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"A rainbow (iris) round about the throne" {Apoc. iv. 3), sig-
nifies divine truth around it (n. 269; see also Apoc. x. i,

"■ 595)-
The reason why "the rainbow" signifies divine truth in the
heavens in its order, and thence in its beauty, is that there
are infinite varieties of truth from good in the heavens ;
and when they are represented by colors they present the
aspedl of a beautiful rainbow (n. 269).

Raise, Set up. Lift up {Erigere). — {See Rouse.)

" Erigere (to raise, build up,)" represents

KUN.the English versions have "prepare,"' Ps. cvii. 36 (n. 386rf):
QUM, rendered in the English versions "raise," "raise up," "set
up," I Sam. ii. 8 (n. 741c) ;
Isa. xliv. 26 (n. 433^);
yer. X. 20 (n. 799^);
Dan. vii. 5 (n. 78W) ;
Hos. vi. 2 (n. 532) :
RUM, rendered "lifteth up" in the English versions, I Sam. ii. 8,
second clause (n. 74iir).

Ram {Aries). — By "rams ('ayil)" are signified internal goods (n.
39i<:) ; spiritual goods (n. 336^) ; the goods of charity (n.
405c) : 'I the ram" signifies faith conjoined to charity, and
thus it signifies charity (n. 632).

By "the rams of Nebaioth," which shall minister {Isa. Ix. 7),
are signified the truths which from spiritual affedion lead
the life (n. 282).

By "the ram" {Dan. viii. 2) is signified the good of charity
and the faith therefrom (n. 316^) ; they are signified also
who are in faith from charity (n. 8i7«) ; they also who are
in truths of dodrine because they are in good of life (n.

"To oifer rams with incense" {Ps. Ixvi. 15) signifies worship
from the good of spiritual love (n. 324^).

By "lambs," "rams," and "he goats" {Isa. xxxiv. 6), are sig-
nified the three degrees of the good of innocence (n.

By "a ram" for a burnt offering {Lev. xvi. 5), from corre-
spondence is signified the natural man as to the good of
charity (n. 730e).

Ramath-Mizpeh [Ramatk Mispae),

See Josh. xiii. 26 (n. 435*).

Raphael. — By " the angel " in the Word is not meant a single angel,



but a whole angelic society ; as by "Michael," "Gabriel,"
"Raphael" (n. 302).
By "the angels" named in the Word, as by "Michael" and
"Raphael," are meant ministrations and fundions, and in
general deterriiinate and certain parts of the administra-
tion and fun6lion of all the angels (n. 735).

Rare {Rams). — That there is to be a cessation of spiritual affedlion
for truth, and the wisdom from it, is signified {Isa. xxiv.
6) where it is said, "Man shall be left rare {miz<ar)" (n.
2&06 ; compare n. 304.5, 315^, 400^).

"Rarum reddere (to make rare) " represents

YAQAR, Isa. xiii. 12, see revised version (n. 400^).

Rashly (Temere), — " Temere (rashly)" represents

EiKE, Matt. V. 22; the authorized version has "without cause;"
the revised version omits the word, following the Vati-
can and the Sinaitic codices (n. 693).

Ratio {Ratio). — There is no ratio between the wisdom of the angels
and the divine wisdom of the Lord, for there is no ratio
between the finite and the infinite (n. 1131).

Rational {RaHonaHs), The rational {Rationale), Rationally {Rationaliter).

— It is to be noted that man's natural part is trinal, consist-
ing of the rational, the natural, and the sensual ; the ra-
tional is here the highest, the sensual is here the lowest,
and the natural is the middle. The genuine rational is
from influx out of the spiritual world, the sensual is from
influx out of the natural world, and the intermediate nat-
ural is either of the rational or of the sensual (n. 1147).

The rational is in the natural, that is, its thought [is in the
natural] ; the spiritual is above the rational, and passes
through the rational into the natural, into the knowledges
and scientifics of its memory (n. 569a).

By truths scientifically and naturally understood, each one
prepares for himself a rational, into which the spiritual can
flow-in and operate ; for man takes-in the light of heaven,
which is spiritual light, by means of the rational which be-
longs to his understanding ; and through the rational en-
lightened by the spiritual he looks into knowledges and
scientifics, and chooses from them what are concordant
with the genuine truths and goods of heaven and the
church, and rejefts those which are discordant ; and thus
does man found the church in himself (n. 654c).

Spiritual affedlion for truth, adjoined to knowledges from the
Word, makes man's rational, and enlightens it according
to the quality of the truth that is conjoined to good, and
according to the quality of the conjundion (n. 2080).


Every man with whom the church is to be implanted is first
to be instrudled in matters of knowledge ; for without the
instru(5lion of the natural man by things belonging to
knowledge, which also include the varied experiences from
things of the world and its associations, man cannot be-
come rational ; and if he does not become rational, he
cannot become spiritual, for man's rational conjoins itself
on one part with the spiritual, that is, with heaven, and ori
the other part with the natural, that is, with the world (n.

When one reaches youth and early manhood, the sensual is
opened more interiorly ; from which he thinks rationally,
and if he is in the good of charity and of faith, spiritually,
and he is also affefled rationally and spiritually : this
thought and affe6tion are what is called the rational and
spiritual man (n. 543a).

Those who are rational drink-in from the sense of the letter
of the Word such things as are of do6lrine ; the sensual
abide in the letter alone (n. 1 147).

The rational is given to every one according to the uses which
are of his love (n. 569a).

To be rational is one thing, and to be spiritual is another.
Every spiritual man is rational also ; but the rational man
is not always spiritual (n. 569(1).

It is to be noted that the rational does not introduce any one
into the spiritual ; it is said to do so, only because such is
the appearance : for the spiritual flows-in into the natural
by means of the rational, and thus it gives introducStion
{much more, n. 569a).

The spiritual man, by means of the rational man, sees its spir-
itual things in the things of knowledge ; and it recognizes
itself in them, that is, its own truths and goods ; and this,
in addition to the confirmation of its spiritual things by
knowledges and scientifics, both those with which he is
acquainted from the Word and those which he has from
the world (n. 569a).

Every rational is cultivated by things of knowledge, and is
formed by truths ; he, therefore, is called a rational man
who is led by truths, or whom truths lead (n. 569c).

Man is enlightened in the rational ; for this proximately un-
derlies the internal spiritual, and receives therefrom light
from heaven and transfers it into the natural purified from
evils, and fills this with knowledges of truth and good, and
also adapts to them the things known that are from the
world, that they may confirm and may agree : thence man
has the rational, and thence also he has understanding.
He is in error who believes that man has the rational and
understanding before his natural has been purified from
evils (n. 941).


If the way from heaven be closed, man does not become ra-
tional ; for he does not see truth ; and yet truth from the
%ht of heaven makes the rational (n. 208a).

Ravagers, Robbers (Mversores). — In Obadiah (verse 5) falsities are
called "thieves," and evils are called "robbers (^r ravag-
ers) (shadhadh) by night" (n. I93«) : by " grapegatherers "
are signified falsities, by " thieves " evils, which devastate
the truths and goods of the church ; but by "robbers {or
ravagers)" are signified both falsities and evils (n. 919).

Rave.— {See Mad.)

Raven {Corvus). — "Sons of .the raven (-orebh)" {Ps. cxlvii. 9; the

English versions have " young ravens ") are natural men, who are

in a darkened light {lumen) from fallacies respefting divine
truths (n. 650}).

The ridiculous proposition that a raven is white (n. 824).

Ravenous (Rapax). — That "no ravenous (paritz) wild beast shall go
up thither" {Isa. xxxv. 9) signifies that there will be no
cupidity for destroying (n. 388^).

Ravines. — {See Channels.)

Ravish {Comprimere). — "Comprimere (to ravish) " represents

<ANAH, 2 Sam. xiii. 14 (n. 577*);
Lam. V. II (n. 863a).

Razor {Novacula). — The deprivation of wisdom, and of spiritual in-
telligence from it, is signified {Isa. vii. 20) where it is said
that "the hairs of the head and of the feet should be
shaved with a hired razor (ta'ar), and the beard consumed "
(n. 569c; compare n. 5773).

Reach {Pertingere). — "Pertingere (to reach) " represents
m'ta', Dan. iv. n (n. 6^od).

Reaction {Reamo), React {Reagere), Reactive (Reaaivum). — {See Ac-

Everywhere in the spiritual world there is equilibrium between
heaven and hell ; and where there is equilibrium, there
two forces are continually adling against each other ; one
adls, and the other reacSls ; and where there is continual
adtion and readlion, there is continual combat ; but equili-
brium is provided by the Lord (n. 5731^).

A(Sion and rea6tion make all conjunflion, and adtion and mere
passion none : for when an agent or a6live flows-in into
what is merely patient or passive, it passes by and is dis-
sipated, for the passive falls back and flees ; but when the


agent or aftive flows-in into a passive of such a charader
that it is also a reaflive, they then become attached (or
applied to each other), and the two remain conjoined (n.

Read (Lesere). — " To read (anaginosko) " {Apoc. i. 3) has similar sig-
nification with "to see," for he who sees reads ; and "to
see" signifies to perceive from enlightenment (n. 13).
See also Apoc. v. 4 (n. 306).

Reap (Metere). — {See Harvest)

"The hour for reaping has come" {Apoc. xiv. 15), signifies
that it is the time of gathering together the good, and of
sepaiating them from the evil (n. 91 la).

"Metere (to reap) " represents

OATZAR, Isa. xvii. 5 (n. 911^);

Jer. xii. 13 (n. 304/-, 374*) ;

Amos ix. 13 (n. 376,}) :
THERizo, yohn iv. 36 (n. giic) ;

Afoc. xiv. 15 (n. 9110) ; verse 16 (n. 912).

Reaped [Demcssa). — "The earth was reaped (therizo)" {Apoc.

xiv. 16) signifies that the church was devastated (n. 912).

Reapers (Messores). — {See Harvest)

"The reapers (theristes) are the angels" {Matt. xiii. 39) sig-
nifies that divine truth from the Lord makes separation
(n. 9iifl).

Reason, to (Satiodnan), Ratiocination {Ratiocinatio), Reasoning {Ra-
iiocinium). — Genuine reasonings concerning spiritual things
exist from the influx of heaven into the spiritual man, and
thence through the rational into the knowledges of out-
ward and of inward things, which knowledges are in the
natural man, and through which the spiritual man confirms
itself This way of reasoning concerning spiritual things
is according to order. But the ratiocinations concerning
things which take place from the natural man, and still
more those which take place from the sensual man, are
altogether contrary to order ; for the natural man cannot
flow into the spiritual man, and from itself see anything
there ; still less can this be done by the sensual man ; for
physical influx is not given : but the spiritual man can
flow into the natural, and from this into the sensual, since
spiritual influx is given (n. 569a).
Ratiocinations from the spiritual man are rational ; and. they
are therefore rather to be called conclusions from reasons
and from truths, because they are from the interior and
from the light of heaven : but ratiocinations from the nat-


■aral man about spiritual things are not rational, howsoever
they may be in moral and civil things that are apparent
before the eyes, for they are from natural light (lumen) alone ;
and reasonings from the sensual man about spiritual things
are irrational, because they are from fallacies, and from
ideas which are false that come from the fallacies (n. 5691;).

By ratiocination are quite often meant thought and argumenta-
tion from fallacies and from falsities ; but by what is ra-
tional are meant thought and argumentation from things
known and from truths (n. 5691:).

The Word cannot be falsified without reasonings from the
natural man (n. 819).

Concerning Ratiocination (n. 208a, ^b<)a,c, 782, 802a) ; con-
cerning Reasoning (n. 5693-.;, 774, 776, 778, 780, 783,

786, 79O12, 802a, 819).

Reasons {Rationes). — Truths from good, which are spiritual,

are as plainly visible in heaven as objecJls before the eyes,
but still with much difference ; for those truths are seen in-
telleflually, that is, they are perceived. The quality of
this sight or this perception cannot be described by human
words ; it can be comprehended only by this, that there
is in it consent, and confirmation from the inmost that so
it is ; for there are confirmatory reasons in great abun-
dance, which present themselves as one thing in intelledual
vision ; this one thing is as it were a conclusion from many
things ; these confirmatory reasons are in the light of heaven
which is the divine truth or the divine wisdom proceeding
from the Lord, and which is operative in every angel ac-
cording to the state of his reception. This is spiritual
sight or understanding (n. 260).


See Gen. xxv. 21, 22 (n. 331*).

Rebel {Rebeiiare). — " To rebel against {or 'provoke') (mahah) the
eyes of His glory" {ha. iii. 8), signifies to be opposed to
divine truth (n. 412/).

Rebuild {Reaedificare). — That "he should be accursed who should
rebuild Jericho," and that "he should found it in place of
his firstborn, and should set up the gates in place of his
youngest" (^i^.s'. vi. 26), signified profanation of divine
truth from its first to its last, if instrucSlion in it were rep-
resented elsewhere than in Jerusalem, by which was to be
represented the church as to dodrine of truth and good,
and as to instruftion from the Word (n. 700;;).

{See Jericho^


Rebuke {Otjurgatio). — Grief of heart and of mind is signified {Isa.
xxxvii. 3) by "a day of straitness, and of rebuke (tokhechah)
and of contumely" (n. 721^).

{increfare), Robuking (Tncrefatio). — That there is destruction from

the hatred and fury of the evil against divine things, is sig-
nified {Ps. xviii. 15) where it is said, "At Thy rebuke, O
Jehovah, at the blast of the breath of Thy nostrils." By
"rebuke" and "the breath of the nostrils of Jehovah,"
nearly the same is signified as in other passages of the
Word by " His anger and wrath" (n. T^id).

That one ought to beware of the scientific falsely applied,
coming from the natural man separate from the spiritual,
is meant (/V. Ixviii. 30 ; see revised version,) by, " Rebuke the
wild beast of the reed " (n. 62'jb).

"Increpare (to rebuke) " represents

GA'AR, Ps. Ixviii. 30 (n. 439, 627^);

Zech. iii. 2 (n. 740c) :
EpiTiMAo, Jtide, verse 9 (n. 735).

"Increpatio (rebuking, a rebuke,) " represents

GE'ARAH, .i, Sam. xxii. 16 (n. 74i</);
Ps. xviii. 15 (n. 1i,id) ;
Isa. 1. 2 (n. 275a, 342e).

(Arguere). — "To rebuke (eleocho) and chasten" (Apoc. iii. 19),

when said of those who procure good, and through this
receive truths, signifies to admit into temptations (n. 246).

{Corrifen). — {See Seize.')

" He shall judge among the nations, and shall rebuke (yakhach)
many peoples" {Isa. ii. 4), signifies that then evils of life
■ and falsities of doftrine shall be dissipated (n. 734^).

See also Micah iv. 3 (n. 850*).

Receive (Susdpere). — "To receive (dechomai) a prophet in the name
of a prophet" {Matt. x. 41), signifies to love truth of doc-
trine because it is true, or to receive truth for its own sake.
"To receive a just man in the name of a just man" signi-
fies to love good and to do it because it is good, thus to
receive it of the Lord from the heart's love or aflfedion
n. 624,}).

{Recipere). — {See Bear, Take.)

"To receive (dechomai) a prophet in the name of a prophet, a
just man in the name of a just man, and to give drink in
the name of a disciple" {Matt. x. 41, 42), signifies to love
truth for truth's sake, and good for the sake of good, and
to exercise charity from faith in what is true (n. 102b).


Receptacle {Receptamium), — Memory has been given to man as a
receptacle from which may be taken things that are to be
serviceable to the life ; and thej' are serviceable to the life
when he wills them and does them (n. 105).
The will is the subjeft and receptacle of charity, as it is the
subjeft and receptacle of good ; and the understanding is
the subjeft and receptacle of faith, because it is the sub-
jedl and receptacle of truth (n. 790^ ; compare n. 22gd).

deceptions {RecepHones). — So far as angels and men are receptions
of divine truth from the Lord, so far they are powers (n.

Reciprocal {Redprocus, Reciprocum). — " God, thy God " {Ps. xlv. 7),

signifies the reciprocal unition of the Human with the Di-
vine and of the Divine with the Human (n. 684*).

He who hangs down his hands and waits for influx, receives
nothing, and has no reciprocal conjunftion with the Lord ;
consequently he is not in the covenant (n. 701a).

Reception cannot be given if man does not attend to his
thoughts and intentions, and to the deeds from them, and
then desist from evils and do good ; which is done when
he looks to the truths with which he has become ac-
quainted from the Word, and lives according to them :
unless this is done, there is nothing reciprocal (n. 239a).

Recline {Accumhere, Discumbere). — " To recline {discumhere , anaklino) m

the kingdom of God" {Luke xiii. 29), "with Abraham,
Isaac and Jacob" {Matt. viii. 11), is to be conjoined with
the Lord and to be consociated with each other by love
(n. 252).

See also Luke xii. 37 (n. 187^).

"Discumbere (to recline) (rendered "sit down' in the English ver-
sions) " represents

ANAKLINO, Matt. viii. II (n. 252) ;

Luke xii. 37 (n. 187*) ; xiii. 29 (n. 252a).

{See Lie down, Supper.)

Recompense, Retribution {Retributio) ; To recompense (Retribuere). —
{See Price.)

They who do good to the neighbor with recompense as their
end {Luke xiv. 12-14), do not do it for the sake of good
and of truth, and thus they do not do it from the Lord ;
but for the sake of themselves and the world, and thus
from hell (n. 695.5). .

By "the days of visitation and of recompense" {Hos. ix. 7)


are signified the days of last judgment, when the evil shall
receive punishment, which is recompense (n. 6241;).

"Retributio (recompense) " represents

SHiLLUM, ha. xxxiv. 8 (n. 57^);
Has. ix. 7 (n. 624c).

"Retribuere (to recompense)" represents

ANTAPODIDOMl, Luke xiv. I4 (ll. 695^).

Reconciled, to be (ReconcUiaH). — "To be reconciled (diallattomai) to
the brother" {Matt. v. 23, 24), is worship from charity (n.
391c) : it signifies the dissipation of anger, of unfriendli-
ness, or of hatred, and the consequent conjundlion by love
(n. 746/).

Re-creation (Recreatio), Recreations (Recreationes). — All who come
suddenly from their own proper life into some spiritual
life, are at first afraid, but they are re-created (or revived)
by the Lord. The re-creation (or revival) comes for them
by the accommodation of the divine presence (and fear
on account of it) to their reception. If the presence is
excessive, there comes anguish and tremor ; but re-crea-
tion comes by accommodation to the reception. This
re-creation is what is signified in many places where it is
said, " Fear not." This re-creation when presented in
visible form, appears in the spiritual world like a cloud
(see more, n. 80).

It is proper to interrupt one's work by various pursuits in
consort with others, that are recreations, and thus are also
uses (n. 1 194).

Red {Ruber). — By "red" and "purple" is signified good, and in the
opposite sense evil, of every kind (n. 67).
It is to be noted that the color "red" not only signifies the
quality' of a thing as to good, but also the quality as to
evil ; for that color exists from the flamy light which is
from the sun of heaven, and it also exists from what is
flamy in hell, from the fire there which is like the fire of
charcoal : the red in heaven is therefore absolutely a dif-
ferent red from that in hell (see much rnore, n. 364a/).

"Red (cHAKHLiLi) in the eyes above wine" (Gen. xlix. 12), sig-
nifies that the intelleftual [part] of the Lord was divine
truth from divine good (n. 556<r ; compare n. 364*).

'^ Rubra esse (to be red) " represents

>AOHAM, 7sa. i. 18 (n. 3643).

(Rubicundus). — The violence brought against the Word by the


Jewish nation, is signified (^Isa. Ixiii. 2) by, "Wherefore
art Thou red ('adhom) in thine apparel, and Thy garments
like his that treadeth in the winepress?" "Red as to the
apparel" is said with reference to the violence brought
against the divine good of the Word, which was meant
earlier in the chapter by " Edom ;" Edom means red {see
more, n. 922^ ; cotnpare n. I95<:).

{Rufus).—" Red" is said concerning love, in both senses ; that

is, respecting celestial love which is love to the Lord, and
in the opposite sense concerning diabolic love, which is
the love of self (n. 714a).
" The red horse " (Apoc. vi. 4) signifies the understanding of
the Word destroyed as to good :' this kind of red, or the
red of this horse, has its name in Greek from the word
mesxivagjire (n. 3640 ; compare n. 381).

" Rufus (red)" represents

>ADHOM, Num. xix. 2 (n. 364*);

Zeck. vi. 2 (n. 355*) :
puRRHos, Apoc. vi. 4 (n. 364a); xii. 3 (n. 7140).

To be reddish. To be ruddy {Rubescef-e). — The good of truth is

signified {Lam. iv. 7) where it is said, " His bones were

ruddy ('adham) above pearls" (in place of "pearls," the English
versions have " rubies;" in the margin of the revised version is the suggested
reading " corals ;" in A.C., n. 3300, and elsewhere, the reading is "gemmae
rubentes, reddish gems ") (n. 3641*).

Among the appearances in leprosy are mentioned spots
"somewhat reddish (»dhamdam)" (n. 962).

Red Sea {Mare Suph). — {See Egypt)

" Mare Suph " is the name by which Swedenborg calls that which is called
"the Red Sea" in our English versions. Thus he leaves the common Hebrew
name untranslated. Where the Hebrew word suph is translated in the author-
ized version, it is rendered " weeds'' and " flags."

By " the boundaries of the Land of Canaan " {Exod. xxiii. 31)
are signified the ultimates of the church, which are scien-
tific truths, knowledges of truth and good from the Word,
and things rational. By "the Sea Suph" is signified
scientific truth ; by "the sea of the Philistines," on which
were Tyre and Sidon, are signified knowledges *of truth
and good from the sense of the letter of the Word ; and
by "the river Euphrates" is signified the rational (n.

In the opposite sense, by " Pharaoh and his host " are signi-
fied those who are in falsi^es from evil, and by "the Sea
Suph" is signified the hell where those falsities are (n.


Those who abuse the things that they know, in confirming
evils and falsities, are deprived after death of all knowl-
edge of truth and good ; and when deprived of them,
they are cast into hell ; which also was represented by the
drowning of the Egyptians in the Sea Suph (n. 654/).

(See articles n. 4001:, 405c, S03a, 504^, 5143, Si8i-d, 538a,
569c, 654/,/, 701C.)

Redeem {Redimere). — " To redeem," where said concerning the
Lord, signifies to vindicate from evils, and to free from
falsities, and so from hell : thus it signifies to reform and
regenerate (n. 860 ; compare n. 328/).

" Redimere (to redeem, to ransom,) " represents

OA'AL, Exod. vi. 6 (n. 328?) ; xv. 13 (n. 328^) ;

Ps. Ixix. 18 (n. y2.%c,d) ; Ixxii. 14 (n. 328^) ; ciii. 4 (n. yS>^ ;

cvii. 2 (n. 3281:,^) ;
Isa. xliii. i (n. 3281:) ; xliv. 22 (n. 405^) ; lii. 3 (n. 328(f) ;

Ixiii. 9 (n. 328c, 412*) ;
Hos. xiii. 14 (n. 228c,d) :
PADHAH, Deut. vii. 8 (n. 32&);
Job V. 20 (n. 388(f) ;
Ps. XXV. 22 (n. 3280!) ; xxvi. II (n. 328^) ; xxxi. 5 (n. 328^)5

xliv. 26 (n. 328(f); xlix. 15 (n. 328(f) ; Iv. 19 (n. 328(f);

Ixxi. 23 (n. 328(f); cxix. 134 (n. 328(f); cxxx. 8 (n.

Jer. XV. 21 (n. 328(f) ;
Micah vi. 4 (n. 328^);
Zech. X. 8 (n. 328(f) :
AGORAzo, Apoc. V. 9 (n. 3283,^).

Redeemed {Redemptus). — " The redeemed " are those who have

been regenerated by the Lord (n. 865 ; compare n. 328/).

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