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The two longer sides of the apartment in which it once occupied
the middle of the east end, faced, the one northward towards the great



1 Ipse fabricari fecit ad hospitium Prioris novam cameram mirandi decoris in qua Deo
vota laudis ex affectu reddidit cordis ; ubi etiam nocturnas excubias ac spirituales medi-
tationes per dies et noctes frequentius exercebat. Nam sicut illi qui continue secum erant a
secretis testati sunt quod qualiter nocte consuevit assurgere et capellam suam solus adire,
nisi magna prepediretur infirmitate ; ubi cepit diutius orare et preces Deo multiplices cum
gemitu cordis efferre; ac se et ecclesiam suam et omnia ecclesie negocia Deo devote
recommendare.

2 Fecit enim [in the Anglia Sacra autem] fieri unam nouam cameram ex opposito
capelle predicte ad aquilonem ubi quandoque cum fratribus suis spirituales habuit
tractatus iura Ecclesie utilitates ac negocia Ecclesie necessaria concernentes. Habuit
etiam ibidem studium suum pro libris, cum sibi vacaverat inspiciendis.

Anglia Sacra, vol. i., page 649.



128 (gtppenMr Q0

Guest Hall, the other southward opposite to and parallel with the Prior's
new Chapel which was about ten yards away.

With this arrangement of the two buildings before us, we seem to
be able to enter into the design of the man who thought out their respective
positions as his Study and Chapel.

From the Study or Camera of his working hours, the Prior could
by day look across to his Chapel, and at night could perceive the glimmer
of the lamp which burned ever over the Altar and lit up the window of
his house of prayer; so had he ever before his thoughts a parable. On the
one side human energy with work doubtful and dark, on the other Divine
aid with hope, light and peace.

A favourable opportunity for investigating the original structure of
Prior Crauden's Camera was afforded by a survey made in 1882 by
Mr Rowe, Surveyor to the Dean and Chapter. It appeared then that
the Study had been originally erected over a room existing at that time
(1325) on the ground floor. Its length was apparently about 30 feet, and
its breadth 14 feet, and while the great fireplace which has already been
mentioned occupied almost the full width of the eastern end of the Study,
there must have been a large and fine window facing it at the west end, in
the gable. The window itself was not then visible, but portions of it were
discovered hidden in the wall, which had evidently at some time been
disturbed for the insertion of a floor for the formation of an attic room
above.

The remains of the window, so injured as to be no longer of service,
have been carefully preserved. It was made of oak, of considerable size
and solidity, with a square heading six feet seven inches wide, under
which were set in a row three quatrefoil openings, with two below, leaving
vacant places for two mullions which would have constituted a three-light
window. The entire height of the window cannot be ascertained as the
mullions are not forthcoming. The accompanying photograph of the
oak tracery will shew that it was a 14th century window of a well-known
design.

In the same room, and hidden in the same manner, in the south wall a
few feet from the west end, was found an oak casement eight feet high,
five feet six inches wide, seven inches thick, the one side of it flat, the other
deeply moulded ; whether it were a door or a window is open to discussion.
The entrance into the Study from the main part of the Priory seems
to have been through a lobby or passage on the south side of the Study
not far from the fireplace. The oak casement of which we have spoken
may originally have occupied that position.

A further structure which is also credited to Prior Crauden, although
not mentioned in any writings of his date, is a Gallery of communication




XI

3




THE OLD PRIORY.
PLAN I.



["]






[4 b]

F4



(THE PRIORY ^^

[■] u * Ian rz

•H [»i





THE OLD PRIORY.

KEY TO PLAN.

[i]\ The main building of the

[2]L Hospice of the Prior on

[3]) Norman vaulting

[4] Prior Crauden's Study

[4 a] The Great Fireplace (in situ)

[4 b] The West Window of Oak

(see photog.)
[4 c] Position in which casement

found
[4d] Door from the main Hall
[5] The Grease

[6] The old Kitchen of the Priory
[7] Spiral staircase
[8] A building Eastward (in situ)
[g a] Doorway into offices of writers ;

non-existent
[gb] The Arcading under Deanery

(in situ)
[g c] A door in [g b] facing [g a]
[10] The Treasury— conjectural
[11] The Granary, afterward School
[12] Gallery from Queen's Hall to

the Chapel
[13] The Fair or Queen's Hall
[14] Door of Communication be-
tween Queen's Hall and
the Little Hall
[15] The Little Hall, now Dean's

Study
[16] Bishop Balsham's Brewery
[17] The Guest Hall, or Grete

Hall
[18] Old Kitchen serving the Frater
[ig] Spiral Staircase to the Guest

Hall
[20] The little Buttery to the Guest

Hall
[21] The Mulberry Yard
[22] The Pistrina or bakehouse

(exact site uncertain)
[23] The Cellar given by Bishop

Eustace
[24] The Strip given by Bishop

Eustace
[25] The Porticus mentioned, in

Bishop Eustace's deed
[26] The Locutorium Episcopi
[27] The Prior's Door



between the north-west angle of his Chapel and the south-east angle of the
house, or lodging, called the Fair Hall or the Queen's Hall.

The introduction of this gallery seems to invite a further enquiry into
the general position both of the main body of the Prior's hospice and
also of the Fair Hall, which certainly received from Prior Crauden con-
siderable attention and the addition of two new windows. Indeed the
whole group of buildings which extended from Crauden's Chapel to the
south wall of the Cathedral are so intimately connected with the life of
the Monastery that some allusion to them can scarcely be omitted here.

The changes which have taken place between 1325 and to-day have not
obliterated the name of Priory from the building which both Crauden and
Walsingham occupied, although since the passing of the new Statutes
of Henry VIII. the modern representative of the Prior has never for a
single year lived in the Priory. A general view of successive changes,
though this may scarcely come logically under this Appendix, may not
be unacceptable at the present time.

In its earliest form the Priory must have consisted of the great Norman
undercroft which runs north and south, with some outbuildings of which
the principal one would have been the kitchen [6] on the north side facing
the Guest Hall.

The noble hall above the Norman undercroft was of later construction,
and being divided into three compartments provided, probably, the main
dwelling chambers of the Prior, until John of Crauden, in 1324-25, added
to it his Camera or Study which branching off at right angles towards the
west seems to have consisted also of a lower room and upper hall.

When, in the 16th century, a distribution was made of the monastic
buildings to provide houses of residence for the new Dean and Chapter,
the Priory was assigned to John Ward, who had been a monk, as Canon
of the eighth stall. It is thus described by the Commissioners: "the New
Hall with the audit chamber and the Chapel chamber called Mr Lee's
chamber; with the house and vaults thereabouts; with a little garden and
poultry yard, etc., and the Chapel chamber and parts of the kitchen
underneath the same. The chamber at the hall door to be for an
audit chamber."

In the above description the approach is evidently from the west,
and the New Hall spoken of will have been Prior Crauden's Camera
or Study; the larger portion of the hospice being included in the expression
"with the house and vaults thereabouts." The vaults thus mentioned had
reference to the undercroft of the great Hall; in the mind of the Com-
missioners, it is to be noticed, the living house is always on the upper
floor. The vaulting under Prior Crauden's Chapel is mentioned because it

C. VOL. I. 9



130 (glppen&ir (g

was required for a kitchen for the occupant of the Fair Hall, etc. At this
time the Chapel had not been divided into two storeys.

With this description of the Priory as it was viewed by Henry the Eighth's
Commissioners in 1541, may be compared the account of the surveyors
who acted under Cromwell's orders one hundred years later, when a Canon
Buckridge was occupying the eighth stall.

The survey is dated June 21, 1649; and the main features of the
house are given when the writer has ascended to the first floor.

"Over the Arches, a fair Hall containing in latitude 23 feet, in longi-
tude 31 feet, covered with tyles, a little buttery with two small rooms
for servants to lodge in at the left-hand going into the Hall; And one fair
Chamber next the lane going into the Court yard."

"A dyneing room adjoining to the Hall [containing 19 feet wide] and 2
lodging rooms adjoining."

We seem to have here the principal features of the Hospice of the
Priory as it existed in Prior Walsingham's time, and as preserved in the
middle of the 17th century. In this congregation of many separate rooms
there stand out two of exceptional size and dignity — one called " The fair
Hall," the other "The fair Chamber."

These will appear clearly by the accompanying plan; and the figures
marked on it.

"The fair Hall over the Arches" — on the plan 1, 2, 3; represents
the upper story constructed over the Norman undercroft of five columns,
measuring in its entire length about 63 feet.

1. Covers three bays of the undercroft, and is 33 feet by 23 feet (now

the drawing room).

2. Covers two more bays of the same undercroft, and is described as

"a Dyneing room adjoining the Hall."

3. Is described as "a little Buttery," and was an elongation of the

original Norman structure : and served as a waiting room

between the dining room and the Prior's kitchen which was

built outside to the north.

The Fair Chamber [No. 4 on the plan] which is described as being

next the lane going into the "Great Common yard," is evidently the

Camera or Study of Prior Crauden.

The open space known in the olden time as "the great court" or
"curia magna" is here the great common yard. Little dependence,
however, can be placed on the names given to rooms or buildings by
Cromwell's surveyors.

In addition to the two chief rooms in the Priory here mentioned, viz.
the Fair Hall and the Fair Chamber, there are other rooms which at this
distance of time can with difficulty be identified. One entry, however,



deserves attention, as it acquires interest by reason of a notice in a Sacrist's
Roll of later date. The surveyor speaks of "A little yard called the greese,
where is a place to take rain water in, to wash withal, covered with tiles."
The entry in the later Roll referred to and which is quoted by Canon
Stewart (page 263) gives these words " Le parclos super gradus ad lixam,"
which may be translated "the enclosure over the steps to the lyes."
Lye is a preparation of water impregnated with alkaline salt imbibed
from wood ashes, used for washing clothes. As the word " greese " is
another form of gradus or steps, we seem to have a washing-house which
may be identified with the offices which border on the lane but which
are not under the main roof of the house and which are marked in the
plan as [5].

Returning to the north-east corner of the Priory we may recognize on
the spot marked [7] the position of a spiral staircase by which ascent was
made to the Fair Hall : it is noted by the surveyor as " the staircase built
with stone." It occupies part of a building which juts out from the Priory [8]
towards the east, evidently of later date. Opposite to the staircase on the
north is a doorway [9] giving access to certain offices needful for the
business officials of the Prior and Chapter. Some of these buildings [9 c]
still exist under the present drawing-room of the Deanery ; they consist of
two rows of stone arcading, and there are the remains of a fine doorway on
the south side facing the door in the Priory. It is not improbable also
that a Treasure House [10] called in later documents the Serine's chamber
may also have stood in that corner, and the remains of a stone window at
the very corner of the Priory may have been part of it. Cf. page 81.

If we may thus conceive that the Prior was enabled by these arrange-
ments to have immediate access to the scribes employed in the Chapter's
work, it is interesting to remark that the first holder of the 8th Canonry,
John Ward, was immediately appointed Treasurer to the new Dean and
Chapter ; that the " compotus " he then drew up was evidently modelled
on the forms used by the Prior and Convent and that Ward was a man of
experience and ability in finance. Is it not probable that we have here
the reason why he was selected to occupy the house hitherto belonging to
the Prior?

Returning to the west side of the Priory and to the great court, we
have to the west the premises of the Granatarius (now the School Hall) [11]
and the Fair Hall [13], with the great Guest Hall closing in the space to
the north. The frequency with which the term Fair Hall is used by the
surveyors of the 17th century for describing the larger rooms or chambers
of our monastic houses, renders it advisable when speaking of the Fair
Hall now before us to apply to it a name given by Bishop Hugh of
Balsham in a deed to which reference will be found on page 136 — the

9—2



i3 2 ($4>penbir (g

Queen's Hall. It was the chief room in an establishment set apart for
Royalties, and it was in that apartment that Queen Philippa wife of
Edward III. was frequently entertained in the days of Prior Crauden ; it was
probably also for her use that the gallery [12] was erected which joined
the Queen's Hall to what is usually termed Prior Crauden's Chapel. We
may suppose that it was furnished with a luxury unknown elsewhere in the
monastic buildings, and this may have exercised some influence in leading
Steward when he became Dean to leave his old lodgings in the Priory
which he had occupied for 19 years as Prior, retaining to himself out of his
old house of residence only the Chapel. In addition to the Queen's Hall,
Dean Steward entered into possession of a chamber called in the surveys
"a little chamber at the great Hall end" [15]. The communication between
it and the Queen's Hall was by a door [14] in the angle where the two
rooms meet, and between it and the great Guest Hall was a door opening
on to the upper or higher dais. The Guest Hall itself was at this time
reserved as a dining-hall for the ministers and others belonging to the
establishment [17].

Connected with the Queen's Hall and so falling to the Dean's use
were other rooms sufficient for a considerable household.

It is to be noticed that in the reports of the commissioners of 1541
and the surveyors of 1649 trie descriptions of the lodgings assigned to the
first Dean both commence with the chamber which is at the west end of
the great Guest Hall. This Hall (in its external appearance) presenting
a long ridge roof without break, gives the idea that the Hall which it
covers runs from gable end to gable end ; but in fact, of the entire
length of the roof which is about 88 feet, the Guest Hall does not
occupy more than 60 feet including walls, while the remaining portion
towards the west is the smaller hall which was assigned to the new
Dean.

The report of the Commissioners runs thus : " All the edifices from
the great Hall to the Gallery wall westward and from the old Hall with
the kitchen called the Prior's kitchen with Chapel and Gallery southward,
with the soil of the same and except one parcel of the kitchen under the
Chapel chamber." This description is not a model of clear topography;
and the extent of the Dean's lodging will be best understood by reference
to the plan and the figures on it.

The report of the Surveyors of 1649 IS t0 ° lengthy to be given here,
but the following extract which notes the principal parts of the lodging
held by the Deans at that period, confirms the statements of 1541.

"A little hall at the great Hall end; and also a fair Hall near the
free School and looking south into a garden between it and a common
yard ; which hall contains 2 1 feet broad and 5 1 feet long within the wall,



Owenbir Q0 133

covered with lead, and abutting upon the kitchen garden belonging to the
cook's kitchen for the scholars ; below stairs a narrow gallery leading into
the Dean's Chapel."

The Chapel, called from this time the Dean's Chapel, is identified with
Prior Crauden's by the measurement given by the surveyor, 30 ft. x 14 ft.

It may be here noticed (though it is beyond the scope of the present
appendix) that one of the five Deans who held office in succession to
Dean Steward, namely, Dr Perne, Dr Bell, Dr Humphrey Tyndall,
Dr Cesar or Adelmare, and Dr Fuller, during his occupation must have
required increased accommodation in the Deanery, as in the surveyors'
notes of 1649 we find that the Deanery lodgings had been extended over
the western arm of the Cloister until it reached the Cathedral at the door
called " the Prior's door."

Another change noticeable in 1649 is that the old kitchen of the
Priory [6] which had stood between the Priory and the Guest Hall
disappeared, and the undercroft of the Guest Hall was given to the Dean's
lodging instead of it. It is thus described : "The Dean's Kitchen under
the Hall and the scullery and a pastry house all arched over and containing
71 feet in length and 32 feet in breadth." By this measurement we must
conclude that two of the arches now under the present drawing-room of
the Deanery were included in the area of the Dean's kitchen as they are at
the present time.

The arches and groining of the undercroft to the little hall at the great
Hall end [15] which are of a very fine character may, perhaps, have been
the portion thus entered in the survey :

" A sellar under and parler and white stone chamber arched over and
painted containing in longitude 51 and in lat. 16 feet in which is a very
fine well and a little sellar containing 16 feet. At the north thereof
is a kitchen garden containing in length 42 paces and in latitude
25 paces" [21].

The account of the survey made by Cromwell's authority in 1649 * s
contained in a manuscript book entitled " Book Survey of the College and
town of Ely 1649," which is in the Muniment Room of the Dean and
Chapter. It contains 45 pages, of which those numbered 24 to 36 are
blank; the writing is in a crabbed hand with 17th century spelling and many
abbreviations and erasures of words and sentences, apparently showing that
a fair copy had been made from it. Some of the pages are signed by
individual surveyors or tenants, all the various houses and lands being
at the moment let to tenants for small sums ; the page concerning the
Deanery is signed " Crumwell." A further survey will be found in Canon
Stewart's book, the " Architectural History of Ely Cathedral," on pages



134 &?j>ettbir t§

253-5, but no account is given by him of the source from whence it was
obtained.

That document, however, agrees with the entries of the MS. book in
the possession of the Dean and Chapter, in the general description of
the Dean's lodging as it was observed during the Commonwealth, but it
supplies some further information of interest. It gives the name of "the
mulberry yard " to the kitchen garden which lay to the west, with the
estimate (3 roods) of that garden together with the great garden which
lieth east.

It seems further to contemplate the sale of the whole ground on which
the messuage belonging to the Deanery was situated, including the Chapel,
the mulberry yard and the great garden, it then values the materials of
the Dean's lodging in which is included the Chapel which is to be
"demolished" in the next lease, and then generally surveys the common
Hall of the College with the buildings under and around it, especially
noticing the Norman kitchen which had in olden time been connected
with the Refectory (no longer at that time existing).

" Item one other building standing in a courtyard before the colledge
hall called the monks kitchen [18], built with stones arched over and
covered with lead, the materials whereof over and above the charge of
takinge them down and leavinge a sufficient wall for the staircase and
college buttery and fence for the well yard were said, etc."

This building was evidently the kitchen from which the Monks'
Refectory was served ; and it remained standing until after the visit of
Cromwell's surveyors.

The staircase here mentioned must not be confounded with the
staircase which afterwards formed the ascent to the upper floor of the
Deanery. It was a spiral staircase (or newel) of which the remains are
still visible at the spot marked [19] on the plan ; and which was the
ancient approach through a buttery [20] to a door in the side of the
Guest Hall.

The arrangements for the erection of the present Deanery drawing-
room were not made until the following Chapter-order was passed on
14th June 1799.

" That the Dean have leave to pull down the old Registry and to build
a room according to the will of the late Dean (Cooke) should he please to
accept the legacy proposed."

The old Registry here spoken of must be taken to refer to the ancient
construction of six arches which are mentioned on page 131 as having been
probably used for offices for the scribes of the Chapter [9 c]. This arcading
measured on the ground 30 feet from west to east, but from north to south
only 18 feet. It stood isolated by four feet from the Monks' kitchen



and was distant seven feet from the outside of a line drawn through from
the south side of the great Guest Hall.

The present stone and oak door into the Deanery is exactly in the
centre of the wall of the Guest Hall, and may originally have been the
east window.

Directing our attention once more to the great common Hall or Guest
Hall, itself the most prominent of the monastic buildings to the west,
we must recall the decision of the Commissioners of 1541.

" The gret Hall to be for the petty Canons with all the other menysters
and officers to dyne and sup in with the vaults underneath the same
and also the convent kechyn and the litel butre adjoynyng to the same
with sufficient implements of kechyn stuff botry and napry."

The only change which is noticeable in the Survey of the year 1649 is
the assignment of the whole of the undercroft of this great Hall to the
Dean's lodgings ; the Monks' kitchen having been hitherto used for those
who assembled in the Guest Hall [18] according to the order of 1541.

In 1662, however, a greater change is visible. There is no thought
of renewing the dining and supping in the great Hall ; separate accom-
modation having been found for ministers and other officers. Also the
destruction of the Chapter House would have rendered it necessary to
provide another suitable place for Chapter meetings, and it seems probable
that the first use to which the great Guest Hall was put was to supply
the want of a new official Chapter House ; and herein we probably have
the origin of the use of the Deanery dining-room, etc., for the Chapter.

There remains, however, no single shred of information as to how
or when the old Guest Hall was transformed into the Deanery. Although
notes in the Chapter order-book prove that Chapters were continually
held, there is no entry of an order that the Dean should change his
domicile.

This much, however, is certain, that never at any time after the
suppression of the Monastery has a Dean of the new foundation inhabited
the building which was the Priory in the olden time.

With this we must leave both the Prior's hospice and the Guest Hall.

At the time of the visit of Cromwell's surveyors the great Refectory
had been destroyed and the area of it had been thrown, together with
a considerable portion of the Cloister Alleys, into the Dean's Garden.
This Refectory had been in existence two centuries and a half, having
been commenced in the year 1274. Its position is too well known to
need notice here, and the same may be said of the Cloister garth and
Alleys.

There remain, however, connected with the northern portion of the



136 (gtppenbir f§

premises of the Deanery, a few points to be taken up which may be
of interest.

First — As to "Bishop Balsham's Brewery," which appears on the plan
as [16].

It marks the juncture of the property of the Convent with the Garden
of the Bishop at that period; and it was a kindly present from Bishop
Balsham to the monks.

It stood, as we learn from the deed of gift, between the Queen's Hall


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