practised, was introduced first by Calvin at Geneva, in 1543.
From that Church the practice went forth into all the reform-
ed Churches in France, and was introduced into Ent;land by
the Presbyterians, who resided at Geneva, and established an
English Church there during the Marian persccutioTi. The
English exiles, while at Geneva, commenced and completed
a transbttion of the scriptures into the English languas^c.
The principal translators were Miles Covcrdale^ C/iristo/ihtr
Goodman^ John Knox^ Anthony Gilby or Gibbs.^ Thomas ^ujtifi-
son, IVilliam Cole and' JVilliarn Whit tin if ham. They divided
the chapters into verses, and added notes in the mur_9;in, and
also tables, maps, kc. and published it with a dedication to
Queen Elizabeth in 1560. The Psalms versified and set to
musick, as in the Church of Geneva, were annexed to this
Bible. This version has been known as that of Stcrnhold and
Hojikin^. The initials of the name of the versifier were pre-
40i LIFE OF CALVIN. hoxes,
fixed to each Psalm. Sternhold was the first, who, in imi-
tation of Marot, turned about forty of the Psalms into English
metre. And in 1554, they were published with a dedication
elseif (getClientWidth() > 430)
to Edward V'l. Strype's Annals Vol. 2, p. 86. He died in
1549. John Hopkins, Thomas Norton, William Whitting-
ham and others versified the others in English metre at
Geneva, which, together with Sternhold*s, were published
first in 1559, and then in 1560, at the end of the Geneva Bi-
ble. Thus the Psalms versified in English came into
England, and were allowed first to be sung before the morn-
ing and CA^ening service ; and at length they were published
witli this declaration : Psalms set forth and allowed to be
^ung in all Churches^ before and after morning and evening
JPraycr, as also before and after Sermons. And in a short
time they superceded the Te Deu?n^ Btnedicite^ Magnificat
and A«72c di?}iittis, Avhich had been retained from the Romish
Church. Bayle, Art. Marot. Neal. p. 109. Heylin. p. 213,
214. Rees Cy. Art. Bible. Burnet, p. 290.
NO. 9 - PAGE 12.
The Princess Re nee was very distinguished for her un=
shaken and cordial attachment to the cause of the Reforma-
tion. Being the daughter of Lewis XII. her influence was
considerable, and she used it nobly and faithfully in relieving
the poor, and supporting the persecuted in their distresses.
After the death of the Duke of Ferrara, her husband, in 1559,
she returned from Italy to France in 1560, and openly profes-
sed the reformed doctrines at Montagris, where she died in
1575. Her constancy, courage and humanity have rarely
been equalled, in adhering to her religious principles, and in
supporting the poor and pei^ecuted under all the apprehen=
siveness of Popish superstition and barbarous cruelty.
NO. 10— PAGE 15.
(Note. — The following note is referred to page 15, and is
there called No. 9 ; it should be No. 10.)
Francis Junius, in his animadversions upon Bellarmin,
says that he was at Geneva when Calvin closed bis life ; but
that he never saw, heard, knew, thought, or even dreamed of
the blasphemies and curses which the Papists said he uttered
at his death. So it may be presumed, that when Beza wrote
the account of Calvin's entering on the ministerial office, he
did not even ^rcam, that any one, either from ignorance or
iJOTEs. LIFE OF CALVIN. 40<>
effrontery, would call in question or deny C'ilvu\'s ordination.
But what Beza did not probably even dream of, two Doctors
in America, after about two centuries and a half, have called
in question, and it seems denied. Dr. Lcaminp: may be excu-
sed for not construing the Latin of Bcza ; but Dr. Bowden,
unless by chusing to lose himself in his own prejudices, he
has passed beyond the limits of common testimony, and es-
caped out of the entire dominion of argument, may bo re-
quested to read in the original Latin, Bezas life of Calvhi^
Anno. 1536. Let him examine also Calvin's Preface to his
Commentary on the Psalms, and his answer to Sadolet, a short
extract from which shall be here given in a fair translation
<' When I was called at Geneva, the reformed religion was
already established, and the order of the Church corrected. I
not only approved by my voice of those things which had
been done by Farel and Viret^ but as much as I was able, I
laboured to preserve and confirm that cause in which I was
by necessity united with them. I could have easily forgiven
you any personal injury, out of respect to your office and lite-
rature ; but when I see my ininifitnjy which I doub^^ not was
founded and sanctioned by the vocation ot God, \\ tended
through my side, it would be perfidy and not patience, if I
should remain silent and dissemble in such a case. / dis-
charged first the office of Profeanor and aflerivards that of
Pastor in that Church. And I contend that I accepted of that
charge having the authority of a laniful vocation. With how
great fidelity and reverential fear I performed my duty, I
have no occasion now to testify in detail. I will not arro-
gate to myself any peculiar discernment, erudition, prudence,
address or even diligence. I am, however, conscious, before
Christ my judge,and all his Angels,that I walked in thatChur( h
with the sincerity which is becoming in the work of the Lord.
On this point, all good men will give me the most luminous
testimony. Since then this ministry has been established by
the Lord, if I should silently suffer it to be slandered and
abused by you, who would not reprobate such silence as a
prevarication ? Every one sees, that I am now pledged by
the high responsibility of wy office^ and that I cannct escape
the obligation which binds me to defend myself against your
criminations, unless I deliberately, and with open perfidy,
abandon and betray the work which the Lord has committed
to my charge. But though I am, at present, freed from the
pastoral charge of the Gcnevese Church, still this is' no rea-
son why I should not embrace it with paternal aflection, since
God once put me in authority over it, and bound me to it in
a perpetual covenant." Cwrdiual Sadolet did not deny Ca!-
4aG LIFE OF CALVIN. notes.
vin's ordination. Opuscula Calvini, p. 105. Bellarmin, ano-
ther Cardinal) who was twenty two years of age when
Calvin deceased, says that none but the Popes could create
Bishops and Presbyters^ — and that neither Luther, nor Zu-
ixGLius, nor Calvin were Bishops, but only Presbyters — i
scd tantum Prebyteri. It may be fairly left with the Dr. to
determine the question, how Calvin could be a Presbyter^
without ordination ?
P'rancis Junius, in his animadversions upon Bellarmin, says
that Luther and Zuinglius received ordination in the Romish
Church — ^that Calvin was ordained by those who preceded him
— qui anteccsscrunt; eumque ordinaverunt. — Farel and Coraudy
who received ordination in the Romish Church, preceded Cal-
vin at Geneva; and Beza states, that they were colleagues
with Calvin in the Church in that city. The letter of Bucer
to Calvin, dated Strasburg, November 1, 1536, is unanswera-
ble testimony, that Calvin was at this time a Minister of the
Church of Geneva ; or Bucer would not have spoken of his
ministry, nor called him 7ny brother and fellow Minister.
This designates the time before which Calvin must have re-
ceived ordination and the charge of that Church. — See No. 3
of the preceding Letters in this volume. For other proofs of
Calvin's ordination, see the able and elegant letters of Dr.
Miller, vol. 2, Continuation of letters concerning the consti-
tution and order of the Christian Ministry, addressed to the
members of the Presbyterian Churches in the city of JSfew-
Yorky 1809. Lett. 7, p. 306.
NO. 11~PAGE 35.
Ubi quum Pastoris constantis et seduli opera requireretur.
—-Beza has used the word Pastor in a manner too loose for a
historian, and has misled some learned writers, who, from this
expression, have concluded that Sebastian Castalio was a Pas'
tor of the Church. But this is not the fact. Castalio was ne-
ver in the ministry. Calvin first patronized him by introdu-
cing him as a teacher of the languages in the Divinity school at
Strasburg, about 1540 or 1541. After Calvin returned to
Geneva, he invited Castalio to take the charge of the gram-
mar school in this city. He soon discovered his obscene
taste and heretical opinions. Castalio was excluded by the
Senate from Geneva in 1544. The following is a part of the
certificate which Castalio states was given him at that time,
written by Calvin : " We testify, in a brief manner, that he
so conducted himself with us that by our united consent he
was already designed for the pastoral office. — ■ — Lest there-
NOTES- LIFE OF CALVIN. 407
fore, any one should suspect, that it was for some other reason
that Sebastian went away from us, we would give this testi-
mony wherever he shall come : — he left of his own accord
the mastership of the school. In that employment he so
conducted himself, that we judged him worthy of the holy
ministry ; and to this he would have been received had it
not been for some spots on his life, and some profane opin-
ions which he advanced against the articles of our faith.
These were the only reasons which prevented." This is
full evidence, that Castalio was never in the Ministry, and of
course not deposed from it, as Spon and others have asserted.
Calvin's conduct in this instance appears candid and dignified
towards Castalio, who did not cease, in a covert and hypocri-
tical way, to injure and involve him in difiiculties, by aiding
the factious at Geneva. Castalio spent his time subsequent!)
at Basil where he instructed in the languages. lie died
poor and unpatronized, December 29, 1563, aged 48. Baylf:
NO. 12— PAGE 37.
Albert Pighius wrote ten books against Calvin's Insti-
tutes. Six books were upon the freedom of the ivilL These
Calvin answered in the course of two months, amidst all his
other avocations. Calvin, in his reply to the first book of
Pighius, says, "I wonder how Pighius had the assurance to
transcribe so familiarly several things from my book into his
own without naming me. I do not see by what authority he
could do it unless by the right of prescription ; for he has
been accustomed to do this for a long time. In that great
book, which he published against our articles of failh> he has
stuffed in whole pages from my Institutes, as may be seen,
and adapted it to his purpose, as though it was his own.
Now I would know by what right or title, he thus uses what
is mine for his own ? Does he thmk, that he has a right to
plunder me of whatever he pleases, because I ani liis enemy!'
But this kind of depredation can neither be justified by law nor
custom. Only one pretext remains, being a Kainod man, it
is possible, that what came first into my mind, miglit also
come into his. But I would ask the readers, if tiiey have
leisure, to compare the first chapter of Pighius' buok \utl^
the first chapter of my Institutes — and what he wrote on jus-
tification in his other work ^^ith the ^ixth thafitcr of my In-
stitutes."* " He does not steal secretly here and there, nor
» Calvin's Institutes were at this time divided only int« chapters.
408 LIFE OF CALVIN. i?otEs.
does he study to conceal his plunder by artifice, in order to
make it look like his own.— He openly recites -whole pages
word for word. But I have something to say in his defence.
He acted more from the expectation of security than silliness.
He sought to please those nvho scrufiulously avoid reading
our writings^ while they eagerly jiraise and admire every
thing of every kind ivhich opposes W5.»— <Opuscula Calvini.
p. 1 2 I .
NO. 13— PAGE 49.
Bucer, in a letter to Calvin, dated Strasburg, October 28,
1542, says ; " Our literary school is well supplied ; a man
has arrived here from Italy, learned in Greek, Hebrew and
Latin, happily versed in the scriptures, 44 years of age, with
good talents and a penetrating genius ; his name is Peter
Martyr. He was President of the Canons of Lucca in
Martyr continued at Strasburg, until, at the invitation of
Cranmer in the King's name, he v/ent over to England, in
November 1547. In 1549, he was appointed divinity Pro-
fessor at Oxford, by Edward VI. He married at Strasburg
a nun who, like himself, had escaped from the superstitions
of a convent. She died during his residence at Oxford. On
the accession of Queen Mary in 1553, after Martyr returned
to Strasburg, during the Marian persecution, the bones of
his wife were dug up by the virulent Papists, and buried in
a dung hill. Martyr v/^as, for the seven last years of his life,
Professor at Zurich. He was at the Convention at Poissy, in
1561, with Theodore Beza, and died soon after his return in
1562, aged 63. He was learned, zealous, sincere and hum-
ble. He wrote Commentaries on the scriptures, and against
the Papists, and on the Lord's Sup/ier, in reply to Gardner,
Bishop of Winchester. Burnet, Vol. 2, p. 50.
NO. 14— PAGE 161.
Martin Bucer was born 1491, at Schelestadt in the Pro-
vince of Alsace. He entered the order of Dominicans
at the age of 7 years. In 1521, he had a conference with
Luther. Having previously perused the writings of Eras-
mus and of Luther, he was prepared to unite with the Ger-
man Reformers. He settled at Strasburg, and officiated
there both as Minister and theological Professor for 20 years ;
and with Capito was the chief instrument of the early refor-
mation in that city. When the troubles about the Interiin
NOTES. LIFE OF CALVIN. 409
ai-ose, he gladly accepted the invitation of Cranmer, and %vent
to England 1549. He was highly respected by the King and
Cranmer, as the great honours paid his remains at his funeral
testify. In the Marian persecution, his tomb was demolish-
ed and his body burnt; but the tomb was afterwards rebuilt
by order of Queen Elizabeth. He was learned in the Latin,
Greek and Hebrew.
He revised the Liturgy of the English Church in 1550,
at the request of Cranmer. The first step towards a refor-
mation of the service of the Church in England was under
Henry VHL in 1536. Alexander Aless, a Scotchman, who
resided sometime in Germany, had imbibed the Lutheran sen-
timents. He was at this time Avith Cranmer at Lambetii.
Lord Cromwell inti'oduced him to the Convocation, and de-
sired him to give his opinion about the Sacraments. He
maintained that Christ instituted only two, Baptism and the
Lord's Supper. In this Convocation, they agreed to five
articles of faith, and five concerning the ceremonies of the
Church. These were printed and published with the sanc-
tion of Henry.
On the accession of Edward VI. in 1547, the Liturgy of
the Church was new modelled from the several Popish missals
or mass-books, as of Sarum, Bangor, York, Hereford and
Lincoln. Thus reformed, it was published and sanctioned
by Edward, in November, 1548. In 1550, the common pray-
er-book was brought to another revision. Bucer was now
Professor at Cambridge ; and at Cranmer's request, Alex-
ander Aless at this time translated the Liturgy of 15 48 into
Latin for the use of Bucer. In the works of Bucer, the
translation of Aless is published with the censures of
Bucer, which are numerous, and which Burnet says were
afterwards mostly adopted. Bucer finished his corrections
January 5, 1551, and died February 28.
The Capitation to these is as follows : Tlie Corrections cf
Martin Bucer ^i/ion the Liturgy^ or the. order of the Church
and the Ministry in the Kingdom of Kvgland ; ivrittcn at
the request of Tho7nas Cranmer., Archbiaholi of Canterbury.
Opera Buceri, p. 456.
Dr. Pleylin, in labouring with much petulance to fix an
odium upon Calvin, has highly complimented him, by rela-
ting some things which others of that Church ai-e anxious lo
deny. He says, " That Calvin having taken ordtM* ANith
Martin Bucer, on his first coming into England, u> give him
some account of the English Liturgy ; he hud no sooner ii*i-
ti'sficd hijrtself in the sight tliercof, but he makcb presently
4iiO LIFE OF CALVIN.
his exceptions and demurs upon it"*^— -«and "presently
writes back to Bucer, whom he requires to be instant with
the Lord Protector, that all such rites as savoured of super-
stition might be taken away." — " He had his agents in the
court, the city, the universities, the country, and the convoca-
tio7i." — " Let it suffice^ that by the eagerness of their solicita-
tions, more than for any thing ivhich could he faulted in the
book itself it ivas brought under a review (\550) and there -
by altered to a further distance than it had before from the
rituals of the Qhurch of Rome." Heylin Hist. Presb. p.
11 & 12.
Peter Martyr and John Alasco were of the number com-
missioned to revise and embody a system of ecclesiastical
laws for the English Church in 1552. Burnet, Vol. 2, Anno.
1552. In 1551, the articles of faith in the English Church
were prepared. Bucer was for beginning with the doctrines
before the ceremonies, but Cranmer judged it expedient to
vdelay these till the Liturgy should be settled. In what me-
thod they proceeded in compiling the articles Burnet says.
is not certain. He supposes that Cranmer and Ridley first
framed them, and that they were then sent to others to pro-
pose amendments. The doctrines of faith were comprised
in 42 articles, and published with the Liturgy in 1552, and
established by the King. They were again revised and re-
duced with some alterations to the present number 39, in the
veign of Queen Elizabeth in 1562. Burnet, Vol. 2, p. 158.
and Collection, p, 190.
Note from the 5th line at the foot of page 215.
Some of the professed friends, as well as the avowed ene-
mies of Calvin, have been anxious to establish the point, that
Calvin limited the atonement of Christ to the sins of the
elect alone. Calvin's opinion however was, that the atone-
ment of Christ was for Sin, as he deliberately says in his Will,
That the blood of the exalted JRedeeiner was shed for the sins of
the hunian race, — He is no less explicit in his Commentaries-
Rom. V. 18 — " Nam etsi passus est Christus pro peccatis toti-
us mundi, atque omnibus indifferenter Dei benignitate offcr-
tur, non tamen omnes apprehendunt." For although Christ
* Calvin was not alone in his exceptions against the Liturgy, for Cranmer
^^ Fatebatur multa detracta oportere superflua, et ardentibus votis cupiebat
cain melius correcta." — Cranvier confessed that there rjere many svperfjiom
things in the Book, that ought to be taken ovt, and earnestly -tvished that it might
have some further amendment. Pierce's Vindic. p. 12, 13. quoted by Neal,
Vol. 1. Quarto Ed. Appendix, p. 895.-
LIFE OF CALVIN,
SUFFERED FOR THE SINS OF THE WHOLE WORLD, a7ld b\f
the benevolence of God it is indifferently offered to all^ yet all
do not receive him. Opera Calvini, vol. 7.
CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE OF THE POPES AND SOVEREIGNS OP
FRANCE, ENGLAND AND GERMANY, DURING THE LIFE OF
Leo X. created March, 1513,
Adrian VI. January, 1522,
died March, 1513.
KIJSTGS OF FRAjYCE.
KmGS A^TD QUEEjYS OF EJ^GLAJ^D.
Henry VII. crowned 1509,
Edward VI. February, 1547,
Mary, October, 1553,
Elizabeth, January, 1559,
died January, 1547.
EMPEROURS OF GERJlAjYF.
Maximilian, died 151 5.
Charles V. of Spain, crowned 1519, rcsi;j^ncd 1556.
Ferdinand I. succeeded him, and died lp64.
412 LIFE OF CALVIN. noies.
PBLYCIPAL REFORMERS, COTEMPORARJES WITH CALVIJV.
Ulrick Zuinglius, died 1531.
John CEcolampadiusj 153 U
Martin Luther, 1546.
Philip Melancthon, 1560.
Wolfgang Capito, 1541.
Martin Bucer, 1551.
Henry Bullinger, 1575.
Thomas Cranmer, 1556.
William Farel, 1565.
Peter Viret, 15''1-
John Alasco, 1560.
Jerome Zanchius, 1590.
Peter Martyr, 1562.
Theodore Beza^ .1605,
John Knox, ^572.
Afflictions sanctified, page 274.
Anabafitists^ their attempt and defeat, If. Compared with Li-
bertines, 40, 41.
4ugsburgy Diet of, 57,
Bernard^ his letter to Calvin on the subject of his return to
Geneva and Calvin's answer, 268, 269.
Bertilier^ clerk in the lower Council in Geneva, his excom-
munication and the trials of Calvin occasioned by the influ-
ence of Perrin in this matter, 142.
Bolseck^ Jerome, the head of a faction at Geneva, 70 — 72.
Turned Papist and with a malicious view wrote the Life of
Calvin, 128, 183.
Bucer, one of the Reformers, his opinion respecting the In-
terim and his arrival in England, 57 — 59. His death, Feb.
28, 1551, 68.
Ccroli, his character and conduct, 17*— 19. Letter of reproof
from Calvin to him, 245.
Castalioy his unfaithfulness in duty, 35. His version of the
scriptures, and Calvin's opinion of it, 38, 39. Disseminates
Pelagianism, 72, 73. His certificate received from Calvin,
406. A^o. 11.
€atechis7n^ importance of for the instruction of youth, 336.
Cauvin^ the original sirname of Calvin, how changed, 5.
Cecily Secretary to Elizabeth Queen of England, o'Ky.
Censors of books, their ofhce, 242. J\,''o(c.
Charles V. Empcrour of Germany reluctantly aided the cause
of the Reformation, his temporising conduct, 39, 40. His
intrigue, 50 — ^2,
Character and description of Calvin in general, 226 — ':32.
Chateau Caryibrcsis^ the peace of, concluded between I'crdi-
nand King of Spain and Henry H. King of France, the ob.
jectand cffcctts of the same, 195.
Chrism^ its import, 340. J^oie.
Chronological table^ of Popes Sec. 411.
Clemency^ Calvin's Commentary on Seneca's Epistle, De
dementia composed at Paris, his object, 4, 5.
Communion^ mode of receiving members, private administra-
Cona?e,Prince of, a warm advocate of the Reformation, 198, 21 1.
Conference at Worms, an account of it, 265.
Confession of faith for the Protestants proposed by Cranmer,
359 — 364.
Conformity to the Papists condemned by Calvin, 49.
Consfiiracy against Geneva, 383.
Con-vention of Princes at Frankfort under Charles V. for
the peace of the Empire, 253, 258, 263.
Cofi^ Nicholas, by the suggestion of Calvin delivered a dis'
course on the superstitions of those times, 6.
Coraud^ his character, 248.
Corderius^ Mathurin, an account of him, 399, J\'o. 1.
Cox, and his associates, Calvin's letter to them on the subject
of reforming the English Liturgy, 166.
Death of Calvin, an account of, 225.
Decree of the Senate in answer to unreasonable propositions
of Charles V. 264.
Dedication of Calvin's Commentary on the Epistle of John,
Diligence of Calvin, 4, 34, 211.
Biscijiline, principal heads of it, in the Church of Geneva, 15S.
The necessity of it and the principle on which it should be
conducted, 289, 306.
Doctrines, fundamental, 333.
Du Bourge, Annes, a distinguished Counsellour and member
of the Senate of Paris, he was executed for advocating a
spirit of mildness toward the Protestants, 195 — 197.
Ednvard VI. successor of Henry VIII. King of England, hi3
character, 161. Calvin's influence with him to promote the
cause of the Reformation in his kingdom, 58.
Eucharist, the difference between the Lutherans and Calvin-v
ists on this, lamented, 319 — 324.
Excommunication, the right of it belongs to the Church, not
to the civil power, 33, 34.
ExJiiulsion of Calvin, Coraud and Farel from Geneva, 23.
TFubeV) James, an account of him, 401, Ab. 6.
)Parel, William, his zeal in the cause of the Reformation and
his influence with Calvin, 13, 15, 237. His danger for re-
proving the factious at Geneva, 145. His assistance djesir-
ed by Calvin, 292. His last visit to Calvin, 223.
Fate and predestination contrasted, 74.
Fellowshiji with the Church of Rome renounced by Calvin, 9.
Festival days, holiness of them renounced by (.he Church of
Fontainbleau^ place of an Assembly of the nobles of France
for the purpose of devising measures to impede the Reform-
ation, 199, 200.
Francis I. his character, 8, 10, 14.
Frankfort^ Calvin's letter to the English refugees at this