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Goldsmith for a new small cross ad le Boiis." Alan of Walsingham caused
this legend, which dated from about 1145, t0 De carved on one of the
piers of his new octagon 1 ; and in the Sacrist Rolls the amounts of the
offerings made at " the fetters " are given every year until 1420.

[S l A] St Andrew's Altar stood against the column just mentioned on
a line with the great altar. We learn this from entries concerning the
position of the Heart of Bishop Kirkenny in the latter part of the 13th
century, which relate, that the Bishop's body having received interment in
Spain where he died, " cor ejus prope Altare Sci. Andree honorifice collo-
catum" (A, B, C), and "cor vero ejus juxta Boias" (D).

[R] Ridel, third Bishop, before the great altar. "Sepultus in Ecclesia
magna" (C).

[L] Longchamp, fourth Bishop, in the north aisle within the area of
the " tria altaria." He died at the abbey of Pinu or Pincor, " Cor vero
ejus reconditur in parva tumba marmorea prope Altare Sci. Martini " (A,
B, C), and " id est ad tria altaria" (B).

[S l M] St Martin's Altar was one of the " tria altaria " — but its exact
position in that area is conjectural.

[Eu] Eustace, fifth Bishop. " Prope altare See. Marie " (A, B), and
"in capella veteri" (C, D), that is, in the south aisle; the altar of the
Blessed Virgin Mary, being in the east apse of that aisle, corresponding to
the cross and the altar which were in the north aisle.

1 Cf. for a description of the Carving, Historical Memorials of Ely Cathedral,
pages 78 etc.

QRoff QU xiv. 95

[de R] de Fontibus, sixth Bishop. "Sepultus est in Ecclesia Eliensi
versus Altare Sci. Andree" (A), "Nunc in pavimento coram magno altari
ad pedes Johannis de Craudene requiescit, tectus duobus lapidibus mar-
moreis" (B, C), and "versus altare Sci. Andree" (F). There seems to
have arisen at a late period some difference of opinion concerning the
positions of the tombs of Bishop de Fontibus and Prior Crauden.

[de B] Geoffrey de Burgh, seventh Bishop. " Ex parte boreali chori."
All MSS. in the north aisle.

[S l J] St John Baptist's Altar was also in the area of the "tria altaria."
We learn this from the entry of the burial of Bishop Kirkby at the end of
the 13th century, where this said that he was laid. "Coram cruce ex
parte boreali chori ante altare S. Johannis Baptiste " (A, B), and " Coram
cruce magna" (D). From these extracts, and from the notices already
quoted concerning the tomb of Bishop Nigel, it is evident that the altar of
the cross became afterwards the altar of St John Baptist.

[S l B] St Benedict's Altar was also in the space "ad tria Altaria." The
authority for this statement comes from a Sacrist Roll dated 1 Henry VII.,
1485. "In uno barello olei empto pro Lampade Sci. Benedicti ad tria
altaria." Alan of Walsingham, Roll iii. p. 29, mentioned it but without
marking its position. " In una cruce depicta ad altare Sci. Benedicti,"
adding in the next page, "Pro calicibus ad tria altaria," chalices for the
three altars.

After Bishop Northwold had taken down the Norman east wall in
order to prolong the Church eastward, the great altar remained in its
ancient position, but before his death he removed the tombs of the four
virgin saints further eastward in his new presbytery. The altar of St Andrew
and the fetters, as has been noticed, were in their original position when
Bishop Kirkenny's tomb (still in situ) was erected. The " Boie," however,
were probably displaced in 1424, when the offerings from these disappear
from the Sacrist's receipts, and were perhaps forgotten when Bishop
Redman's tomb was erected in that same Bay in 1505. "Inter duas
columnas juxta magnum altare versus boream." The east end of the
monument impinges on the spot which has been marked as the position
of Brithstan's Fetters.

It may here also be mentioned that some time after the erection of
Bishop Northwold's presbytery, both the altar in the north aisle, called the
altar ad crucem — or the altar of St John, and St Mary's altar in the south
aisle, were advanced towards the east ; a double piscina on the south wall
of the south aisle marking the later position of the altar of St Mary's
Chapel. When Bishop de Luda was buried in 1296 his tomb is described
as being, " Ex parte australi Ecclesie inter duas columnas ad introitum
veteris capelle Beate Marie."

96 (Roff (}to* W.

This digression concerning the position of altars and tombs at the
east of the old Norman Church, arose from the circumstance that in this
Roll xiv. the special " nouum opus " of the year was in the portion of the
Church called " ad tria altaria," as we have noticed.

A part of that work was the insertion of two large decorated windows
on the ground story, the one replacing a Norman window, the other one of
the early English style ; and from this we may conclude that a desire was
felt to obtain additional light for the three altars and perhaps for the great
altar and the shrine of St Etheldreda.

A few years later Bishop Barnet, who had shown himself a lover of
light in the Lady Chapel, added five windows in the clerestory of the
Presbytery, by inserting two large lights on the north, and three on the
south side.

Here may be a fitting place to remark that for a Church in which the
services were carried on through the twenty-four hours, some increase of
light must have been sometimes as advantageous in the night as in
the day.

The chroniclers, in the MS. which has been called the History of the
Bishops, at the end of the life of Bishop Hotham, give us a most interesting
account of a candlestick which seems to have stood somewhere near the
Bishop's tomb, some time after his decease ; the words in the original
manuscript may thus be presented in English : " He (the late Bishop) was
buried in his Cathedral Church at Ely and honourably laid at the east side
of the altar in the Choir, towards the great altar, in a certain beautiful stone
structure with the figure of the Bishop in alabaster erected upon the tomb
with seven candelabra springing in a beautiful manner from one stem and
around carvings (imagines) of man's creation and ejection from Paradise,
four images there were also of armed kings and four dragons at the four
parts of the structure 1 ."

From this description, only a faint idea might be realized of the size of
this candlestick, had we not other notices which reveal the greatness of the
impression which was excited in the minds of those who saw it in the
earlier days.

One writer, wishing to mention the magnificent structure which
Bishop Hotham raised between Bishop Northwold's presbytery and the
octagon, uses the following language : " Hotham was made Bishop in
1316 and died in 1336, during which years he made that new work over

l " Cum vii Candelabris ex uno stipite decentissime precedentibus, et circa siquidem?
ymagines de creatione hominis et ejectione ejusdem de paradiso."

Lambeth MS. 448. Anglia Sacra, p. 648.

Alinari. Florence,

Candelabra in Milan Cathedral.

(Roff Qto + xiv* 97

the candelabra 1 ." Must not the candelabra have been of striking ap-
pearance and proportions to have given rise to such fanciful language?

" A great candlestick with seven branches (writes Mr W. H. St John
Hope) appears to have been a not infrequent ornament in some of the
great Cathedral and Monastic Churches, and fine examples are still
preserved abroad. Not one has survived in this country the spoliations
of the 1 6th century, but of their former existence we have ample
proof 2 ."

Recorded examples are referred to by Mr St John Hope, in Winchester,
Canterbury, Bury St Edmunds, and Durham. The one in the great
monastic church of the north is recorded to have been used as a Paschal
candlestick — in height reaching to within six feet of the groined roof, and
in width stretching across the breadth of the Choir.

The accompanying photograph is from a candelabrum now standing
before the high altar in Milan Cathedral, some 10 or n feet high, and
spreading the arms over a considerable width. The carvings on the stem
will be seen to correspond with the description given by the Ely monk of
the candelabra over which Bishop Hotham's work was erected.

Probably in Mr Bentham's day the existence of large candlesticks was
not a subject which occupied the minds of antiquaries; and he was
satisfied to notice the description of the one which he found in the MSS.
of the History of the Bishops, and to add that it was placed " on the top
of Bishop Hotham's tomb."

In the matter of that tomb, indeed, as treated by him, we have one of
the very few instances in which Mr Bentham's judgment and knowledge
went astray. Usually his work must win the unstinted admiration of every
one who patiently studies and verifies the abundant information which it
contains. The engraving, however, it must be said, in which he repre-
sented Bishop Hotham's tomb as covered by another erection of
stone and marble, is most unfortunate. The two parts, dislocated from
their true positions relatively to other monuments, had in truth a connec-
tion, but not of the material kind which is represented in the drawing
referred to.

At the time of the fall of the central tower, the shrine of Saint
Etheldreda must have stood in an exposed and dangerous place. The
workmen of the Bishop, and the visitors drawn by curiosity to see the
results of the catastrophe, must have had freedom of access to that part of
the Church, which was usually so well guarded ; and it cannot surprise us

1 " Hotham Episcopus factus est anno 1316, et moriebatur anno 1336 ; infra quos
annos fecit illud nouum opus super candelabrum." — Lambeth MS. 448, fol. 119.

2 " Inventories of Canterbury."

C. VOL. I. 7

98 QJoff (fto* fa.

to learn that within a short time some of the ornaments on, and perhaps in
the shrine, had been stolen.

The flight of the robbers to London, their pursuit and detection, are
told at length in the History, and may be read in Wharton's Anglia

It is also brought to our notice in this Roll, by Walsingham's entry on
page 31, "Item Fratri Roberto de Rickelyngge eunti apud London pro
argento et auro furato de feretro querendo." Paid to brother Robert of
Rickelynge for going to London to seek for the silver and gold stolen
from the shrine.

It is not unnatural to expect that under these circumstances some
precautions would have been taken against further spoliation, or that
Bishop Hotham, to whose care the work then going forward had been
entrusted, should have especially interested himself in the protection of
the shrine.

On the Bishop of Ely was laid the duty of preserving the shrine of the
foundress of the Church 1 , and it may have seemed good to him to follow
the example of the elevation of the shrine of Edward the Confessor in
Westminster Abbey, upon a stone basement. Those who are acquainted
with that lovely monument can scarcely fail to recognize that the structure
which Mr Bentham thought should be placed over the tomb of Bishop
Hotham, is in truth also a basement on which the shrine of St Etheldreda
had been raised.

In the accompanying photographs, side by side will be seen the
Confessor's monument in Westminster Abbey ; and the stone support of
St Etheldreda's shrine ; where the shrine itself is no man knoweth.

At the end of the receipts of the Sacristy there will be found this note,
" Item 35. z\d n received from merchants occupying the Church with their
merchandise." The exact meaning of the words is uncertain. They may
imply that the merchants actually exposed and sold their goods within the
Church ; or they may only signify that safe custody was provided for some
portion of the goods of the merchants, while they were themselves engaged
during the three days of the fair selling in the market-place. What portion
of the Church was given up to them in either case, is not stated ; probably
only the extreme western portion would be available for the purpose. The
Parish Church had not yet been removed out of the nave, and there was
certainly at least one Chapel with an altar at the east end of both north
and south aisles.

l Cf. footnote on page 13.




,, ,













" <
s ■

o 2!

(goff Qto. fa. 99

The balance sheet of this year, 1357-58, is as follows :

The receipts this year including a balance of

icy. 8d. brought forward ... ... ... 200 n 7^

The expenses of the year ... ... ... 211 6 2\

Adverse balance at the close ... ... ... 10 14 6£

The length of the Roll is 7 ft. 1 inch, or 85 inches.
The receipts occupy 25 inches.
The expenses, 60 inches, and also 16 in dorso.
The "nouum opus" following for 13 inches.
Account of stores at the end.





(goBerf of |5uffom Sacrist from Michs. 1359 to
Michs. 1360.

The Roll from 1358 to 1359 is lost.

This is Sutton's 6th year of office, his Socius is John of Ely.

In the ordinary expenses of the Sacristy we may notice that the usual
gifts sent to the Bishop of Ely by the Sacrist were diverted to the Bishop
of Norwich. Bishop de Lisle was still in exile at Avignon, where he
remained till his death, which happened on the 23rd June, 1361.

The two usual Synods in the autumn and spring were held this year,
but by what authority we know not. For the ordinations of the monks of
the Monastery the Sacrist attended at Oxne in the Norwich diocese and
at East Dereham. A chaplain also journeyed to Oxne for Chrism.

Various works seem to have been going on, on the chancelry, on the
Chapel at Tydbury, and on the botelry.

A note of a payment of ten shillings to the under Sheriff of Cambridge
on the recovery of some masons who had been impressed for the King's
works, evidently has reference to the commands issued by Edward III. to
the Sheriffs of counties to impress craftsmen for his building operations in
London, with exemption only for men employed by the Church.

The next entry on the same page (191) tells us of special payments by
the Sacrist to lawyers in order to get in the money due for the sheaves of

(Roff QU w. ioi

corn payable to the Sacrist from the domain of the Bishop, usually called
candle-corn silver, and entered in the annual receipts of these Rolls as
" de Garbis Episcopi."

The principal interest of the Roll is in the " Custus noui operis," which
gives the expenses attending the building of a new Church for the parish,
called usually the greater parish, of Ely.

The earliest signs of dissatisfaction with the arrangement by which the
greater parish of Ely had no other Church than the space assigned to it
in the nave of the Cathedral, are to be read, not in any of the writings
of the parishioners or of the officers of the Church, but in a document
which was issued on the part of Reynolds, Archbishop of Canterbury,
consequent on a visitation of the Cathedral and diocese of Ely, held, not
by the Archbishop himself, but by one of the Canons of Wells, J. de
Binton, acting as commissary.

In a notice sent to the Prior and Convent, and to the parishioners, the
commissary, among other matters needing correction, remarked especially
on the position of the altar at which the secular clergy and ministers
performed the divine offices. Standing within a short distance of the
Ritual Choir of the monks, when the services were being carried on in both
places at the same time, the noise of the voices in each was so great that in
neither one nor the other could due reverence be exhibited. Having,
therefore, had before him the parishioners and others interested in the
matter, the commissary of the Archbishop, J. de Binton, Canon of Wells,
desiring to remove such dangers and scandals and the occasion of them —
with due observance of all law in the matter — decreed, that the Parish
Church should be separated from the Church of the monks to some other
place suitable for hearing the divine offices, for receiving the Sacraments of
the Church, and for doing such things as should be done in a Parish
Church 1 .

1 Archbishop's Decree. Parish Church, St Cross.

Decretum visitatoris Archiepi. super Parochiali ecclesia de Ely de novo edificanda.
In Dei nomine Amen.

Visitantes civitatem et diocesim Elyens. inter cetera correctione digna, est
compertum quod ecclesia Parochialis S. Petri civitatis pred. [est] ad unum altare,
quod reperimus esse constructum contra jus commune infra ecclesiam conventualem
monachorum non longe a choro distans eorundem. Ex quo contingit diebus
quasi singulis quod per mutuum cantum et clamorem monachorum in choro exis-
tentium et sacerdotum ac ceterorum ministrorum secularium in loco predicto ubi
Parochiani conveniunt ministrantium, dum Divinis Officiis et horis canonicis simul et
eodem tempore intrudunt, per concursum eorundem in utroque loco conclamantium

io2 QJoff Qto. XV.

The visitation of the commissaries does not close with this favourable
decision for the parishioners. The Prior and Convent seem to have made
Canon de Binton aware that they had causes of complaint against the
inhabitants of the city ; and a letter addressed by him to the Dean of Ely 1
shews him on this side in strong sympathy with the monks.

He tells the Dean that among other things needing correction, he finds
that the parishioners of St Mary's and of St Peter's are negligent in paying
tithes of titheable things to the Rectors of those churches. He, therefore,
with his co-commissioners, enjoins and commands, that they should be
restrained by all lawful means from such an error, and forcibly compelled
to full satisfaction 2 .

How far the double-shotted discharge of the Wells Canon, who
conducted the Archbishop's visitation, brought peace and good fellowship
into the city of Ely, we know not, but it was forty-five years after the issue
of Archbishop Reynolds' decree, that the erection of the Parish Church was
actually carried out, in our Sacrist Roll xv.

The " Custus noui operis" there given, though not entirely confined to
the Church, is in the main concerned with it.

The precise position of the new building cannot be with certainty
determined ; the general impression has been that it extended from the old
doorway in the north wall (which is now blocked by Bishop Woodford's
monument) westward to the ancient north-west transept of the Church,
and that opinion is corroborated by the appearance of the stonework on
the face of the north wall on which all signs of Norman character have
disappeared, as if it had been stripped and rebuilt.

From the deed of feoffment, by which the parishioners were put into
possession of the Lady Chapel and this old Church resigned to the Dean

divinum sepius impeditur officium, quod devotione tarn monachorum quam secularium
predictorum prorsus sublata, per neutrum eorundem fieri poterit, quod incumbit, nee
reverentia que ob magnitudinem sacramenti esset exhibenda etc. Cum igitur Parochiani
ejusdem ecclesie ac ceteri omnes quorum interest in hac parte aliquotiens coram nobis
J. de Binton Canonico Wellensi Rev. Patris Dni. Walteri Cantuar. Archiepi. etc....
deputatorum ad visitand. civitatem et Dioc. Elyens. etc. Nos igitur Johannes de Binton
Commissarius antedictus in tantum errorem reformare et pretextata pericula, scandala,
et insolentias predict, et occasionem eorundem, quantum cum Domino possumus pro
viribus tollere cupientes, ordine juris qui in hac parte requirebatur primitus observato,
Decernimus etc., predictos Parochianos et ecclesiam ipsorum parochialem ab ecclesia
conventuali monachorum fore separand. et ad locum alium competentem pro divinis
ofhciis audiendis et percipiendis ecclesiasticis sacramentis ceterisque faciendis que in
parochiali ecclesia fieri decent, etc. Dat. Cantebr. Anno 1315. Baker MSS., vol. 38,
page 123.

For Binton, probably, Bruton or Bruyton, cf. Le Neve's Fasti.

1 The Dean here mentioned was the Rural Dean.

2 For the letter to the Rural Dean cf. Register — penes Lord Leconfield — folio
34 B. See Historical MSS. Com. Rept. 6th.

(goff (Jto* jp. 103

(Dr Perne) and the Chapter, we learn that the building was a lean-to, but,
by reason of the reconstruction of the face of the wall, no signs of its
position are now to be discerned. That the roof reached to a line above
the ground floor windows is made evident by the complaint of the Chapter
that it darkened the Cathedral.

In the feoffment deed stress is laid on the long and earnest suit of the
said parishioners, for that their Parish Church was too little to receive the
said parishioners and is also " very uncomley and noysome and dangerous,
being but a lean-to added to the Cathedral Church, and is both darkened
and made very unholdsome for want of thorrowe ayre."

The Dean and Chapter, for their part, provide for themselves and their
successors " at all times hereafter at their pleasure to take, use and enjoy
the old Parish Church with the vestry, with the lead, glass, stone, timber,
and all other buildings thereunto belonging, situated and leaning to the
side of the said Cathedral Church, and one charnel house situated within
the circuit of the said College and all the buildings thereunto belonging,
and to remove and take down the same as their own for the better amend-
ing and beautifying of the said Cathedral Church with clear light which be
now darkened by the said old Church."

Returning from the feoffment of 1566 to the Sacrist's entries concerning
the building of this Parish Church in 1359-60, it will perhaps be in the
power of experts to decide how far the entries of materials in this Roll xv.
answer to the idea of the lean-to Church which is suggested in the report
made of it by the parishioners two hundred years later.

Payment, it will be noted, is provided for the glass of three windows
only, but it is possible that the further glazing of windows might have
occurred in the succeeding Roll, which has not come down to us ; also an
entry in Roll xii., page 158, which is under a date seven years earlier,
suggests that preceding Sacrists had been for some time preparing
stonework for the contemplated Church. It occurs under the marginal
heading Petr. empt. — " Item in xvii. de muldeston, pro fenestris parochialis

Other materials for the Church are given with such particularity that
they may of themselves serve to bring to light the size and number of the
windows, and perhaps the height and length of the Church itself. On
page 193 we have purchases
of " vousores " (wedge-shaped stones to form arches), six score feet and

sixty feet and thirty-two feet ;
of " monials " (mullions), ten score feet ;

of stones called " fourmepeces " (window tracery), great and small, fifty-
three ;
of stones called " skewes," a hundred and twenty ;

104 (goff (tto* xv.

of stones called " sextefoyth," ninety ;
of " corbeltables," four score and six score feet;

of " chaumbrances," six score feet (stones for jambs of doors or windows);
of five "gargules " ;

of twelve stones for carrying " pendauntz " ; and eight oak trees for long
and short braces ; sixteen rafters ; the working of 700 lbs. of iron
for the windows. The lead cost ^33. 6s. Sd.

The total expenditure under the head of " Custus noui operis " amounts
to ^141. 16s. nd., but how much of this belongs to other works — as the
Treasury, the Dormitory, and the Blake Rode, which required probably
some decoration after the removal of the parish altar which had stood
beneath it in the nave — cannot be ascertained.

If Dean Perne and the Chapter of his day fulfilled immediately
their intention of pulling down this Church and taking possession of the
materials, no sign has yet been found in the Church accounts for that date ;
but while, in the year 1662, which is inscribed over one of the windows in
the north aisle apparently to give the date of the changes made there, long
entries occur of expenses of carpenters and masons engaged on the Church
for several months, there is no definite statement that the work was on this
north aisle.

In the feoffment deed, to which reference has been made, the
parishioners were to have possession of the Lady Chapel under the name
of the parish of the Holy Trinity.

When the lean-to Church was dedicated in the episcopacy of Simon of
Langham (1362-66) the name given to it was the Church of St Cross, but
in the document prepared by the commissary of Archbishop Reynolds
(13 15) he speaks of it as the Church and parish of St Peter. Alan of
Walsingham, in the various Rolls in which he mentioned the parish, called
it invariably only " the greater parish."

The original dedication of the Monastic Church by Bishop Ethelwold

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