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(Apoc. xiv. 10) signifies to be conjoined with truths of the
Word that are falsified, for the reason that by " unmixed "
is meant wine that inebriates, and thence also drunken-
ness ; consequently, in the spiritual sense, delirium in
truths through falsities, for this is spiritual drunkenness :
a word also by which "unmixed [wine] " is expressed in
the original language is derived from a word which signi-
fies to be inebriated (n. 887 ; compare Deut. xxxii. 14,
n. 374O.
The word here referred to is probably the Hebrew word sobhe', which is

derived from sabha'.

"Merum'''' represents

CHEMER, Deut^ xxxii. 14, rendered "pure" in the authorized ver-
sion (n. 374<r) :
SOBHE', ha. i. 22 (n. 887):
AKRATON, meaning unmixed, Apoc. xiv. 10 (n. 887).

Unsheathe, Draw {Evaginare). — "To unsheathe (huq) the swords"
(Ezek. xxviii. 7) signifies extinftion by falsities (n. 3i5<r)-
See also Ezek. v. 2, 12 (n. i,\()e) ; xxx. n (n. l\%d).

Unsound. — {See Diseased.)

Unstopped. — (See Open.)

Unstring {Enervare). — " In their good pleasure they unstrung (-aqar)
an ox" {^Gen. xlix. 6) signifies that from a depraved will
they altogether weakened the external good which is of
charity (n. 443^).

Uphaz {Uphasus).—" Gold from Uphaz" {Jer. x. 9) signifies the
good of the Word in the sense of its letter (n. 5853).



954 APOCALYPSE EXPLAINED.

Uphold, Establish {Fuidre). — "Fulcire" represents

sA'ADH, Isa. ix. 7, rendered " establish" in the authorized version,
and "uphold" in the revised (n. 946).

(Susieniare). — {See Lean, Susfentation.)

"Sustentare (to uphold) " represents

TAMAKH, Isa. Xli. lO (u. 298^).

Upright — {See Well disposed.)

Uprightness {Reaitudo). — The unition of the Divine of the

Lord with His Divine Human, which was accomplished
in the world, is meant {Mai. ii. 6) where it is said, " He
walked with Me in peace and uprightness (mishor)" (n.

365^) see revised version).

" The land of uprightness " {Ps. cxliii. 10) is the church in
which there is what is right and true (n. 304<;).

"A sceptre of righteousness " {Ps. xlv. 6) is divine truth, to
which is power and kingdom (n. 684^).

"Uprightnesses (mesharim)" are truths {see Ps. xcvi. 10, n.

7411;; Isa. xxxiii. 15, n. 453'*).
{See Straight, Right.)

Urim. — Whereas the nations {or gentiles) from whom there was to
be a church, were in natural good, it is therefore said {Isa.
xxiv. 15), "In urim honor Jehovah, in the islands of the
sea the name of the God of Israel ;" by which is signified
that they were to adore the Lord from the goods and
truths that are in the natural man : for urim in Hebrew
means fire, and the place for fire ; and these signify the
good of love that belongs to the natural man ; " the islands
of the sea" signify knowledges of truth and good, which
are the truths of the natural man (n. 4061}).

"The breastplate of judgment" that was upon the ephod, and
that was called the urim and thummim, in general signifies
truth shining out of the divine good. It was made of
twelve precious stones, under which were the names of the
tribes, or of the twelve sons of Israel. Answers were
given by the resplendence of the colors of the stones that
were in the urim and thummim, and then at the same time
by a living voice or by tacit perception corresponding to
the resplendency. UrtTn is shining fire ; and thummiin
is resplendency in angelic language, but integrity in He-
brew (n. 431a; compare n. yiy^s)

See articles n. 268, 4063, 43ia,i:, 444^, 717^.

Usage ( Usus). — {See Use.)

It has become a matter of usage, from the Word, to call those



INDEX OF WORDS. 955

who teach "pastors," and those who learn "a flock" (n
482).

The aneients built their temples so that the front parts, where
the adytum is, should look to the east ; the same is done
at this day, from the old usage (n. .422^).

Use {Usus).~{See Usage, Work.)

Something shall now be said concerning uses, by which man
and angels have wisdom. To love uses is nothing else
than to love the neighbor ; in a spiritual sense use is the
neighbor. It is the neighbor, because a man is esteemed
and loved not from will and understanding alone, but from
the uses which he performs from them, or which he is able
to perform : hence a man who is a use is a man according
to his uses ; and a man not a use is a man who is not a
man, and of him it is said, He is not useful {or good) for
anything. Such a one, although tolerated in civil society
in the world, while he lives on what is his own, still after
his death, when he becomes a spirit, is cast out into the
wilderness. Man therefore is such in quality as he is as
a use. But uses are manifold ; in general there are heav-
enly uses, and there are infernal uses. Heavenly uses are
those which are more or less serviceable to the church, to
one's country, to society, and to the fellow-citizen, and
which are direftly or more remotely for the sake of them
as ends. But infernal uses are those which are serviceable
only to oneself and to those connedled with him ; and if
serviceable to the church, to one's country, to society, and
to the fellow-citizen, they are not done for the sake of
these as ends, but for the sake of oneself as the end. It
is the duty of every one, however, to provide for ,the ne-
cessities and the requirements of life, for himself and foi
those dependent on him, and to do this from love, but not
the love of self When a man in the first place loves uses
by doing them, and loves the world and himself in the
second place, then the love of uses is his spiritual part,
and his loving the world and himself is his natural, and the
spiritual has dominion, and the natural serves (see more,
n. 1193").

Whereas man was created to perform uses, and this is to love
the neighbor, therefore all, however many, who come into
heaven, will do uses ; according to uses, and according to
the love of them, they have all their enjoyment and bless-
edness ; heavenly joy is from no other source ; he who
believes that it can be given in idleness, is much mistaken
(n. 1194).

Nor is any idle person tolerated in hell. Those who are there



956 APOCALYPSE EXPLAINED.

are in workhouses, and under a judge who imposes labors
on the prisoners, which they must do every day : to those
who do not do them, there is given neither food nor rai-
ment ; they stand hungry and naked ; and so they are
compelled to labor there (n. 1194).
In hell they do uses from fear, but in heaven from love ; and
fear does not give joy, but love does give it (n. 11 94).

The uses that they perform in the heavens, and the works
that are done in the hells, are in part similar to those that
are done in the world ; most of the uses, however, are
spiritual uses, that cannot be described by natural lan-
guage, and that do not fall into natural ideas (n. 1226).

It is, however, granted to interrupt labors by various things
that are done in company with others ; these things are
recreations, and thus they are uses also (n. 1194).

Everything in heaven, in the world, and in the human body,
be it great or small, was created from use, in use, and for
use. A part in which this last, its being for use, ceases, is
separated as harmful, and is cast off as accursed (n.
1194).

In the deserts and in the hells have been seen many of noble
stock, who in the world gave themselves up to idleness,
who courted offices, and who also performed the duties
of office not for the sake of uses, but for the sake of
honors or gains which to them were the only uses (n.
1226).

Use is the subject of every affecSlion ; for a man cannot be
affefted unless it be for the sake of something, and this
something is use (n. 12 14).

There are genera and there are species of uses, and differences
in the species, beyond limit; there are also degrees of
uses. As many as are the uses, so many are the affe<5lions
(n. 1229).

By uses, in the heavens and the earths, are meant ministries,
funftions, the studies of life, employments, various kinds
of service in the family, labors, and thus all things which
are opposite to idleness and sloth. The essence of uses
is the public good. With the angels, the public good in
the most general sense means the good of the whole
heaven, in a sense less general the good of a society, and
in a particular sense the good of the fellow-citizen : but
with men the essence of uses in the most general sense is
the good, both spiritual and civil, of the whole human
race ; in a less general sense the good of the country, in
a particular sense the good of society, and in the singular
sense the good of the fellow-citizen ; and as these various



INDEX OF WORDS. 957

kinds of good make the essence of uses, love is their life ;
for all good is of love, and in love is life. Every one who
finds delight in the use of his fundion for the sake of the
use, loves his country and its citizens ; but one who has
not delight in the uses of his funflion for the sake of
the uses, but does them for his own sake only, or for honor
alone, or wealth alone, does not in heart love his country
and its citizens, but only himself and the world ; the rea-
son is, that no one can be kept by the Lord in the love of
the neighbor, unless he be in some love towards the pub-
lic ; and no one can be in that love, who is not in the love
of use for the sake of use, or in the love of use from use,
and thus from the Lord (n. 1226).
Whereas the things in the world, were all and every one cre-
ated in the beginning for use, and all things in man were
formed for use, and the Lord from creation viewed all the
human race as one man in whom every one is in like
manner for use, or is a use, and whereas the Lord Him-
self is the life of that man, it is evident that the universe
was so created that the Lord is in things first and things
last, and in the centre and the circumferences, that is, in
the midst of all things, and that uses are what He is in
(n. 1226).

All the members of generation correspond to celestial love
and to its products, which are uses, and which are called
the truths of that love (n. 7 lod).

Uterus. — (See Womb.)

Uzzah {Vsa, Vzzah). — Uzzah, son of Abinadab, died because with
his hand he laid hold of the ark (2 Sam. vi. 6-8) ; for " to
touch with the hand" signifies communication, and com-
munication with the Lord is effedled through the good of
love : but Uzzah was not anointed, as the priests and Le-
vites were, to whom the representation of the good of
love attached itself by the anointing ; and moreover the
" cherubim " that were on the propitiatory that was upon
the ark, were significative of guard that the Lord might
not be approached except through the good of love (n.
700/).



l^alley {ValUs). — "Valleys" signify the lower things of the mind,
that are natural and sensual things (n. 376/) ; "valleys"
that are said to be "between mountains" {Zech. vi. i),
signify lower truths, which are truths of the natural man
(n. 405<^ ; compare n. 730;;,/).



958 APOCALYPSE EXPLAINED.

By "the inhabitant of the valley," and by "the rock of the
plain" {^yer. xxi. 13), are signified those who are in the
ultimates of the Word, and who do not suffer themselves
to be enlightened by what is interior; "the valley" and
"the plain" are the uhimates of the Word in which they
are (n. 411/).

By "the valley of vision" (^3. xxii. i) is signified the sen-
sual man that sees all things from the fallacies of the
senses of the body (n. 734<^) ; also falsity of do6trine, con-
firmed by the sense of the letter of the Word (n. 41 1«).

"Valleys" {Micah i. 4) signify falsities from the evils of the
loves of self and the world (n. 405*).

"Topheth" and "the valley of Hinnom " signified the hells ;
"Topheth" the hell that is behind, and that is called the
Devil; and "the valley of Hinnom" the hell in front,
called Satan (n. 659/).

" ValHs (a valley)" represents

Bia'AH, Detit. viii. 7 (n. 374c-);

J's. civ. 8 (n. 405^) ;

ha. xli. 18 (n. 483a) :
GAY', ha. xxviii. 1 (n. 376/) ;

Jer. vii. 32 (n. 659/) ;

Ezek. vi. 3 (n. 405^-) ; xxxvi. 6 (n. 304*) ;

Zech. xiv. 5 (n. ^$d) :
NACHAL. Job XXX. 6 (h. 415/1 ;

•EMEQ, Ps. IXV. 13 (n. 730t:);

jer. xxi. 13 (n. 411/) ;
Hos. ii. IS (n. 730^) ;
Micah i. 4 (n. 405A).

Vanish {Evanesccre). — As soon as any one assaults the love of a spiiit
or an angel, he vanishes with his whole body, even if he
were sitting shut up in his chamber (n. 837(a)).

Vanity {Vanitas). — "Vanity" (^Tsa. Ixvi. 3; the English versions have

" idol ") is evil, and the falsity of evil (n. 340;/).
- Falsities from which there is worship, are signified {^er.
xviii. 15) by "offering incense to vanity;" "vanity" is the
falsity, and "offering incense" is the worship (n. 411/).

"J/aniias (vanity) " represents

'AVEN, ha. Ixvi. 3 (n. 340^) :
HEBHEL, jfer. viii. 19 (n. 587.:) :
SHAV, yer. xviii. 15 (n. 411/) ;
JSzek. xiii. 8 (n. 624.:).

Vapor {^Vapor). — Ultimate {or outmost;) truthg, which are knowl-
edges from the sense of the letter of the Word, are signi-
fied {yer. X. 13; Ps. cxxxv. 7,) by "vapors (nasi') from
the end of the earth" (n. ^i()d\ compare n. 304/, 644c).

Variations, Changes ( VariaHones). — When the good have been with-



INDEX OF WORDS. 959

drawn, there then takes place a signal change, in the so-
cieties in which good and evil have been together, as to the
things that belong to the church. The cause of this change
will now be further disclosed. In the spiritual world there
is communication of all affeftions, and sometimes of the
thoughts ; and within every society there is a general
communication, extending itself from the midst of the
society in every direction, even to the borders, almost as
light extends itself from the midst to the circumferences.
The variations and changes of the affedlions which arise
from communication and its extension, exist by reason of
the influx of affe6tions from other societies that are either
above or at the sides, likewise from the new-comers who
enter the society, and also because there are few or be-
cause there are many taken out of the society. The socie-
ties upon which the last judgment took place, consisted
of both good and evil ; but of such evil persons as were
inwardly, but not outwardly, opposed to goods of love
and truths of do6lrine ; for outwardly they were able to
do what was right and just, and to speak what was pious
and true ; not, however, for the sake of the right, the
pious and, the true, but from habit formed in the world,
for the sake of fame, glory, honor, and gain, the various
enjoyments of natural loves, and also on account of the
laws and their penalties. Such persons, therefore, although
inwardly evil, were still able to be in company with those
who were not only outwardly but also inwardly good.
When therefore the good were separated from those who
only appeared good in the external form, then the exter-
nal good of these vanished, and their internal evil became
appar-ent ; for they were sustained in that external good
by communication with those within the same society who
were not only good outwardly, but inwardly also, as was
said before ; and therefore when the external good was
taken away from the evil, their interiors were opened,
which abounded with things merely evil and foul : and
hence it became manifest of what quality they were in
themselves (n. 674).

The variations of the face that are called the expressions of
the countenance, correspond to the affeflions of the ani-
mus ; the face therefore is varied as to its expressions, as
the affedlions of the animus vary as to their states. These
variations in the face are correspondences, and conse-
quently the face itself is a correspondence ; and the action
of the animus into the iace, that the correspondences may
be presented, is called influx (n. 1080).

Variegated, Divers colors {Vanegatus). — "The king's daughters,



96o APOCALYPSE EXPLAINED.

virgins" (2 Sam. xiii. 18), signified affeflions for truth,
and thus the church ; they represented the truths of this
affedtion by their garments, and these in general by their
robes, which consequently were of various colors in their
different parts (n. 395^ ; compare n. 863^). {See Robe.)

The church when perverted is described by taking of the
garments, and making high places of various colors {Ezek.
xvi. 16) ; by which are signified truths falsified (n. 1951}).

" Variegatus (variegated, of divers colors,) " represents

TALA>, Ezek. xvi. 16 (n. 195*) :
PASSIM, 2 Sam. xiii. 18 (n. 3951:, 863^).

Vasiaie, Waste {Vastare), Vasiation, Devastation, Wasting (Vasta-
iio). — {See Waste, Waster.)

Those who are to come into heaven are vastated in respeft
to falsities ; and those who are to come into hell are vastated
as to truths ; that is, falsities are taken away from those who
are to come into heaven, and truths from those who are
to come into hell : for one cannot enter heaven with falsi-
ties, nor can one enter hell with truths, because truths from
good make heaven, and falsities from evil make hell.
The temptations which they undergo, with whom falsities
are to be shaken off, are treated-of in many passages of
the Word, and especially in David; they are called "af-
fliflions," "tribulations," and "wasting" (n. 474).

When evil spirits who have not yet been vastated, that is,
determined to their own ruling love, enter any angelic
society, then they are direfully tormented, because the Di-
vine of the Lord is there (n. 78).

The last state of the church, when there is faith no longer,
because there is not charity, is called in the Word "wast-
ing {or devastation) " and "desolation ;" and by the Lord
it is called " the consummation of the age " (n. 397).

" Desolation " {Ezek. xxxiii. 28) is said concerning the truth

that is of faith, and "wasting" concerning the good that

is of charity (n. 405^).
" Lie" {Hos. xii. i) signifies the false, and "wasting" signifies

the dissipation of truth (n. \\qe).
The devastation of the church is attributed in the Word to

the Lord, although no part of it is done of God, but solely

of man (n. 960a).

" Vastare (to waste)" represents

CHARABH, Isa, Ix. 12 (n. i7S«).

" Vastatio (wasting, devastation,)" represents

SHODH, Isa. Ix. i8 (n. 365^) ;



INDEX OF WORDS. 96I

I{os. xii. I (n. 419?) :
SH'MAMAH, Ezek. xxxiu. 28 (n. 405j^).

(See also articles n. 83, 131^, 304.5, 336^, 365^, 388*, 8sojr.)
Vegetables {VegetaUHa), Vegetative soul {Vegctativa anima). — What

proceeds from the sun which is pure fire is called Nature
(n. 1207).
All things of Nature, besides the sun, the moon, and the at-
mospheres, make three kingdoms, — the animal, the veg-
etable, and the mineral. The mineral kingdom is but the
storehouse in which are contained the things that enter
into the composition of the forms of the other two king-
doms, the animal and the vegetable, and from which those
things are taken. That natural form in which are all
things of vegetable growth, derives its origin from the
conatus and the consequent flux of natural forces, which
are atmospheres, and are called ethers, in which there is
this conatus from the determination of spiritual forces,
which is to the animal form, and from the continual opera-
tion of these into natural forces which are ethers, and
through them into the matters of- the earth of which
vegetables are composed. That the origin is from this
source is plain from the consideration that some serri-
blance of the animal form appears in them (n. 1208).
{^See Vegetation.)

By the vegetative soul is meant the conatus and the effort for
producing a vegetable from a seed by progressive steps
even to its seeds, and thereby for multiplying itself to in-
finity and propagating itself to eternity : for there is as it
were the idea of the infinite and the eternal in every
thing of vegetable growth ; for a single seed may be mul-
tiplied through a certain number of years so as to fill
the whole earth, and also may be propagated from a seed
to seeds without end : this, together with the wonderful
progression of growth from root to shoot, then to a stem,
to branches, leaves, flowers, fruits, even to new seeds, is
not natural but spiritual : likewise that in many things
vegetables resemble such things as belong to the animal
kingdom ; as that they exist from seed, that in this there
is as it were a prolific principle, that they produce a
shoot as an infant, a trunk as a body, branches as arms,
a top as a head, barks as skins, leaves as lungs ; that they
grow for years, and afterwards bloom like maidens before
their nuptials ; and after the nuptials expand as it were
wombs or eggs and bring forth fruits as offspring, in which
are contained new seeds, from which as in the animal
kingdom new prolifications or fruflifications of the same
species or stock takes place. These and many other



962 APOCALYPSE EXPLAINED.

things that have been observed by those skilled in botany
and who have drawn a parallel between the two kingdoms,
indicate that the conatus and effort towards such things is
not from the natural world, but from the spiritual (n. 1 203 j
see much more, n. 1 204-1 208).
Producflions, which are especially animals and vegetables,
are continuations of creation. It matters not that the, con-
tinuations are effected by means of seeds ; still it is' the
same creative force which produces ; and that there are
some [new] seeds still being produced, is drawn from the
experience of certain persons. He who believes that the
heat and light of the sun of the world work more than
to open and dispose the things proper to Nature, for the
reception of influx from the spiritual world, is much mis-
taken (n. 1209).

There are three forces in everything spiritual ; a force of
afting, a force of creating, and a force of forming (n.
1209) : firom the spiritual, by those forces, exist vegeta-
bles and also animals ; both those which appear in heaven,
and those which are in the world {see more, n. 1210).

There are in the heavens as on the earth, vegetables of all
genera and species ; indeed there are in the heavens veg-
etables which are not on earth, for there are compounds
of genera and of species, with infinite variation. But the
genera and species of vegetables differ in the heavens, as
do the genera and species of animals there. According
to the degrees of light and heat, there appear there para-
disal gardens, groves, fields and plains ; and in them trees,
flower-beds, and grass-plots. All these things are ger-
minations from the earths there, for there are earths there
as with us ; but nothing springs up there from seed that has
been sowed, but from seed created, and creation there is
instantaneous ; the duration is sometimes long continued,
and sometimes but for the moment {see m^re, n. 121 1).

Animals and vegetables have the same origin, and thence the
same soul ; the only difference is that of the forms into
which comes the influx. It has been shown (n. 1201)
that the origin of animals, which is also their soul, is spirit-
ual affecflion such as man has in his natural. That veg-
etables also have the same origin, is evident especially
from the vegetables in the heavens, from their appearing
there according to the affedlions of the angels, and also
representing those affedlions, even so that in them, as in
their types, the angels see and know their own affedlions
as to their quality ; it is also evident from their being
changed according to the changes of the affections,
but this takes place outside of the societies. The only
difference is, that affe6lions appear formed into animals by



INDEX OF WORDS. 963

the spiritual, in its middle parts, and that they appear
formed into vegetables in its ultimates which are the
earths there ; for the spiritual, by which this is done, is
alive in its middle parts, but in ultimates it is not alive (n.
1212).

That the vegetative soul is from the same origin as the soul of
the beasts of the earth, of the birds of the heaven, and of the
fishes of the sea, does not appear to be true at the first
view, because the one lives and the other does not ; but
still it is clearly seen to be the case, from the animals and
in connexion with them the vegetables seen in the heav-
ens, and also from the animals and in connexion with
them the vegetables seen in the hells. In the heavens
there appear beautiful animals, and vegetables like them ;
but in the hells there appear noxious animals, and vege-
tables like them ; and the angels and the spirits are
known from the appearances of the animals, and in like
manner from the appearances of the vegetables ; there is



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