliefe of y e . poore ther: which briefe is a
coppie of the letters patentes, & vtterly fained."
k " Fayne themselues to haue bene mad, and haue bene kept
eyther in Bedleam, or in some other prison a good tvme, and not
one amongest twenty that euer came in pryson for any suche
J " Their snipes were drowned in the playne of Salisbury.
The e kynde of caterpillers counterfet great losses on the sea,
these be some Western men, and most be Irysh men."
m " Yong knaues and yong harlots that depely dissemble the
falling sicknes ; for the cranke in their language is the fallyng
II " Leud and most subtiil people; the most part of these are
Walch men, and wil neuer speake, vnlesse they haue extreame
punishmente, but will gape, and with a maruelous force wil liold
downe their toungs doubled, groninge for your charity, &c."
" Called also prygges, be beastly people & these yong knaues
p c Be not all euyl But for as much as they seeke gayne
l l 4 vnhwfully
and a Patricop a Demaunder for glymmar;/ a bawdy
basket; 5 a Antem Morte; 1 a Walking Morte; u a
Dore; x aDellj^ a KynchinMorte; z a Kynchin Co; 5 "
Next an account of " their vsage in the night: with
" the names of the Vpright men, Roges & Palliardes."
This list fills near three pages in treble columns, and is
divided under those several heads; many of the names
have an alias appended, or other description, as " John
Herwood, a maker of wels, he will take halfe his bar-
gaine in hand & when he hath wrought ii or iii daies he
vnlawfnlly aganst the lawes and statutes of this noble realme the}
are well worthy tq be registred among y e . nomber of vacabonds."
q " Jarkmane hathe his name of a Jarke which is a seale in their
languag, as one should make writings and set seales for lycer.ces
and pasportes. And for trouth there is none that goeth about the
countrey of them y l . can wryte, &c A patrico and not a
patriarch, which iii their languge is a priest yt. should make
manages tyll death dyd departe, but they have none suche
so that I wyll not blot my booke wyth these two that be not."
r " For the most part wemen, for glymmar in their language is
fyre: these go with faynen lycences and counterfayted wrytings,
hauing the hands and seales of suche gentlemen as dwelleth nere
to the place where they fayne themselues to haue bene burnt and
their good consumed with fyre."
1 " Also wemen, and go with baskets & capcases on their
armes, wherin they haue laces, pynnes, nedles, white ynkeil, and
round sylke gyrdels of al colours."
! " A wyfe, maried at y e . churche, and they be as chaste as a
'j " Not maryed, these for their vnhappye yeres doth goe as a
Antem Morte, and wyll saye their husbandes died eyther at New-
hauen, Ireland ; or in some sendee of the Prince. These make
I.-, ces vpon staues & purses that they cary in their hands, and whyte
vallance for beddes."
x A woman made a prostitute by the Vpright man.
y " A young wench."
z " A lytle gyrle, the mortes their mothers carries them at
their backes in their slates, whiche is their shetes, and bryngs them
vp safely tyll they grow to be rype, and soon rype, soon rotten.'''
a " A younge boye, traden vp to suche peuishe purposes, as
you haue hard of other ycung ympes before, that when he groweth
two yeieF, he is better to hang than to djrawe forth."
runneth away with his earnest," A specimen of their
language is also given, from which an extract will have
its value, by shewing the species of dialect repeatedly al-
luded by early writers as pedlars French. The author
" Here I set before thee good reader, the leud lousey lan-
guage of these lewtering luskes, and lasy lorrels, wher with
they bye and sell the common people as they passe through
the country. Which language they terme Peddeiars Frcnche,
a vnknowen tong onely, But to these bold beastly ^awdye Beg-
gers, and vaine Vaeabondes, being halfe myngled with
Pjtiglyshe, when it is familiarly talked and fyrste placing
thinges by their proper names, as an introduction to this
" Nab, a head.
Nabchet, a hat or cap.
A smeling chete, a nose.
Gan, a mouth.
A pratlynge chete, a tounge.
Crashing chetes, teeth.
Hearing chetes, ears.
A famblinge chete, a rynge on thy hand.
Quatomes, a body.
A commission, a shierte.
A lag of duds, a buck of clothes.
A slate or slats, a sheete or shetes.
A horde, a shyllinge.
Flagg, a groate.
A wyn, a penny.
A make, a halfepenny.
Antem, a church.
Salomon, a alter or masse.
Patrico, a priest.
Nosegent, a nunne.
A gyggar, a doore.
The lightmans, the daye,
The darkma~s the night.
Y 1 '. qnyer custyn, y''. Justicer of peace.
'] he harma'beck, the counstabla.
The harmanes, the stockes.
To skowere y s . cramprings, to weare bokes or fetters.
To cly the gerke, to be w hypped.
The ruffian cly thee, the deuell take thee."
There is also a dialogue where fl the Vpright Cofe
canteth to the Rose;" but the above is sufficient illus-
tration of this subject, whereof it may be remarked that
many of the slang phrases are yet in use, and retained by
Grose in his Dictionary. A rude representation of two
culprits placed in the stocks, with four lines in rhime
over them, then is introduced : other four lines, and a
wood-cut of fetters and shackels, i.e. hand-cuffs: a
similar introduction and representation of whips and
rods, and another of a man going to be hanged. " VVhyte
this second impression was in printinge it fortuned that
Nycholas Blunt, who called hymselfcNycholan Gennyno
a counterefet Cranke, that is spoken of in this booke,
was foude begging in the whyte fryers (on newe yeres
clay last past; Anno Domini 1567, and comrnytted, 8cc."
whose figure is given as standing in the pillory. The
last page contains the writer's farewell.
" Thus I conclude my bolde beggars booke
That all estates most playnely maye see ;
As in a glasse well pollyshed to looke,
Their double demeaner in eche degree,
Their lyues, their language, their names as they be-
That with this warning their mytides may be warmed,
To amende their mysdeedes, and solyue vnharmed.
The printer to fill the page has introduced the Virgin
and Child, central of several circles, the outer one of
Imprynled at London in Fletestrete at the signe of
the Fanlcon, ly Wylliam gryjfiih. Anno Domnu
1567. the eight of January .
^1 The Hislorie of John Lorde Mandozze. [Translated
from the Spanish. By Thomas De la Pcend. 1565.
If we may judge from the silence of our predecessors
in the field of bibliographical research the production, of
which an opportunity now occurs of giving some ac-
count, may be ranked among those, which, from the
devastation of casualty, or from tt-e more gradual con-
sumption of time, is arrived at that pitch of rarity which
holds out the most irresistible temptation to the victims
of the Bibliomania.
To gratify the curiosity which its presumed scarcity
will naturally awaken relative to its contents, I have