Emanuel Kayser.

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REESE LIBRARY



1



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA.
APR 10 1894



, 189 .



^Accessions No.



&. CLiss No.




UHIVERSIT1



TEXT BOOK OF COMPARATIVE GEOLOGY



TEXT BOOK



OF



COMPARATIVE GEOLOGY




BY

E. KAYSER, PH.D.

Professor of Geology in the University of Marburg



TRANSLATED AND EDITED

BY

PHILIP LAKE, M.A., F.G.S.

Late Harkness Scholar in the University of Cambridge



WITH 596 ILLUSTRATIONS (73 PLATES AND 70 FIGURES IN THE TEXT)




iLontion

SWAN SONNENSCHEIN & CO.

NEW YORK: MACMILLAN & CO.

1893



BCTLEK & TANNER,

THE SELWOOD PRINTING WOKKS

FKOMK, AND LONDON.




PREFACE.

A JUST conception of the science of geology is scarcely to be gained
by the examination of any single country : the outlook must be
broad and must, as far as possible, include the whole earth. It is
to the use of the comparative method that we owe the striking
generalisations of Neumayr and the philosophical views of Suess.

Even in the study of a particular district, comparison with other
areas is invaluable ; for the key to the geology will oft%n be found
in some far distant region. South Devonshire, for example, was
very imperfectly understood until Mr. Ussher applied the know-
ledge which had been won in the Rhenish Mountains.

There is, however, no text book in the English language which
affords sufficient help in such comparisons, for there is none which
gives an adequate account even of the geology of Europe ; and it
is with the object of supplying this deficiency, in part at least,
that the translation of Dr. Kayser's " Lehrbuch der geologischen
Formationskunde " has been undertaken. Dr. Kayser's work was
intended primarily for use in Germany ; but the space devoted to
other countries is much larger than in earlier text books.

In the present edition very considerable additions have been
made to the portions descriptive of extra-German countries. These
additions are most numerous in the first half of the work, while
in the latter half the greatness of the subject and the limits of
space have made themselves more severely felt. Extra-European

rocks have necessarily received but brief notice.

fr



VI PREFACE.

Besides these additions the chief alteration that has been made
is that the Cambro-Silurian rocks have been divided into Cam-
brian, Ordovician and Silurian instead of into Cambrian and
Silurian.

The illustrations with few exceptions are the same as in the
German edition ; and they will be found of the greatest value in
imparting to the student a knowledge of characteristic and zone
fossils.

In the preparation of the book my thanks are due to Prof. Of. A.
Lebour and Mr. J. E. Marr, F.R.S., for valuable advice and notes

*

in certain portions of the work ; and above all to Dr. Kayser him-
self, who has read through the whole of the proof sheets and has
added some supplementary remarks.

PHILIP LAKE.




CONTENTS.



PAGE



INTRODUCTION 1

I. ARCHAEAN OR PRIMITIVE ROCKS 13

GENERAL CHARACTER AND COMPOSITION OF . . .13

STRUCTURE AND MODE OF OCCURRENCE OF .... 17

CLASSIFICATION OF .19

DISTRIBUTION OF 23

VIEWS ON THE ORIGIN OF 24

II. PALAEOZOIC OR PRIMARY GROUP 27

CAMBRO-SILURIAN ROCKS 28

Historical 28

General Eemarks 30

A. CAMBRIAN SYSTEM 32

Palaeontology of 45

B. ORDOVICIAN SYSTEM 50

C. SILURIAN SYSTEM 64

Palaeontology of Ordovician and Silurian Systems 73

D. DEVONIAN SYSTEM 89

Historical 39

Distribution and Development of . .91

Palaeontology of 113

E. CARBONIFEROUS SYSTEM 12*5

General and Historical 125

Distribution and Development of

Central and Western Europe .... 129

The Mediterranean Eegion .... 142

Eussia 144

Extra-European Areas 146

On the Mode of Formation of Coal .... 148

Palaeontology of 150

F. PERMIAN SYSTEM 164

General and Historical 164

Distribution and Composition of

German Facies 167

Eussian Facies 178

The Permo-Carboniferous Glacial Epoch . . .183

Palaeontology of ./ 185

III. MESOZOIC OR SECONDARY GROUP 193

A. TRIASSIC SYSTEM 194

General and Historical 194

The German Facies of the Trias. . . .196

The Alpine Trias. . . . . . .217

Palaeontology of 230



Vlll CONTENTS.

PAGE

B. JURASSIC SYSTEM 235

General and Historical 235

Distribution and Development of

Jura of Central Europe 239

The Alpine Jura 262

The Kussian Jura 269

Climatic Zones of 270

Palaeontology of . 271

C. CRETACEOUS SYSTEM 279

General and Historical . . . . . . 279

Distribution and Development of

Lower Cretaceous 284

Germany, N. France, and England . . 284

S.Europe 296

Upper Cretaceous 299

Germany, England, and N. France . . 299

S. Europe 315

Extra-European Cretaceous .... 318

Palaeontology of 319

IV. NEOZOIC GROUP 326

A. TERTIARY SYSTEM 327

General and Historical 327

Older Tertiary or Palaeogene 332

1. Eocene 332

2. Oligocene 339

Palaeontology of Older Tertiary . . . .348

Newer Tertiary or Neogene 353

1. Miocene 353

2. Pliocene . 362

Palaeontology of Newer Tertiary .... 366

B. QUATERNARY SYSTEM 373

1. Drift or Diluvium 374

General and Historical 374

Distribution and Development of . . . 378

Mammalia of 393

2. Alluvium . 399




LIST OF PLATES.



PLATE PAGE

I. Cambrian Trilobites ... ..... 46

II, Fossils ......... 47

III. Ordovician Trilobites ........ 76

IV. Mollusca ........ 77

V. Brachiopods and Cystideans .... 78

VI. and Silurian Coelenterates .... 79

VII. Silurian Crustacea ...... , . .80

VIII. and Cephalopoda ..... 81

IX. Molluscs . . ....... 82

X. Brachiopods and Corals ...... 83

XI. Ccelenterates ........ 84

XII. Lower Devonian Fossils ....... 114

XIII. ....... 115

XIV. Middle Mollusca ....... 116

XV. ., Fossils ....... 117

XVI. Corals and Crinoids ..... 118

XVII. Upper Fossils . ...... 119

XVIII. Fossils from the Upper Devonian, etc ...... 120

XIX. Hercynian Fossils ......... 121

XX. Fossils of the Culm and Carboniferous Limestone . . 151

XXI. Cephalopods and Gasteropods of the Carboniferous Lime-

stone .......... 152

XXII. Brachiopods and Lamellibranchs of the Carboniferous

Limestone ......... 153

XXIII. Carboniferous Limestone Coelenterates .... 154

XXIV. Coal Measure Plants ........ 155

XXV. ........ 156

XXVI. ,, ........ 157

XXVII. Plant and Animal remains of the Coal Measures . . 158

XXVIII. Fossils of the Marine Upper Carboniferous . . .159

XXIX. Eothliegende ....... 187

XXX. ....... 188

XXXI. Fossils of the Zechstein ........ 189

XXXII. Permian Fossils ......... 190

XXXIII. Fossils of the Bunter Sandstone ...... 201

XXXIV. Muschelkalk Fossils . . . . . . . . .204

XXXV. ..... > ... 205

XXXVI. Keuper Fossils ......... 211

XXXVII. Fossils of the Keuper and of the Karoo Series . . .212

XXXVIII. Bunter Sandstone and the Muschelkajk of

the Alps ..... ..... 221

ix



LIST OF PLATES.



PLATE




PAGE


XXXIX.


Fossils of the Norian Series of the Alps ....


222


XL.


Carinthian and Rhsetic Series of the Alps .


223


XLI.


Lower Lias


245


XLII.


,, ,, Middle Lias


246


XLIII.


n n Upper Lias


247


XLIV.


., Lower Oolite .......


254


XLV.




255


XLVI.


,, Great Oolite and of the Keliaways Rock


256


XL VII.


,, ,, Oxfordian and Corallian ....


263


XLVIII.


Kimeridgian


264


XLIX.


and Portlandian, also Titho-






nian


265


L.


Fossils of the Wealden


285


LI.


,, ,, Neocomian


290


LIL


,, Albian and Aptian


294


LIII.


Alpine Lower Cretaceous ....


297


LIV.


,, ,, Cenomanian


301


LV.


,, ,, and Turonian ....


302


LVI.


Turonian


303


LVII.


Senonian


305


LVIII.


,, ,, ........


306


LIX.





307


LX.




308


LXI.


,, Alpine Upper Cretaceous ....


317


LXII.


Eocene Mollusca


333


LXIII.




334


LXIV.


Fossils of the Nummulitic Beds


338


LXV.


Oligocene Mollusca


343


LXVI.


Fossils


344


LXVII.


Miocene Gasteropoda


357


LXVIII.


Mollusca


358


LXIX.


Fossils


359


LXX.


Pliocene Mollusca


364


LXXI.


Mammals of the Drift


394


LXXII.




395


LXX III.


and Molluscs of the Drift


396




LIST OF FIGURES.



1. Section near Wolmersdorf in Lower Austria (v. Hauer) . . 16

2. through the Pfahl in Eastern Bavaria (Gtimbel) . . 16

3. in the King Mine in New Jersey (Wtirtz) .... 17

4. through the Archsean at Grenville in Canada (Logan) . 18

5. a part of the Bavarian Hills (Gtimbel) . . 18

6. St. Gotthard and the Finsteraarhorn (A. Heim). 20

7. Mont Pelvoux (Lory) 20

8. Mont Blanc (A. Favre and Lory) .... 21

9. the Simplon (Lory) 21

10. ,, in the Menomonee area in Michigan (Credner) ... 23

11. of Kinekulle on Lake Wener . . . . . .35

12. Diagrammatic section through the Lower Palaeozoic Rocks of

Bohemia (Fr. Katzer) 58

13. Section from Finland through the islands of Oesel, Gotland, and

Oeland to Sweden (Fr. Schmidt) ....... 70

14. Section through a part of the Schiefergebirge of the Eifel (Baur) 92

15. Meganteris Archiaci, Vern, from the Lower Devonian of the Eifel

(with the dorsal shell broken open to show the long internal

loop) 122

16. Section on the West Coast of Arran (F. Zirkel) . . . . 129

17. through the Coal Basin of Liege (Vancherpenzeel-Thim). 135

18. of the Carboniferous and Devonian near Aix-la-Chapelle

(F. Holzapfel) 136

19. Section through the Coal Basin of Ruhr (H. Br. Geinitz) . . 137

20. ,, ,, ,, Carboniferous and Rothliegende of the Saar

and Nahe Area (Nasse) 137

21. Section through the Alleghany Mountains 147

22. Upright Trunks in the Carboniferous of St. Etienne . . .150

23. Section through the Rothliegende and accompanying eruptive

rocks 011 the left bank of the Nahe above Miinster (H.

Laspeyres) 169

24. Section through the Erzgebirge Basin at Chemnitz (Siegert) . 171

25. Salt beds of Stassfurt (Bischof) . . .176

26. Glossopteris Browniana, Brngn. 184

27. Callipteris conferta, Brngn. 185

28. Section through the Mesozoic Rocks of Hanover (Heinr. Credner) 193

29. False-bedding in the Middle Bunter Sandstone near Marburg . 199

30. Section of the Trias in the neighbourhood of Mutzig and Sulzbad,

on the Eastern border of the Vosges (Benecke) . . . .208

31. Section of the Trias in the neighbourhood of Oberheldrtingeii in

Thuringia 208

32. The Dolomite Reefs of the Sett Sass in the Southern Tyrol . . 226

33. Section through the Trias of Lunz in the Lower Austrian Alps

(Bittiier) '. 227



xii LIST OF FIGURES.

FIG. PAGK

34. Section through the Triassic and Jurassic Beds of Swabia . . 240

35. ,, ,, Upper Jurassic of the Porta Westfalica
(Heinr. Credner) 240

36. Lepidotus notopterus, Agass 274

37. Leptolepis sprattiformis, Agass 274

38. Ichthyosaurus communis, Conyb. 276

39. Plesiosaurus dolichodeirus, Conyb * . 276

40. Pterodactylus spectabilis, H. v. Mey 277

41. Restoration of Ramphorliynclms phyllurus, Marsh .... 277

42. Archceopteryx macrura, Owen 278

43. Hesperornis regalis, Marsh ........ 323

43A. Tooth of Hesperornis regalis, with germ of succeeding tooth . 323

44. Ichthyornis victor, Marsh 324

45. Section of the Tertiary Beds of Brandenburg (G. Berendt) . . 342

46. Oligocene Lignite deposits of the neighbourhood

of Halle on the Saal (H. Laspeyres) 345

47. Chamaerops helvetica, Heer. Lower Oligocene of Nachterstadt, .

near Halle on the Saal 349

48. Lamna cuspidata, Ag., Oligocene 350

49. Otodus obliquus, Ag., Eocene 350

50. Pal(Kotherium magnum, Cuvier. Oligocene, Montmartre, near Paris 351

51. Skull of Loxolophodon (Dinoceras) mirabilis, Marsh. Eocene of

Wyoming 352

52. Section through the Meissner, near Cassel (Fr. Moesta) . . 356
58. Diagrammatic Section through the Vienna Tertiary Basin

(Karrer) 361

54. Dinotherium giganteum, Kaup. Pliocene of Eppelsheim. . . 366

55. Upper molar teeth of Dinotherium giganteum, Kaup. . . . 366

56. Mastodon angustidens, Cuv. Miocene of Simorre, France . . 367

57. Last molar of the upper jaw of Mastodon angustidens, Cuv., seen

from above 367

58. Last molar of the lower jaw of Mastodon turicensis, Schinz., seen

from the side 367

59. Hippotherium gracile, Kaup. Pliocene of Pikermi . . . 368

60. Upper molars and hind feet of (a) Palceotherium ; (b) Anchithe-

rium ; (c) Hippotherium ; (d) Equus 368

61. Tooth of Anchitherium (A) ; Hippotherium (B) and Equus (C) . 370

62. Upper molar of Aceratherium incisivum 370

63. Rhinoceros (Aceratherium'] incisivus, Cuv 370

64. Rhinoceros (Dihoplus) Schleiermacheri, Kaup 370

65. Antlers of : a. Cervus (Palceomeryx) elegans, Lartet = fur cat us,

Hens. ; Miocene, Sansan. b. C. (Pal.) anocerus, Kaup. ; Plio-
eene, Eppelsheim. c. C. Matheronis, Gaudr. ; Pliocene, M. Lu-

beron. d. C. martialis, Croiz. and Job. ; Pliocene, St. Martial. 371

66. Cervus Sedgwicki. Falc. Upper Miocene, Val d'Arno . . . 372

67. Machcerodus meganthereon, Croiz. and Job. Pliocene of S. France . 372

68. Mylodon robustus, Owen. Argentine Pampas formation . . 373

69. Extent of the ice-sheet and glaciers during the Ice Age in Europe 381

70. Map of the ice-sheet and glaciers in North America . . . 391




INTRODUCTION.



GENERAL REMARKS.

STRATIGRAPHY or Stratigraphical Geology is but a part
of the great science of Geology, i.e. the science of the material
(especially the mineralogical) constitution of the globe, its structure
and the history of its formation.

In Geology, as in other sciences, we can distinguish various
branches; such as Physical Geology, which is concerned with
the form and size of the earth, its density and temperature, the
general contour and relief of its surface and other similar matters ;
Dynamical or Mechanical Geology, which treats of the-
action of volcanoes, water, etc. ; Tectonic Geology, which
describes the arrangement of the rocks composing the crust of
the earth; Petrographical Geology or Petrography, which
teaches the chemical and mineralogical composition, and the mode
of occurrence and distribution, of the various types of rocks; and
lastly, Stratigraphical Geology. This undertakes the task of
examining the composition, distribution, and organic inclusions-
of the geological formations, i.e. of the rock- structures which have
arisen at different and successive periods of the earth's history.
It thus gives us a kind of history of the development of the globe
and of its inhabitants, both animals and plants, from the earliest
times to the present. Hence the term Historical Geology is also-
tised for this branch of the science ; and when we compare the
stratigraphy of various areas, we may well speak of COMPARATIVE:
GEOLOGY.

If we take a general view of the rocks forming the solid crust of
the earth we find that they fall into two chief classes, viz. (1)
Eruptive Hocks, which like the lavas of to-day, rose hot and
liquid from the inner parts of the earth, and on cooling became
firm and solid ; and (2) Sedimentary Rocks, which are either

C. G. * B



INTRODUCTION.

deposits of the solid matter mechanically carried by water, or
deposits from mineral solutions. Besides these two great groups,
there is a third, which is of but slight importance, viz. the ^Eoliaii
or Subaerial Rocks deposits of material borne by the wind and
laid down on dry land, as for example, certain mountain loams,
volcanic tuffs, and sand dunes.

The sedimentary are distinguished from the eruptive rocks
chiefly by two peculiarities, their bedding and their fossil con-
tents. Bedding or stratification is indeed not universal, but it is
found in most sedimentary or " stratified rocks." A stratified de-
posit is one in which the whole mass is divided into parallel
platy or tabular layers (beds or strata). Each bed is separated
from those above and below it by a divisional plane and is to be
considered as the result of an uninterrupted process of sedimenta-
tion, whilst each divisional plane signifies a pause, however small,
in the deposition. If a number of successive beds are of similar
constitution and structure, they form a " series," "group," "com-
plex," or " system " of beds. As for the fossils, they also are not
universal, but are nevertheless found in the greater number of
sedimentary rocks. They are the remains imbedded in the rock,
and more or less mineralized, 1 of the animals and plants which
"lived at the time of the formation of the beds.

Our whole system of reckoning time geologically rests ex-
clusively on the sedimentary rocks, because it is they alone that
afford the means, in their stratification and fossil contents, of
tracing their chronological equivalence over wide areas or over the
whole earth. The eruptive rocks are of no value for this purpose,
because they possess no marks which allow of any certain con-
clusions as to their age ; and this can only be determined from
that of the sedimentary rocks through which they have broken.

With respect to the bedding it has already been noticed that
each single bed is to be considered as the representative of a par-
ticular, though it may be a relatively very short, period of time.
Since each series of beds is composed of numerous beds lying on
one another like the leaves of a book, and each system of a number
of successive series, it is possible to determine the age of each bed
relatively to any other of the same series, and also the age of each

1 A striking exception to this rule is formed by the corpses of mammoths
and rhinoceros which are found in the frozen soil of Siberia with their hair
and skin preserved. They are not mineralized, but must nevertheless be
considered as " fossils."



INTRODUCTION. 3

series relatively to any other. Hence we get this most important
rule : That in normal circumstances, i.e. when the beds are un-
disturbed or but little disturbed, a higher bed is younger than a
ilower. According to this principle of stratification, even before
there was a science of geology, men separated the older from the
younger, or as the old miners expressed it, the " heading " (Liegende)
from the " hanging " (Hangende).

Concerning the mutual relations of two series it is necessary,
in. the first place, to distinguish between conformable and un-
conformable sequence. In the first or normal case, both series
possess a similar " lie," the strike and dip being the same. We
may then conclude that there was no great interval of time between
the deposition of the older and the newer beds. In an uiiconform-
.able sequence, on the other hand, each of the series has its own
peculiar lie differing from that of the other. In this case a cer-
tain time must have elapsed between the formation of the older
-and that of the newer beds, during which the older beds were
moved from their original horizontal position and sometimes set
on edge and folded.

A peculiar kind of lie, which is too important to be left un-
noticed, is known as overlap or transgression. In this case a series
lies quite conformably upon the preceding beds, but overlaps the area
occupied by these in such a manner as to lie in part immediately
on a third, still older series, usually unconformably. Thus, for
example, the Rothliegende of the Saar area overlaps the underlying
'Conformable Saarbriick Coal Measures in such a manner that
s to the north of the latter it rests directly on the older steeply in-
clined Devonian beds of the Hunsrtick.

Overlaps indicate that after the deposition of a system of rocks
t(in the above example, the Coal Measures) had been accomplished,
an overflow of the sea beyond the borders of the basin of deposi-
tion took place, in consequence of which the newer series (in
our case the Rothliegende) was laid down over a greater area than
the older.

The possibility of the determination of the age of a rock from its
fossils rests on this, that the earth in the course of its history
has been peopled by a long succession of very various faunas and
floras, and that accordingly the fossils of the several systems and
parts of systems are very different from one another. Moreover
the labours of several generations of observers have now established
ithe evolution of organic life in its principal features ; and at the



4 INTRODUCTION.

same time it has become possible, from the character of a given
fossil fauna or flora, to determine its relative age, i.e. to determine
whether it is older or younger than another. For since the fauna
and flora of each geological epoch has been evolved from that of
the preceding epoch, and the present life of the world represents
only the latest stage of this development, it follows universal^
that, on the one hand, the younger a fossil fauna or flora is, the
more like it must be to the present ; and on the other hand, the
older it is, the more unlike.

This position is indeed only valid in its main features. It
cannot be doubted that in former geological ages, just as at the
present day, the character of the animal and plant world was
influenced by geographical differences. With these there were
also other local differences. The terrestrial animals were always
unlike the aquatic, and among the latter the dwellers in salt
water were different from those in fresh water. Lastly, the in-
fluence of height, humidity, soil, etc., must have been as great in all
times as it is to-day. All these circumstances must have combined,
from the oldest times, to bring about regional differences in the
animals and plants inhabiting our earth during any single epoch.
Nevertheless it is proved afresh every day, and is confirmed by
continual experience, that, leaving out of consideration all local
differences, the succession of faunas and floras of the several geo-
logical periods has been the same throughout the whole earth.
Not only is the sequence of the great Palaeozoic faunas the
same from Cambrian to Permian, in the most distant parts of the
earth ; but even the various Ammonite faunas of the Jurassic,
which .correspond with relatively short periods of time, are re-
peated with the most wonderful agreement in the most widety
separated parts of Europe and also in India and South America.

The determination of the age of beds by means of their fossils
is practicable, not only when we deal with strata of one and the
same region, but even when these are widely separated from each
other, as, for example, when we compare European with American
rocks. In that case we .may consider that

(1) Strata of the same age (equivalent, homotaxial) contain
more or less similar faunas and floras.

(2) The resemblance of any fauna or flora to that of the present
day is less as its antiquity is greater.

The varieties in character of the faunas of beds of the same age r
due to local variations in the conditions of life, are known as






INTRODUCTION.



vpalseontological facies. Thus it is not uncommon to find an
Ammonite or Cephalopod facies in a certain area, and near to this
<; another facies of the same age of Brachiopods, Lamellibranchs,
. Corals, or other forms. Still more marked are the differences
J between a marine and an equivalent freshwater facies.

The differences in character of the rocks of the various systems

\ * and other subdivisions afford but very slender evidence for the

4 -determination of the age of the beds. There was indeed a time

~ when it was thought that each great geological period was char-

. acterized by the formation of a perfectly definite type of rock.

j It was 'at this time that the expressions, Chalk Formation, Oolite,

^ Grauwacke, Coal Formation, and many others originated. But this

idea has been proved to be erroneous. We know now that, for

example, Oolitic rocks and Coal occur in the most different

^ j systems ; and on the other hand that the same period may be

i represented in different regions by entirely different rocks : in

5 i one area by sandstones and conglomerates, in another by slates,

^ in a third by limestone, etc.

T+^ It could not indeed be otherwise ; for the deposition of sediment
<j j has in all times taken place in different and more or less separated
1 areas, and not only in marine but also in freshwater basins.
^ 4 Since the character of the deposited material may be different
^' not only in separate basins but even at different points in the same
basin, the petrographical character of the beds formed in any one
^~ age must also be very various. The often observed change in
t} petrographical character of a certain bed or series along its strike,
the passage from schist into sandstone and conglomerate, from clay
into marl and limestone, etc., is also very natural. Hence it follows
directly that the petrographical character of a series of beds can



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