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the continent on foot and convey the news to President Madison in Washington.
This undertaking, one of the most dangerous ever accomplished, and memorable
for its hardships and courage, is fully described in Washington Irving's volume
called "Astoria." Mr. Stuart afterward became a partner of Mr. Astor's in
many of his undertakings and died in Chicago in 1849, as Indian commissioner
for the whole northwest.

In 1893 Dr. Mackay-Smith accepted a call to St. John's church, Washington.
In 1894 he was appointed by President Cleveland as a government visitor to
take part in the e.xaminations at the West Point Military Academy, and again in
1900 he accepted the same office to the Annapolis Naval Academy. After nine,
years in Washington, he was called as bishop coadjutor of Pennsylvania to Phil-
adelphia, where he has since resided, and in February, 191 1, succeeded, as bishop
of the diocese, the late Rt. Rev. O. W. Whitaker, D. D., LL. D. He belongs
to the Union League, both of New York and Philadelphia, the University Club



HISTORY OF PHILADELPHIA 341

of both cities, the University and Century CUib of New York, and is a Hfe
member of the New England Society of New York city and is a son of the
Revolution. His interests are as wide as his culture is broad, and his abiding
geniality and cordiality make him a popular meinber of those clubs with which
he is connected.



CHARLES S. CAMPBELL.

Captain Charles S. Campbell, general superintendent for the United States
Express Company at Philadelphia, was born in Huntingdon in 1864. His father,
J. D. Campbell, is a native of Huntingdon county, Pennsylvania, having been born
in 1839 in a small town known as Newton Hamilton. He read law in Huntingdon,
but in 1886, when Mr. Corbin became president of the Philadelphia & Reading
Railroad, Mr. Campbell was made counselor to the president, which position he
held until 1890, when he became general solicitor, occupying that position for
twenty years, or until 1910, when he retired. Since 1877 he has confined his
entire attention in professional lines to railroad law. At the age of seventy-
two years he is enjoying good health and resides at Wyncote. At the time of
the Civil war he served for three years as a captain of the Forty-ninth Volun-
teer Regiment of Pennsylvania. In early manhood he wedded Ada Campbell,
a daughter of Thomas P. and Ann Campbell, who were also natives of Penn-
sylvania, born near Huntingdon. Mrs. J. D. Campbell is still living and is very
active but confines her attention to her home. Her father, Thomas Campbell,
was prominent in politics in Huntingdon before the Civil war.

Charles S. Campbell pursued his early education in the Griswold College at
Davenport, Iowa, and after the removal of the family east he entered the Grey-
lock Institute at South Williamstown, Massachusetts, where he pursued a pre-
paratory course, becoming later a student in Williams College at Williamstown.
He left college, however, in his junior year to enter business life. He became
connected with the coal trade in New York city and in Philadelphia, and was
active in that line until 1893, when he retired from business for a period of
four years. In 1897 he became associated with the United States Express Com-
pany as a clerk in the cashier's office in Philadelphia, there remaining until the
outbreak of the Spanish-American war, when he joined the army as first lieu-
tenant and adjutant of the Second Pennsylvania Regiment, serving until the
close of hostilities. He was mustered out in the fall of 1898 and returned to
the express company, with which he remained until 1899, when he reenlisted as
captain and adjutant of the United States volunteers, serving in the Philippines
from November of that year until March, 1901. He was mustered out in May
of the latter year and in the following July reentered the service of the United
States Express Company as a clerk. His ability won him rapid promotion, how-
ever, for in September, 1901, he was appointed assistant master of transporta-
tion, in February, 1903, was made assistant general agent at Philadelphia and
in October, 1908, became assistant general superintendent, followed by his
promotion to the general superintendency of the company for Philadelphia in



342 HISTORY OF PHILADELPHIA

November, 1909. His position is thus one of large responsibility, to the duties
of which he gives earnest thought and attention, so systematizing the business
that the work is carried on with the least possible delay and with the best pos-
sible service for the public.

In New York city on the 8th of September, 1892, Mr. Campbell was mar-
ried to Miss Mary A. Bourke, a daughter of Richard and Mary (Behan) Bourke,
both of whom were natives of Dublin, Ireland, and came to this country after
attaining adult age. Mr. and Mrs. Campbell have two children: Harriet, seven-
teen years of age ; and Fairman B., a youth of sixteen, now attending the De
Lancey School of Philadelphia. Mr. Campbell is a member of the Sigma fra-
ternity, of the Army & Navy Club of New York and the Commercial Club of
Washington, in all of which congenial comradeship has won him many friends.
His political allegiance is given to the republican party at the polls but he is
not active in politics, preferring that his interest and activities shall be directed
in other fields.



WILLIAM JACOB MILLER, A. M. Ph. D.

William Jacob Miller, in whose life benevolence and business enterprise were
well balanced forces and who found that there was no necessity for a dividing
line between religious principles and business relations, was for a long period
closely associated with the wholesale drug trade of Philadelphia, and at the same
time was a most active, earnest and effective worker in behalf of the Lutheran
church and its various activities.

Mr. Miller was born in Philadelphia, June i, 1833, a son of George and Sarah
(Beitleman) Miller, the former a prominent dry-goods merchant of this city. In
the usual channels William J. Miller pursued his preliminary education until
graduated from the high school with the class of 1849. His professional train-
ing was received in the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and the degrees of
A. M. and Ph. D. were conferred upon him. In his business career he was a mem-
ber of the firm of Beates, Miller & Jacoby, at Third and Branch streets, which
later became Beates & Miller and subsequently Beates, Miller & Lambert. A
fourth change in the firm led to the adoption of the firm style of Miller & Lam-
bert, under which name business was continued at No. 509 Market street, where
Beates. Miller & Lambert had their store. Throughout the intervening years,
from the time of his start in the business world until his retirement in 1890, Mr.
Miller enjoyed continuous success. His business grew along substantial lines
and at length brought him to the position where retirement was possible, leaving
him, nevertheless, with a substantial source of income that enabled him to enjoy
the comforts of life and contribute generously to charitable and religious work.

On the 1st of September, 1864, in Philadelphia, Mr. Miller was united in mar-
riage to Miss Mary A. Grim, a daughter of Daniel K. Grim, a wholesale dry-
goods merchant of Philadelphia. Like her husband Mrs. Miller has always been
very prominent in the work of the Lutheran church and kindred organizations.
She has been treasurer of the East Pennsylvania Missionary Society of the gen-




W. .1. .Mll.LKU



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■ PIJ&LIC LIBRARY 1



flLDEN FOUHDATICME,



HISTORY OF PHILADELPHIA 345

eral synod of the Lutheran church and for a number of years was a member of
the board of directors of the Philadelphia Young Women's Christian Associa-
tion. Unto Air. and Mrs. Miller were born four children whose lives have largely
been the expression of the Christian teachings and influence of the home. The
elder son is now the Rev. E. G. Miller, D. D., who married Esther A. Valentine,
of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, daughter of the Rev. Milton Valentine, D. D., who
for many years was president of the Lutheran College and Seminary of Gettys-
burg. The daughters are: Mrs. Adeline Delk, the wife of the Rev. E. H. Delk,
D. D., pastor of St. Matthew's Lutheran church of Philadelphia; and Mrs. Helen
Miller Saylor, the wife of H. H. Saylor, editor of the House and Garden and also
of the Travel Magazine. The younger son, Rev. William J. Miller, Jr., is pastor
of tlie Tabernacle Lutheran church of Philadelphia.

In his political views Mr. Miller was a republican but never an active partici-
pant in the work of the party. For sixty-one years he held membership in St.
Matthew's Lutheran church and was a member of its board of trustees from
1864 until the time of his death, July 22, 1908, and for many years, up to the time
of his demise, was president of that board. He also belonged to the Luther
Social Union of Philadelphia, of which for five years he was the president. The
Philadelphia Drug E.xchange honored him with election to its presidency. His
benevolent spirit reached out along lines of practical usefulness to the poor and
in this connection he was a member of the Spring Garden Soup Society board.
He was likewise a member of the Philadelphia City Mission board; treasurer
and president of the Lutheran Publication Society; trustee of the Philadelphia
Bible Society ; and a trustee of the Pennsylvania Bible Society. In the midst of
an active and successful business career he never neglected his duties toward
his fellowmen and regarded the formation of character in accordance with bibli-
cal teachings as the most important work in life.



JAMES H. BRADFORD, M. D.

The labors of Dr. James H. Bradford were an effective force in the world's
progress along medical and surgical lines. He was one of the pioneers in hos-
pital work in China, beginning practice there when native prejudice and super-
stition made it hazardous for one to operate in the treatment of disease. He
lived to see this prejudice trampled underfoot, however, and to do a splendid
work not only for the native population but for the Americans and all English
speaking people resident in the Oriental empire. He was also widely known in
professional connections in Philadelphia and this part of the state, and his
name deserves prominent place on the pages of the history of the profession in
Pennsylvania.

A native of Philadelphia, Dr. Bradford was bom November 4, 1802, a son
of Samuel F. and Abigail Bradford, of social prominence in the city. Liberal
educational advantages were afforded him, which he fully improved. He was
early a student in Clermont Seminary, then under the direction of Professors
Carre and Sanderson. He took up the study of medicine as a private pupil of



346 HISTORY OF PHILADELPHIA

Professor Nathaniel Chapman, who directed his reading until the spring of
1823, when he received the degree of M. D. from the University of Pennsyl-
vania. Almost immediately afterward he started for China as surgeon on the
ship Caledonia, commanded by Captain Donaldson. The voyage over, he spent
a short time in Philadelphia and again sailed for Canton, China. Soon after
his arrival there he was chosen by the Americans sojourning in that city to be
their resident physician, the terms of agreement being that he should receive a
stipulated salary. He was also placed on the same footing as the English sur-
geons and physicians, and all foreign residents, whether transient or permanent,
were entitled to his professional services without additional compensation. With
great assiduity and zeal in this field he devoted himself to the practice of his
profession and attained distinction during his residence in Canton by the marked
ability which he displayed in all of his professonal service. He was frequently
consulted by the surgeons of the English ships and enjoyed in eminent degree
the confidence and esteem of Mr. Pearson and Mr. Colledge, the resident medi-
cal attendants of the British factory in China, one residing at Macao, and the
other at Canton, with occasional exchanges of situations. Deeply interested in
the profession and recognizing the great deficiency of the Chinese with regard
to surgery. Dr. Colledge, in the face of almost insurmountable obstacles, suc-
ceeded in establishing a hospital at Macao, confronting at the outset an almost
impassable difficulty to the practice of surgery in China, arising from the exist-
ence of a law which charged the crime of murder upon any one who should
inflict a wound resulting in death within one month after the injury. Should
death follow an amputation or any other surgical operation, the surgeon might
be adjudged guilty of his death and suiTer the penalty annexed to such an of-
fense. The hospital had been in successful operation for several months be-
fore this difficulty was removed, but the attendants were restricted to the treat-
ment of such cases as were deemed perfectly safe under the law. The obstacles
to successful surgical practice, however, were eventually removed and the hos-
pital was soon thereafter filled with patients. The reputation of Dr. Colledge
spread to such an extent that people of high rank throughout the empire came
from great distances to avail themselves of his surgical skill and ability. The
great success attending the establishment of this hospital at Macao induced the
attempt to institute a similar one at Canton, and Dr. Bradford was chosen to
open the new hospital and take charge of its medical and surgical departments.
A dispensary was also made a feature of the new institution that the gratuitous
distribution of medicines might be made. From the beginning the hospital was
liberally patronized, the wards became crowded and it was soon necessary to
procure additional medical aid. But with all the assistance which could be ob-
tained from transient surgeons, the duties which devolved upon Dr. Bradford
were too onorous to be borne without serious detriment to his health. Because
of this. Dr. Coxe, an old surgeon, was called to the assistance of Dr. Bradford
and by his labors continued to render the benefits of the institution available to
the numerous applicants for medical and surgical treatment. The history of
the splendid work being carried on in these hospitals was brought back to Amer-
ica by prominent merchants trading with China.



HISTORY OF PHILADELPHIA 347

John R. Lattinier, at that time residing in Canton, said: "I left that city in
1834, but whilst I remained, I gave much of my leisure time to the hospital,
witnessed many surprising operations, and know that much good was done. The
hospital had then been established six or seven years and was fully sustained
by the foreign residents. During one season of great sickness, Dr. Bradford
was taken ill ; his sufferings were great and protracted, having been confined to
his room for two months ; his recovery slow. From a man of strong health and
florid complexion he became thin and sallow and never a strong man after-
wards. The hospital at Macao was established by Mr. Colledge. That at Can-
ton owes its success entirely to Dr. Bradford. Neither had any countenance or
support from missions or missionary societies. The means were furnished by
foreign residents in China long before any missionary, except Dr. Morrison,
had set foot in China."

In the year 1835 Dr. Bradford severed his connections at Canton and re-
turned to Philadelphia. He then made a trip to Europe and again reached this
city in 1836. Two years later, in 1838, he wedded Miss Mary H. Caldwell, the
eldest daughter of the late David Caldwell, of Philadelphia, who for many years
occupied in a most creditable manner the position of clerk of the United States
court for the western district of Pennsylvania. Dr. and Mrs. Bradford be-
came the parents of six children, three of whom are still living.

In 1850 the family home was established at West Chester, where the Doctor
continued to reside until March, 1859, when he made a visit to St. Augustine,
Florida, hoping that a change of residence would prove beneficial to the health
of one of his daughters. He was apparently enjoying good health when he left
home but death claimed him at St. Augustine on the 9th of April of that year,
after a very brief illness. He had been a resident of West Chester for a num-
ber of years and there, as in other communities where he lived, enjoyed the high
regard, confidence and good-will of his fellowmen.

Dr. Wilmer Worthington, in the Transactions of the Medical Society of the
State of Pennsylvania, i860, said : "His agreeable manner, his amiable disposi-
tion, his great intelligence, his kindness and benevolence, his consistent and ex-
emplary deportment as a Christian, all endeared him to the community in which
he lived, and the sudden and unexpected intelligence of his death cast a deep
gloom of sorrow over the minds of relatives and friends."



GEORGE BURNHAM. Jr.

The people of other lands make claim that America is given over to the spirit
of commercialism, and while this is a dominant element in the lives of some in-
dividuals there are notable exceptions to the rule. George Burnham, Jr.. is one
who, while rapidly working his way upward in the field of business, has at the
same time been cognizant of his duties in relation to his city, his countrj' and his
fellowmen and has been an active working force for honesty and reform in
municipal government as well as a leading factor in the management of the ex-



348 • HISTORY OF PHILADELPHIA

tensive industrial interests of the firm of Burnham, Williams & Company, now
incorporated as the Baldwin Locomotive Works.

Mr. Burnham was born in Philadelphia, November 30, 1849, his parents be-
ing George and Anna (Hemple) Burnham. He is of English and German de-
scent, the Burnham family having been founded at Hartford, Connecticut, in the
early part of the seventeenth century by representatives of the name who came
from England, while his maternal ancestors were of German lineage. His
father, one of the early founders of the Baldwin Locomotive Works, is still liv-
ing at the venerable age of ninety-three years.

After mastering the common branches of learning in the public schools,
George Burnham entered the high school but soon afterward began studying
privately and later became a student in the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute of
Troy, New York, from which he was graduated in 1872 with the Civil Engineer
degree. In 1874 he became connected with the engineering department of the
Pennsylvania Railroad and for a time was employed on the Bound Brook route
of the Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, the special work entrusted to him being
that of levelman on the bridge division of the Bound Brook Railroad, consist-
ing of the bridge across the Delaware river, near Trenton and the approaches
thereto. His next step in business brought him into active connection with man-
ufacturing interests as a representative of the Baldwin Locomotive Works.
This was the initial step that in time brought him to a partnership in the firm of
Burnham, Williams & Company, proprietors of the works, in which connection
he was financial manager, his relations with the firm continuing for more than
twenty-seven years. Although he has lived practically retired from business
since 1907, he is still a director of the Baldwin Locomotive Works, also of the
Merchants Union Trust Company, the Central National Bank, Standard Steel
Works, of Burnham, Pennsylvania, the North Brothers Manufacturing Company,
the C. H. Wheeler Manufacturing Company and the Keystone Telephone Com-
pany. His opinions concerning business policies are eagerly sought and carry
weight in the councils of the different corporations which he represents, for the
soundness of his judgment has been again and again demonstrated, and his keen
insight has instituted plans leading to success.

On the 14th of April, 1881, Mr. Burnham was married to Miss Anna G.
Lewis, and they have four children, E. Lewis, Mrs. Arthur Peck, Margaret and
George Burnham III. Various clubs and organizations received Mr. Burnham
to their membership with the same spirit of welcome which is accorded him when
he becomes allied with business corporations. He is a member of the City Club
of New York; the City Club of Philadelphia, of wihch he is president; the Uni-
versity Club; the Art Club; and the Overbrook Golf Club. He is also an asso-
ciate of the American Society of Civil Engineers. He has been connected, and
still is, with various reform movements and is an advocate of the independent
policies that are pursued for the betterment of municipal government. He be-
came a member of the common council, serving for a term which expired in
April, 1909. The question of management of municipal affairs has long been to
him a vital one and nearly eighteen years ago the Municipal League of Philadel-
phia, of which he was then president, and the City Club of New York, joined in
a call for a general conference on good city government. The conference met in



HISTORY OF PHILADELPHIA 349

Philadelphia and was represented by delegates from various cities. This con-
stituted the nucleus of the National Municipal League, the efforts of which in
behalf of better government met with hearty response from every section of
the country and its reports and publications have been used in many cities which
have revised their charter or inaugurated other civic improvements. Mr. Burn-
ham is now treasurer of the National Municipal League, which held its annual
convention at Buffalo in November, 1910, and he is also a member of the execu-
tive committee of this organization and a member of the National Civil Service
Reform League, while of the Pennsylvania Civil Service Reform Association
he is the president. A man of serious purpose, whose views of life are based
upon a wide study and understanding of conditions, he strongly opposes misrule
in municipal affairs and seeks the embodiment in practical effort of the high
ideals which he has long cherished.



JOHN S. BIOREN.



The name of Bioren has long figured conspicuously in financial circles in
Philadelphia and has ever been recognized as the synonym of business integrity
and enterprise. The record of John S. Bioren, who is now liead of the banking
firm of Bioren & Company, is in harmony with that of his honored father, John
Bioren, who with the brother of our subject, Charles H. Bioren, was the founder
of the business. The local press in writing of the moneyed interests of Phila-
delphia, said : "In the old-time banking colony of Third street, of cherished
memory, there was a group of influential houses that were like the pillars of
a temple. The traces of their existence have never left the street and wherever
soundness and reliability invite the confidence of the patronage that trades in
stocks, these old-time houses are a source of pride and strength. One of them
is the banking firm of Bioren & Company. For nearly half a century it has
carved out a record of enviable fidelity and honor, true to every trust that has
been placed in it. It has passed through panics, money famines and many a
tempest in the sea of stocks and has come forth without a scar and without a
blemish on its high record for integrity. Bioren is an old and honorable name
in Third street." ]

Associated with the business from the time when his education was com-
pleted, John S. Bioren has become recognized as one of the foremost financiers
of this, his native city, where he was born in 1863. He attended private schools
and also the Central high school and his youthful environment as well as his
natural predilection undoubtedly had much to do with his choice of a life work.
He entered the Stock Exchange in 1884 and was one of the active young mem-
bers of the floor for years, or until the exigencies of the case required him to
give close attention to the banking department of the firm's business. The bank-
ing house of Bioren & Company is located in the old building of the Commercial
National Bank on Chestnut street. Mr. Bioren is regarded as an authority on
public service investments, the house having from its inception handled such
securities very extensively, becoming widely informed concerning the value of



350 HISTORY OF PHILADELPHIA

»

this class of stocks. The firm has also financed a number of street railway en-
terprises and during the promoting period in electric railways in the early '90s
the house of Bioren & Company took an active part in establishing and finan-
cing many lines. They own and represent large interests in the stocks of The



Online LibraryEllis Paxson OberholtzerPhiladelphia; a history of the city and its people, a record of 225 years (Volume 4) → online text (page 35 of 62)