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General's action in the filling up of offices of Sacrist, Cellarer and Camer-
arius, in 1349, is not to be understood as attributing to him the right to
"nominate" or appoint; and modern writers are not justified in referring
to this occasion as proving that the Bishops of Ely claimed or exercised
such authority in the Monastic Church of the Diocese 3 .

l Reg. Bp de Lisle, fol. 22. 2 Register of Bishop Montacute, folio 25.

3 Dr Gasquet in his valuable work on "The Great Pestilence," page 132, in repro-
ducing this account of the Vicar-General's action at Ely, unfortunately regarded the
expression "prefecit," as being equivalent to "appointed."

Qpycnbix © 173

Further that the verb "preficere" used in relation to promotion to
offices does not involve the idea of choice of the person, may be
abundantly proved.

For instance in the Statutes of Lincoln Cathedral the terms "preficere"
and "nominare" are brought together in a manner which precludes the
possibility of their being confounded as expressive of the same thing.
In the Statute — " De nominatione Sacriste" — it is said "Thesaurarius
preficiendum in Sacristariam Capitulo nominabit."

In Rochester we have an example of a declaration of a concurrent
jurisdiction similar to that which seems to have been established in Ely.
Under the heading "Iura Episcopatus Roffensis"is the agreement — "Item
Episcopus Roffensis habet preficere Cantorem Celerarium et Sacristam in
Ecclesia Cathedrali Roffensi ad nominationem Prions et Capituli; et
debent induci et investiri 1 ."

Thus far then we have no documentary evidence of a claim made on
the part of a Bishop of Ely to nominate or appoint to any one of the four
offices in the Monastic Church which were next to the Prior. The
technical words used when the need occurs of filling up vacancies in those
offices, if duly weighed, are to be accepted as suggesting a divided right,
pertaining in part to the Bishop, in part to the Chapter. The medieval
mind was conservative and was quite satisfied to conserve concurrent
jurisdictions by forms which on each side might seem to assert rights
logically incompatible with the claims of the other side. Their methods
and the technical terms used were understood by all concerned : it is only
when the old Latin is transformed into words which express more modern
thoughts, that the earlier meaning is obscured, and erroneous conclusions
given forth.

This view of the relationship which existed in old time between the
Bishop on the one side and the Chapter on the other with regard to the
promotion to the chief offices of the Monastic Cathedral is by no means
the product of modern investigation; it is to be found set forth with
authority as the thirteenth century was closing.

The changes in the relationship of a Bishop to his Cathedral and
Chapter, which had been created by the growth of privileges, immunities
or exemptions, had not, it would seem, promoted peace, but rather unrest.
Uniformity of law and custom had disappeared. Rights recognised in one
Diocese were denied in the next, and a Bishop transferred to another
See found powers, which he had long exercised in his first Bishopric,
repudiated in the Cathedral of his new jurisdiction.

It was, however, the conflict which Bishop Savaric had stirred up in

1 Wharton, Anglia Sacra, i. 389.

i74 @4>penbt;r ©

Somersetshire by his determination to exercise the full power of an Abbot
in the Monastery of Glastonbury, which appears to have led to the issue of
a Commission by Pope Innocent III. for the purpose of gathering infor-
mation concerning the relationship of the Bishops to the great churches of
their Dioceses, especially touching the question of the filling up of vacant
offices 1 .

This commission is of importance by reason of the decision concerning
the question of the right of appointment of officers in Monastic Cathedrals
which was formulated after it had reported; and it is of interest on account
of the members who composed it.

Eustace, Bishop of Ely, Samson, Abbot of Bury St Edmunds, and
Godfrey, Prior of Canterbury, represented churches existing under three
different circumstances.

Bishop Eustace, having been well acquainted with the condition of
things in a western Diocese as a member of the Salisbury Chapter, had
passed into the Diocese of Ely, where he had found a custom which,
while it gave him the dignity of an Abbot, yet limited his authority under
the privileges granted of old to the Chapter by Bishop Nigel.

Abbot Samson, the second named commissioner, represented a church
altogether free from the control of the Bishop of the Diocese, while the
Prior of Canterbury exercised only that limited authority in his Monastic
Church which the normal spirit of ecclesiastical law reserved for him under
the Bishop of the Diocese 2 .

Thus the commission by its members reflected back the varieties of
procedure which existed within their own knowledge : and it may be that
their report carried on its surface a like variety — if so, we may the more
admire the wisdom of the judgment or advice which came back to
England in the form of a Papal Bull, which so far as it touched this
matter was in these very simple and clear words: —

1 "Prima Ordinacio Ecclesie Glastoniensis facta auctoritate Domini Innocencii Papa iii.
Dat. Velletri. viij Kal. Octobr. Pontificatus nostri anno V to .

"Innocencius Episcopus Servus Servorum Dei Venerabili fratri Efustachio] Eliensi
Episcopo et dilectis filiis S[amsoni] Abbati Sci. Edmundi et G. Priori Cantuariensi
salutem et apostolicam benedictionem. Volentes ipsam Glastoniensem Ecclesiam ad
similitudinem ceterarum Cathedralium Ecclesiarum Anglie in quibus sunt monachorum
collegia ordinari quia id per nos commode tunc non poterat explicari vices nostras
vobis frater Episcope et fili Abbas in hac parte duximus committendas."

Adami de Domerham, Historia, vol. ii. p. 410.

2 Having sent in to the Archbishop three names of monks whom he deemed most
fitting for the vacant post, the Archbishop chose whom he would of the three. In the
case of a removal from office, involving a selection by the Prior and Convent of three
names for a successor, the authority seems to have been in the hands of the Archbishop.

References: Lit. Cantuar., Rolls Series, vol. i. No. 122.

Also cf. Hist. MSS. Com., vol. ii. Nos. 478, 599.

(gtppenbir © 175

"Prior vero ab Episcopo cum consensu Conventus vel majoris et seni-
oris partis instituatur: — Sic et Sacrista et Camerarius sic et Celerarius: —
Ita quidem, ut nee Episcopus sine Conventu, nee Conventus sine Episcopo
aliquam istarum personarum possit constituere. Qua constitucio si aliter
facta fuerit irrita sit et inanis.

"Et ea auctoritate, qua predicti Prior Sacrista Camerarius Celerarius
constituuntur, si minus idonei ob causam rationabilem inventi fuerint,
amoveantur; ut sicut consensus Episcopi et Conventus in eorum constituci-
one requiritur, ita in eorum amocione requiratur."

Thus spake Pope Innocent III., and with his judgment we may
certainly traverse the statement made by Bentham and other modern
historians that Bishops, always and in all Dioceses, appointed the superior
officers in their Cathedral Churches.

The case of Bishop de Montacute and the Sacrist Nicholas of Copman-
ford has been already noticed on page 78; but no conclusion can be
drawn from it as the brief entry in the Calendars of Papal Letters and
Petitions does not enable us to gather, either under what authority or for
what cause the Bishop was acting, or how far the Convent acknowledged
the claims which he may have made.

We have, however, in the history of our own Diocese of Ely many
proofs of the manner in which this participation of authority between the
Bishop and the Chapter of the Cathedral Church was maintained and carried
out to the obvious advantage of the Church.

One conspicuous instance occurs in the period of history which is
embraced in the series of Rolls before us, and it will be found already
noticed in the Notes on Roll vij.

Bishop John of Hotham, perceiving his inability from serious illness to
carry on the work of his office, determined by a legal document to provide
for its performance by stronger hands. He proceeded, therefore, to
appoint by letter two Clergymen to act as his coadjutors. In this letter,
addressed to the persons whom he had chosen, he not only signified the
agreement of the Prior and Convent with his determination, but appended
a copy of the formal document which resulted after the deliberation of
the Chapter.

This episode has been preserved in the parchment volume now in
possession of Lord Leconfield by means of the text of the letter which
Bishop Hotham addressed to the two Clergymen whom he selected as his
coadjutors; the one being Master Nicholas Stockton, Rector of Tydd;
the other his own nephew, Alan Hotham, Rector of Dereham and Canon
of St Paul's. The letters are similar. The Latin text of the one to
Nicholas Stockton is given in a footnote on page 53 in Roll vij.

Much interesting information touching the relationship which of old

176 QpptnMx ©

existed between the Bishop of Ely and the Sacrist is to be drawn from
a lengthy document, which recites the result of a careful investiga-
tion of some subjects of dispute between Bishop Fordham and Prior
Powcher in 141 7. It is found in Bentham's History of Ely, Appendix,
pages 27 — 34. While the discussion in that document belongs rather to
the time of later Sacrists, it may be noticed that several of the officials
mentioned every year in the Rolls now before us as attending the half-
yearly synods of the Bishops, were by it released from that duty.

There remains now in the Muniment Room of the Bishop of Ely a
parchment volume containing a very large number of confirmations by
the Chapter of Ely, of appointments and leases made on Episcopal estates
by the Bishop. The book was in private hands till a few years ago when
by error it passed into the library of the Bishop instead of into the Muni-
ment Room of the Dean and Chapter, whose property it had originally

The trend of the arguments thus brought forward on the question to
which our attention has been directed, has scarcely touched on the subject
of the difference which has always existed of old between the status of a
Sacristan in the Cathedrals of England which stood by themselves un-
connected with a Religious House, and of a Sacrist in a Monastic Cathedral.
In the first of these, as for instance at Lincoln, the Sacristan's position and
duties were of the simplest character 1 — almost on a par with those of the
Sacristans in large parish churches to-day, while in a Monastic Cathedral —
of which we may regard Ely as an excellent example — the office of the
Sacrist appears to have been more desirable than that of the Suppriorship,
whose seat in Church and Chapter was next to the Prior ; for in the Rolls
which are now before us, we have evidence of two Suppriors vacating that
office in order to become Sacrists of Ely. The wideness of the occupa-
tions attached to the office of Sacrist, the richness of the endowments
which belonged by right to it, together with the ecclesiastical jurisdiction
which he held outside the Monastery, invested the position with import-
ance, while it demanded a man of ripe judgment and of many-sided

Naturally then at Ely both Convent and Bishop would desire to have
some share in the appointment of a Sacrist. The monks would only confide
their extensive building and farming operations, and the care of their

l "Sacrista — singulis diebus ostium vestibuli aperiat in prima tintinnatione matuti-
nali et prima pulsione vespertina ; ut Rectores Chori ingredi possint ad officium suum
praevidendum ; ac infirmi et minuti ibi dicere valeant horas suas. Item quod curet quod
corporalia pallae vestimenta offertoria et abstersoria munda sint integra et nitida."

Novum Registrum Lincoln, p. 65.

(gtppenbir © 177

church, to one who had gone through the disciplinary training which
could be best acquired by experience in the different departments of the
House and Church work; while the Bishop would be no less anxious about
the appointment of a man who was to be brought into close communion
with him as the Archdeacon of the Civitas and Villa of Ely, and who had
the right even to ask tithes of the offertories made in the Episcopal Chapel 1 .
The Bishop was "Father in God" to the whole Convent 2 ; from him the
inmates receive their Orders great or less. Some of them, including the
Sacrist, were summoned twice a year to his Visitations. How necessary
then, and how fitting, that in the choice of a Sacrist neither the Bishop
without the Chapter nor the Chapter without the Bishop should promote
to such a position.

We cannot, however, fail to see in the complications and difficulties
which must frequently have arisen in such a divided service sufficient
reason why the Bishop of Ely at the time of the new settlement in
the sixteenth century made no effort, or sign of effort, to preserve to
the Sacrist of the new foundation any of the special privileges enjoyed
by the Sacrist of earlier centuries.

1 This custom appears frequently in this form " De minutis decimis et oblacionibus
Capelle Episcopi, Prions et Aliorum. " Cf. Roll viij.

2 In a mortuary Roll issued from Ely to other Religious Houses on the death of
Bishop Hotham the Bishop is called "our Abbot."

Penes D. and C. of Canterbury.
Also quoted in Litt. Cant., vol. ii. No. 591.

C. VOL. I. 12


Absolon, parson and patron of St Andrew's

Church, Cambridge, 113
Accounts, reform of, 1 ; of the sacrist

for the year, given at the end of the

Notes on each Roll; summaries, 17, 74
Adam de Lynstede, sacrist, 73, 83 ff., 88,

Adam of Walsingham, see Walsingham
Adelmare, Dr, Dean, 133
Agnes, wife of Adam of Walsingham, 159,

Agnes le Bray, 145 f., 155
Alan, Archdeacon of Sudbury, 153, 158,

159 n.
Alan of Brittany, 122
Alan the Goldsmith (1), 153 ff., 159 n.
Alan the Goldsmith (2), 153, 159 f., 159 n.
Alicia, wife of Salomon the Goldsmith (3),

Alina, wife of Jordan the Goldsmith, 154
Almonry, the, 145
Altars, receipts of the Sacristy from

offerings at, 116 f., 119
Altars and tombs, 94 ff.
Alured de Broke, 62
Amyot, John, blacksmith, 57
Andrew, St, altar of, 94 f.
Andrew, St, church of, Cambridge, receipts

of the Sacristy from, 113, 115
Andrew of Ely, 145, 155
Anketel, a monk of St Albans, 152
Attegrene, John, mason, 36, 47, 50 f., 57,

67, 70, 81, 139 f.
Axes, charges for sharpening and setting,

Aylsham, Robert of, see Robert of


Baas, John de, 162 n.

Bacon, Mr, clerk of the works, 1869, IJ 8

Baldwin, a priest, 114

Balsham, Hugh of, Bishop, 1 f.; charter of,

115, 115 n.; deed of, 131, 136; "Bishop

Balsham's Brewery," 136
Barnet, Bishop, five windows inserted by,

Barnwell, purchases made at, 3

Barouncel, John, 55 n.

Barynton, Richard of, deed of, as to a

landed endowment to Lady Chapel,

84 n., 161 n.
Baunce, name of one of the bells, 76
Bell, Dr, Dean, 133
Belleyetere, John (Tohn of Gloucester),

66, 75 f., 81
Belleyetere, Thomas, 66, 76
Bells, casting and elevation of, 75 f., 76m,

81 f.
Benedict, St, 118; altar of, 92, 95, 119
Benedict XII., Pope, 163
Bentham, on the number of changes owing

to deaths from plague, 83 n. ; on Bishop

Hotham's tomb, 97 f.; on the officers of

the Cathedral, 167, 175 f.
Binton, J. de, Canon of Wells, commissary

of Archbishop Reynolds, 101 f.
"Bishops of England, Catalogue of the,"

Black Death, great havoc caused by, 83 f.,

83 n., 107, 120, 171
Black Hostelrie, the, 147
Black Order, "Innovation" or "Refor-
mation" of the Status of the, 1
Boie, the, 94 f., 118 f.
Boniface VIII., Pope, 157
Borewell, 72
Boston, property at, conveyed to the church

of St Etheldreda, 122
Brame, purchase of lands and tenements at,

37, 48, 68, 160; Goldsmiths' stipends

drawn from the estate of, 37, 151, i6off.;

payments made for work on the causeway

at, 66 ; Ordinatio concerning income from

the estate of, 161 f.
Brame Gacele, purchase of, 68
Bray, Agnes le, see Agnes le Bray
Bray, Johanna del, see Johanna del Bray
Bray, the estate of, 155
Bray Lane, 146, 155
Bridge, the new, expenditure on the

construction and reparation of, 60 f., 113
Brithnoth, Abbot, 104, 104 n.
Brithstane, fetters of, 94 f., 118 f.
Brittany, Alan of, see Alan of Brittany



Broke, Alured de, see Alured de Broke

Brown, William, see Wisbech, William of

Brun, William, see Wisbech, William of

Buckden, John, Prior, 164

Buckridge, Canon, 130

Burgh, Elizabeth de, Lady of Clare,

33 n -

Burgh, Geoffrey de, 7th Bishop, burial-
place of, 43, 95 ; confirms Absolon's
gift of St Andrew's Church, Cambridge,


Burwell, 72

Burwell, John of, 56, 79

Bury fair, purchases made at, 3

Cambridge, grange at, receipts of Sacristy

from, 120
Camera, or new Chamber or Camera

Sacriste, first mention, 36; for account

of its purpose and later history, see App.

B, pt 11. pp. 138 and 147
Campanile Novum, or Octagon Tower or

Lantern, Novus Opus, building of,

committed to A. of Walsingham, sacrist,

20; gifts to, 25, 26; progress of the

work, Roll iii, 20 etc.; Roll iv, 28 etc.;

Roll v, 34 etc.; Roll vj, 37; Roll vij, 51 ;

Roll viij, 56; complete cost of the new

work, 68
Candle-corn silver, 90, 100 f.
Candles, sacrist's duty of providing, 3, 33,

117, 122 f.
Candlestick with seven branches, 96 f.
Canonries, 140 ff.
Canterbury, Prior of, receives a memorial

of Bishop Hotham from Prior Crauden

of Ely, 53 f.
Canterbury Cathedral, destruction of a

part of, 43 f.
Capella, or portable service, 7, 52
Carpenter, Thomas, 21 f., 29, 70
"Catalogue of the Bishops of England,"

Causeways, 28, 61, 66, 87, 112 f.
Cementarius, John, see John the Mason
Cemetery, purchase of cottages in the, 32 f. ;

erection of a paling of boards in, 34
Cesar, Dr, Dean, 133
Chantry Chapel dedicated to St Nicholas,

"Chantry on the Green," Bishop North-
wold's foundation of priests so called,

Chapel, or portable service, 7, 52
Charles le Bel, French King, 158
Chettisham, Chapel at, 28
Chicksand, Bedfordshire, large quantities

of timber purchased at, 29
Choir, three bays of the, fall of, n ff.;

work of restoration of, 13; Bishop John

of Hotham's share in rebuilding, 19; the

"new choir," 42 ff., 58 f.

Choir altar, re-erection of, 76 f.

Cimator, 28

Clare, Lady of, see Burgh, Elizabeth de

Clare, William of, Prior, 6

Clement VI., Pope, petition of Nicholas
de Copmanford to, and the Pope's reply,
78 ; consecrates Thomas de Lisle Bishop
of Ely, 80

Clement of Thetford, sacrist, the Compotus
of, 1 ff. ; entertains a party of the brethren
at Tydbrye, 3; and holds his minucio
with his brethren there, 3

Cloth bought in large quantities, 28

Co, John de, Vicar general of Bishop de
Lisle, 107, 171 f.

Collation to offices, rights of, 169 ff.

Copmanford, Nicholas de, sacrist, 58, 66 f. ,
73 ff, 172, 175; his first balance sheet,
77; his petition to Pope Clement VI.,
78; death of, 78

Corduroy roads, 28

Craftsmen impressed for building operations
in London, 100

Crauden, 72

Crauden, Hugh de, 72 n.

Crauden, John of, Prior, 6 n., 10, 12 f.,
172 ; sets on foot a subscription list, 13 ;
chosen Bishop of Ely, 49 ; sends a
memorial of Bishop Hotham to the
Prior of Canterbury, 53 f.; is granted
free administration of all goods during
vacancy of Bishopric, 54 f., 55 n.; his
"Status Prioratus," 61 ff, 71; death of,
64, 163; resting-place of, 70, 95; his
buildings, 70 f., J26ff.; his complaint
against Simon, Abbot of Ramsey, 71;
complaint of the Abbot of Ramsey
against, 71; his complaint against John
Hankyn, 72 ; his letter to the King, 75 ;
Anniversary for, 162 f.

Craudene, Richard de, 72 n.

Cromwell, report of surveyors acting under,
130 ff., 148, 148 n.

Cross, St, altar of, 23, 30; parish church
of, 101 n., 104; receipts of the Sacristy
from St Cross' Church or Chapel,
113 ff.

Crosses, receipts of the Sacristy from
offerings at, 117 ff.

Cunningham, Dr W., "Growth of English
Industry and Commerce," 123, 123 n.

Custons, Mr, a monk, 143

Dalham, Wulfstane of, see Wulfstane of

Dallyng, Philip, sacrist, death of, 84
Dome, the great, 38 ff.
Domus, the, of the sacrist, 5, 149
Dormitory, reparation of the, 89
Downham, receipts of the Sacristy from,

Dragon, Standard of the, 7



Drayton, Sir Simon de, executor to Bishop

Hotham, 50
Drought, severe, of 1353, 87, 87 n.
Dugdale, "Monasticon," 169, 169 n.

East Dereham, ordination of monks at,

Edgar, King, n 2, 163 n.
Edward II., visit of, to Ely, 10
Edward III., building operations of, 45,

Edward the Confessor, shrine of, in

Westminster Abbey, 98
Elemosinarius, the, 145
Ely, Andrew of, see Andrew of Ely
Ely, John of, see John of Ely
Ely, the grange of, receipts of the Sacristy

from, 120
Elyas, gift of, to the Prior and Convent,

Elye Clericus, or Elye Frere, 154 f.
Ermenilda, St, 94
Essex, architect, his report on the condition

of the Lantern, 41 f. , 41 n.
Etheldreda, St, n, 27, 43, 85, 89, 94,

96 ff., 112, 116 ff., 121 f., 148
Ethelwold, Bishop of Winchester, 104,

104 n., 163 n.
Eustace, Bishop, 27 ; tomb of, 94; supposed

to have rebuilt St Mary's Church, 114;

gift and deed of, 136 f., 136 n. ; a member

of Pope Innocent III.'s commission, 174
Everard, chaplain of St Cross' Church,


Expenses, divisions of, in the Rolls, 15 f.

Fabric, altar of the, 30

Fair Hall, the, 129 ff.

Fairs, purchases made at, 3

Fardell, Canon, 144

Ferynge, John, carpenter, 46 n., 57

Fetters, the, of Brithstan, 94 f., 118 f.

Finances, disordered condition of, 1 f.

Fir trees, purchase of, 29

Fish-ponds, fish purchased for, 3

Fontibus, John de, 6th Bishop, 43; his

burial-place, 95
Fordham, Bishop, survey of, 33 n., 88,

105, 105 n., 145, 176
Fowke, Robert, 57
Fressingfield, B. de, 44
Fressingfield, John of, Prior, 6, 11, 155;

removed from the headship, 10 ; death

of, 61
Fuller, Dr, Dean, 133

Garbs, see Sheaves

Gasquet, Dr, his work on the Great

Pestilence, 83 n., 172 n.
Gent Hall, see Sent Hall
Gervase, sacrist of Canterbury, 44
Glass, stained, 57

Gloucester, John of, see Belleyetere, John

Glyntone de Ely, Nicholas de, 162 n.

Godfrey, Prior of Canterbury, a member
of Pope Innocent III.'s commission, 174

Godwin, Francis, attributes the recon-
struction of the Lantern to Bishop
Hotham, 69

Goldsmiths of the Monastery, erection of
a house for the, 31 f., 149, 160; their
stipends drawn from the manor of Brame,
37, 151, 160, 162; history of the, 151 ff.

Granatarius, the, 131

Guenolo, see Winwaloch, St

Guest Hall, the great, 128, 131 ff.

Hamond, Mr, Supprior, 144

Hankyn, John, of Borewell, Prior Crauden's

complaint against, 72
Hanseatic League, 123
Happy Companions, Home of the, 140
Hathfield, William, Prior, 164
Hemingstone, John, Prior, 154
Henry II., confirmation by, of a deed of

the Convent respecting Salomon the

Goldsmith, 151
Henry VIII. , report of the Commissioners

of, 129 f., 132, 135, 140 ff., 148
Hervey, Bishop, tomb of, 94; charter of,

1 1 3 f • .

Holy Trinity, parish of the, 104 f.

Hope, W. H. St John, 93, 97, 157 n.

Hospice, the, of the sacrist, 5, 149

Hostilarius, the, 146 ff.

Hotham, Alan of, coadjutor to Bishop
Hotham, 50, 175; letter from Bishop
Hotham to, 53

Hotham, John of, Bishop, 9 f., 92 f., 96 f.,
148, 158, 175; his share in the con-
struction of the Choir, 19 f., 29; his
resting-place, 43; death of, 49; letters
of, 52 f. ; memorial of, 53 f. ; subscription
raised by executors of, 59; the bridge
over the Ely river wrongly attributed to,
60, 69; the reconstruction of the Lantern
asserted by Francis Godwin to have been
due to, 69; tomb of, 76 f., 96 ff.

Hugh the Spicer, 145

Huntingdon, John of, 46

Hurle or Hurley, William of, the King's
head carpenter, 22, 38, 44 ff., 45 n., 46 n.,
51, 57, 60, 70, 76, 82 (Horlee), 87; death
of, 89

Infirmary, 138 ff.

Innocent III., Pope, commission appointed

by, 174L -
Insula, John de, 36, 88

Jessopp, Dr, 83 n.

Jocius, a London vintner, 122

Johanna del Bray, Joanna Bray, 27, 155

John Baptist, St, altar of, 92, 95



John, chaplain of St Cross' Church, 115
John of Ely, 100

John of Gloucester, see Belleyetere, John
John the Mason, John Cementarius, 22,

22 n., 28, 34, 70; a "camera" allotted

to, 34
John the Sawyer, 67
John XXII., Pope, 81
Jordan the Goldsmith, 153 f . , 156, 159 n.

Katherine's Chapel, St, 76, 90

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