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known as the " Status Prioratus."

From these documents, we understand that Crauden commenced his
building works at the Priory soon after he had entered into residence
there ; and at the time when he was bringing to light the distressing
poverty of the Monastery. For some further notes on these buildings
cf. Appendix B.

Prior Crauden's name appears but seldom in the Rolls of the Sacristy,
but there are a few incidents in his life recorded in secular documents
which shew us that, notwithstanding the beauty of his character, his position
as Prior was not altogether a bed of roses. Loved and honoured within the
Monastery, he seems to have been unable in those rough times to preserve
that entente cordiale with the other religious houses and personages in the
neighbourhood which would secure for him the peaceful enjoyment of the
dignity of his position.

On the 1st July, 1335, a commission of Oyer and Terminer was issued 1
to three justices to hear a complaint made by the Prior of Ely, John of
Crauden, that Simon, Abbot of Ramsey, some of his monks and many
other persons mentioned by name, had at Whytleseye driven away sixteen
of the horses of the Convent of Ely, worth ^20 ; burned twenty horses,
ten oxen, eighty cows, a hundred swine, worth 200 marks, and their trees,
reeds, grass and goods, and had assaulted their men and servants.

It may be that the Prior's well-known love of peace had drawn down
on him this reckless invasion, with the expectation that he would bear it
with patience. A second commission, however, bearing date a week later 2 ,
tells us that Prior Crauden's resentment had been aroused and the in-
vasion of his property was not allowed to go unrequited, for an accusation
was brought that John, Prior of Ely, Robert of Aylsham his fellow monk,
and many others mentioned by name, had come, with armed force and
banners flying as in war, and had broken into the houses of the Abbot of
Ramsey, at Ramsey, depastured his grass there with beasts, cut down his
trees, carrying them away with other goods, and had assaulted his men and
his servants.

Peace was not to be found in the land in those days, and Prior
Crauden was destined to undergo, even in his old age, a trial from which
he narrowly escaped with his life, in a part of Cambridgeshire to which he
was especially attached. On the 4th March, 1337 (about two months
after Bishop Hotham's death), another commission was issued 3 on the



1 Calendar of Patent Rolls, 9 Edward III., part ii. M. 33. d.

2 Cf. Chronicon Abbatie Rameseiensis, ed. W. D. Macray. Rolls Series, p. 352.

3 Calendar of Patent Rolls, 9 Edward III., part ii. M. 30. d.



72 (goff Qto, i;d,

complaint of John of Crauden, Prior of Ely, that John Hankyn, of
Borewell, chaplain, and others mentioned by name, had brought an armed
force and had rung the bells of the town of Borewell and assaulted him at
Borewell, and following him with like insults to Landwade, there im-
prisoned him, and assaulted his men and servants at both towns.

The opinion that John of Crauden was especially interested in
Burwell and its neighbourhood has grown out of certain incidental notices
of documents in the Muniment Room, which seem to indicate that a
branch from the family originally settled at Crauden had migrated to the
border lands of Burwell and Swaffham 1 , and that our Prior retained an
interest in a property there, to which he occasionally retired from Ely.
He was perhaps enjoying a holiday in that place, when the chaplain of
Burwell assaulted him and drove him to Landwade. In an Ely Treasurer's
Roll, 1332-33, there is a payment to a Swaffham man "for constructing
a certain chamber there." Alan, when Sacrist, in 1337 enters a charge in
his accounts for a journey to Swaffham to have a talk with the Prior.

End of Part II.

and of the extant Rolls of Alan of Walsingham when Sacrist.



l A certain Hugh de Crauden owned land as well as the advowson of the Church
of Swaffham St Mary's. The Church appears to have been built on his property and he
granted the land and Church to the neighbouring Abbey of Anglesea. A Richard
de Craudene also appears among the witnesses to the deed. There are other notices
in the Bishop's Register M of the name of Craudene in connection with Swaffham
and Reach.



PART III

NOTES

ON

ROLLS IX b TO XV.



Zfyt §&&CX\&t& — while Alan of Walsingham
was PRIOR of Ely.



QRoff Qto + XX B + Qtic^ofaB of Copmanforb* Sacrist from
Nov. 30, 1 341 to Mich. 1342.

(Roff (tto* X* (RoBetf of (gCgfelSatm Sacrist from
Mich. 1345 to Mich. 1346.

QRoff Qto* XU (&Hm of &gn0febe + Sacrist from
Mich. 1349 to Mich. 1350.

(Roff (tto* Xiu @tbam of fegnfifebe* Sacrist from
Mich. 1352 to Mich. 1353.

(Roff Qto. XnU (RoBerf of ^uffotU Sacrist from
Mich. 1354 to Mich. 1355.

QRoff (Jto* W. (RoBetf of button* Sacrist from
Mich. 1357 to Mich. 1358.

(Roff (Jto* ;rp 4 (RoBetf of giutton* Sacrist from
Mich. 1359 to Mich. 1360



74

From the 30th day of November, 1341, the heading of the Sacrist Rolls
tells of a change in the Ely Sacristy. "Alanus Sacrista Eliensis" is known
no more ; Nicholas de Copmanford takes his place.

So is recorded a disruption of the accustomed routine life of the man
who for twenty years had devoted himself to the charge of a single
department of the Monastery.

Yet, for Alan himself and for the great ideas of which he was the
exponent and the executive, the break and the change would be less in
reality than in name. When elevated to the highest position in the
Chapter, words of counsel from the lips of the past-master of the building
craft would have scarcely less authority in the Sacristy than when he was
head of the office. And it is with this thought that the first instalment of
the Sacrist Rolls is not made to cease with Alan's voidance of his old posi-
tion, but is extended to embrace the after period when he was Prior of Ely.

The account of his election to the highest position in the Monastery
and his installation, is told with such minuteness, both in Bishop de
Montacute's Register 1 and in the Anglia Sacra, that it may be passed over
here ; noting, however, that it was Nicholas de Copmanford who, under
the " via compromissionis," was entrusted with the responsibility of
choosing the Prior and who proposed Alan to the brethren. The selection,
therefore, of Nicholas to follow him in his old office would doubtless be
highly satisfactory to the new Prior.

Entering, then, on this fresh period of the history of the Sacristy, we
may follow the course taken in the earlier period, and present at once a
scheme of the expenses and receipts of all the extant Rolls.



No. of
Roll



IX B.



XI.

XII.
XIII.

XIV.
XV.



From
Sep. 30

to
Sep. 29



1341-42
42-43
43-44
44-45

1 345-46
46-47
47-48
48-49

1 349-50
50-51
51-52

1352-53
53-54

1354-55

56-57
1357-58

58-59
1359-60



INCOME



General



164. 4. 3^

3 2 3- 3- 5

167. 17. 9I

192. 3. 7£

192. 16. of



200. 11.
248. 10.



7f



Special



OUTGOINGS



General



183. 18. 1



215- 17- 3



25 1 - 4- 3f

182. 10. 5!

211. 6. i\

179. 6. \\\



Special



129. 14. 4



141. 16. 11



BALANCE



+ or



19- '3- 9i



41. 3. 8

22. 8. 2



-


59-


0.


H


-


54-


7-


1


+


10.


5-


7




+


10.


8


-


10.


14.


6i


-


72.


12.


nj



l Montacute's Register, fol. 25.



NOTES

ON

ROLL NO. IX b.

QXtcfSofaB of topmanforb* Sacrist from Nov. 30th 1 34 1

to Michs. 1342.



Although this Compotus is only for ten months, it is of more than
ordinary length and of peculiar interest. In it the special entry of the
" nouum opus " is discontinued, but the carrying out of some of the
unfinished designs of Alan of Walsingham is discernible, scattered in
various paragraphs.

Some bells were cast in this year, and the actual remuneration for the
work is set out in a paragraph on page 122, under the heading "in expens.
campan." The word " de Gloucestr." and the figures "iiij." included in
square brackets are in the text an insertion above the line. The payment
there noted is said to be besides board for Master John of Gloucester and
his men, and the board provided for them, given on page 114 under the
expense of the Sacrist's hall, in corn, malt, fish, pigs, fowls, ducks and
pigeons, seems to have been on a liberal scale.

Of the place for which these four bells were designed no mention is
made in the Roll ; but it must be taken for granted that they were hung in
the tower which had just been completed by Alan of Walsingham ; and two
of the bells which had been in the old tower, after some repairs, were
added to make a peal of six.

Prior Crauden, in a letter to the King shortly after the collapse of the
central buildings in 1322, had asked for extension of time for the payment
of money to the treasury, on the ground that " the tower of the Church had
fallen and the bells were broken 1 ."

l Historical MSS. Comm. Appendix to 6th Report. Lord Leconfield, folio 60.



76 (goffQto. (*«♦

Two of these, named Baunce and Peter, are mentioned in Alan's first
Roll (pages 28 and 29), and there are further charges for clappers for three
bells; while in the Roll now before us under the heading of "minute"
there is a payment for six stirrups and four bands for Baunce.

On reverting to the return made by Alan of Walsingham for the first
nine weeks of this same year, it will be seen (page 109) that he had been
employing two men called Belleyetere, both with the prefix Magister ; a
payment being made to the servants of Master John, and for the making
of one bell to Master Thomas.

This same name does not appear in the accounts of Copmanford, who
took up the Sacrist's office from Alan, but it is possible that Master John
Belleyetere may be the same individual as Master John of Gloucester. In
the " Promptorium parvulorum " (1. 30), Belleztere is said to be a bell
founder, the Anglo-Saxon " jeotere " being rendered in the Latin " fusor "
or founder.

From the considerable purchases of stone and from the payments to
masons and carpenters, it is possible that the highest portion of the
Lantern, above the upper dome, may have been receiving its final comple-
tion ; as it is probable that the bells made or mended this year were placed
in the new Campanile 1 .

William of Hurle, the master carpenter, with his assistant, was this year
entertained at the Sacrist's table (p. 114).

Our attention is especially drawn in this Roll to preparations for the
return of the monks to resume in the Ritual Choir the services which for
some twenty years had been relegated to some other part of the Church.
When the great central tower fell, we are aware that they were saying their
daily offices in St Katherine's Chapel ; but whether they continued there
year after year, or removed to some other place in the Church itself, we
have no information.

The Choir Altar seems to have been re-erected this year in what we may
call the old place, one bay to the east of the great octagon arch, almost in
contact with Bishop Hotham's tomb which, though commenced soon after
his death, was not yet completed.

Our Sacrist makes mention of a parclos between the two, forming a
reredos to the Choir Altar, at the same time so far encircling the Altar, as
to cut it off from the north and south aisles. Two doors, which were in-
serted in the parclos, opened probably eastward.

These doors we may suppose to have been the same as those men-



l The casting by Master John, of Gloucester, of the four heavy bells and their
elevation to the bell tower of the great Campanile will be found in Roll x.



(goff Qto* tr6* 77

tioned by Alan of Walsingham in parchment A of his last nine weeks'
accounts, as being then in hand and well advanced to completion, as
hooks, perhaps part of the hinges of the doors, were ordered by him.
" Item, for 8 hooks for the new doors of the Choir from 4 pieces of the
Sacrist's iron" — page 109.

The parclos itself seems to have been ornamented or supported by
numerous columns — " In the turning of thirty bares for the columns in the
parclos," page 117; while an expense undertaken by the Sacrist for the
embellishment of the Bishop's tomb, may have been in connection with
that enclosure.

Other necessary things, apparently prepared for what we may term the
Sacrarium of the Choir Altar, are mentioned in this Roll, "A cross of
Spanish iron on the parclos ; a thurible put in order ; a basin hung from the
roof; mats arranged before the altar." All this is done under the superin-
tendence of the Sacrist, without the recurrence of the well-worn term
" nouum opus."

It is in this Roll, that we first perceive an intention on the part of the
Convent to take up and to fulfil the injunction of Archbishop Reynolds,
given so far back as 13 15, to remove the Parish Church from the nave
of the Cathedral, and to build it in a more convenient position. Stone is
purchased "for the foundations of the Parish Church" (page 121), but
there is no further sign that any work was really done until 1 7 years later,
when Robert of Sutton was Sacrist, as recorded in the Roll xv. of this
series.

Concerning the finances of the 1 2 months (less 9 weeks) during which
Copmanford held office as Sacrist, it will be remembered that the sum of
^132. 155. o\d. which, according to the custom hitherto observed in the
office, should have appeared as an arrear from the previous account, was
suppressed by Alan on entrance to his new position as Prior ; his successor,
therefore, commences without any entail of debt.

Having no special account to keep for a " nouum opus," his balance
sheet is very simple :

Total receipts 164 4 3§

Total expenses ... ... ... ••• ■•• 183 18 1

Thus leaving an adverse balance for next year.

The parchment Roll is 4 ft. 10 inches in length.

It is in fair condition, except that the marginal notes of the sinister
hand on the chief side have disappeared.

The receipts are on the back, and can be read only with great
difficulty through the paper which is pasted over them.



78 (goff Qto + (*B*

After Copmanford's Roll, which ended at Michaelmas 1342, there are
no accounts extant for three succeeding years, though we have reason to
believe that Copmanford was in office till late in 1344.

There appears, in the Calendar of the Papal Registers in the Vatican
for the year a.d. 1343, a petition from Copmanford to Pope Clement VI.,
from which we understand that some subject of discord had arisen between
him and Bishop Simon de Montacute, and that he feared an exercise of
arbitrary power on the Bishop's part.

The Papal entry under the head of Petitions runs thus : " Nicholas of
Copmanford, Monk of Ely, Sacrist, who received that office from the
Ordinary, and can be removed from it any year at the will of the Bishop —
that the said office may be confirmed to him for life.'' The reply of the
Pope occurs under the head of letters : " 7 Ides Nov. 1343. To Nicholas
of Copmanford, Sacrist of Ely — Grant — That he shall not be removed from
the said office without reasonable cause."

Whether the Pope's kindly reply ever reached Copmanford in time to
give him comfort, we know not. In the Roll of the Camerarius for the
17th of Edward III. his death is recorded and the sum of 5^. was paid to the
Elemosinarius on the occasion, according to the custom of the Monastery,
for distribution in alms to the poor.



NOTES

ON

ROLL NO. X.



(goBerf of (&$fo§ an d this leads to the mention of a formal order which would have
reached Ely this year, to provide a strong and suitable house for the safe
custody of the tenths and fifteenths granted in the last Parliament. A like
order went forth to other religious houses, and the Ely Monastery was
selected to be responsible for the King's monies collected in the counties
of Cambridge and Huntingdon 2 .

In this Roll x. a separate account appears again, headed " Custus noui
operis," and it is apparent that in the main the new work is the founding
of four new bells by John of Gloucester, and the hanging of them with two
other bells in the western tower, known then as the " magnum Campanile."

The Sacrist, however, does not seem to have been able to keep the cost
of the timber and iron expended for " the new work," from the materials of
the same kind used in the ordinary works of the office. In page 136, he
enters the payments as " nihil," because they were to be found above,
" superius."

As to the part of the Church in which work was being done by
masons and carpenters, information must be sought for in scattered
entries. In a long entry on page 137, mention is made of work at the
" tria altaria," and on the berfrey or belfry of the great or western
Campanile, for the reception of the heavy bells which were being cast.

In page 131, iron is prepared "pro cimitate magni Campanilis." The
point of the full height to which the tower reached in 1345 is now ob-
scured by the perpendicular structure which was raised on it later ; and it
is unknown how much stonework was taken off the top at that time.
The opening of the "custus noui operis" in Aylsham's Roll speaks of 16
formepecys, by which must be understood stone tracery for windows ; with
other worked stones, called sextefother and crests ; and these would
probably be worked in for the completion of the upper portion of the
western tower ; John Attegrene, the mason, with his son John and two
other masons, being engaged on the work. The woodwork was in the



1 Historical MSS. Comm. Appendix to 6th Report. Lord Leconfield's collection,
folio 81 b.

2 Calendar of Close Rolls, 18 Edw. III., pt 2, m. 11, Oct. 31, 1344.

In the Close Roll itself is this note. "Priori de Ely de quodam domo etc. in
eodem prioratu pro denariis Regis etc. in Comitatu Cantebr. et Hunt." On the
subject of tenths, etc., cf. Stubbs's Constitutional History, vol. ii. chapter xvi.

P. S.— There is a room mentioned in the returns of Cromwell's Commissioners,
under the name of "Serines Chamber," which may possibly have been the strong
house ordered above. " Scriniarium = ^Erarium, thesaurus; le tresor."

Lexicon mediae et infimae Latinitatis.— Migne.

C VOL. I. 6



82 QRoff (Jto, a

hands of the brothers Geoffrey and John Middilton, with a host of workmen,
and the whole under the oversight of Master William of Hurle, here written
Horlee (page 137).

The windows were glazed by Seman the glazier, and the painting is
done by Walter Pictor. A weather-cock (ventilog.) crowns the summit.

A very elaborate and valuable account of the cost of casting the four
new bells, with the weight of metal in each, is set out in the Roll, pages
138, 139. The names given to them were IHS., John, Mary, and Walsing-
ham, the expense of the last being defrayed by Prior Walsingham himself.

The whole account, however, owing probably to the great attention
given to it, has become very difficult to decipher, and the last part of the
paragraph, which reaches almost to the end of the parchment on the chief
side, is so worn away that little can be made of it. Two lines at the very
foot of the Roll which gave the summary of the figures on the sheet have
almost disappeared. Under these circumstances the text of the passage
printed in this issue has had to be drawn in part from the copy given by
Canon Stewart, in his Architectural History of Ely Cathedral, pages 117, 118;
but that may be found not free from errors.

The financial statement of Aylsham's Compotus at the end of the year
stood thus :

Adverse balance from the previous year
General expenses of the Sacristy
Custus noui operis

Total receipts ...

Adverse balance at Michaelmas 1346...

The length of the Roll is 10 feet.

The dexter side at the commencement of the receipts is in parts torn
away.

The expenses follow the receipts.

And then succeeds the " nouum opus " on the same side — mention has
already been made of the condition of the last portion which contains the
account of the casting of the bells.

In dorso is an entry concerning crops and store, of little value and
scarcely legible.



41


3


8


174


13


7


129


14


4


345


n


7


3 2 3


3


5


22


8


2



NOTES


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

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