Emma Elizabeth Calderhead Foster.

History of Marshall County, Kansas : its people, industries, and institutions online

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Claeys, Constand 702

Clark, Rezin 552

Clifton. John, M. D. 904

Craft. Rufus S., M. D. ' 504

Crane, Robert 584

Crome, Fred 664

Cummings, C. E. 597

Curtis, Samuel 901

D

Davis, John L. 539

Dean, Aubrey R. 650

DeLair, David 544

DeLair, Peter H. 576

Denlinger, John W. 837

Denton, James W. 624

Detweiler, Henry F. . 983

Dever, Thomas 626

Dexter, Thomas B. 770

Dexter, William H. 919

Dickey, Joseph C. 621

Dilley, James M. 927

Dolen, John C. 764

Drumm. William M. 1002

Duigenan. Michael J. 555

Dwerlkotte, Joseph 956

E

Ellenbecker, John C 512

Embleau, Rev. Edward R. 551

Erickson, Charles 937

F

Farrar, Henry H. 853

Farrar, Thomas J. 905

Farwell, John D. 895

Fenwick, George L. 495

Fisher, Herman R. 616

Flanagan, James L. 952



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX.



Focks, Michael F. 891

Follett, Henry C. 604

Forter, Mrs. Emma E. 912

Forter. Samuel 912

Fulton, Edgar R. 511

Fuhvider. William H. 687

G

Gallup, George 756

Garrison, A. B. 672

Garrison, Charles L. 599

Gaston, E. A., D. D. S. 559

Gaylord, Frank M. 647

Gernier, Fred 640

Gibson. Abel W. 858

Gossin. William T. 810

Graham, Byron C. 744

Graham. John G. 861

Green, Joseph 636

Greiveldinger, Henry 675

H

Hamilton, John L. 824

Harper, John F. 1005

Harry, Charles A. 748

Harry, Thomas 852

Haslett, Mrs. Melissa 485

Hawkins, Richard H. 794

Hedge, Alvah 111

Heiserman. George 651

Heiserman, Frederick J. liZ

Helvering, William J. 572

Hamler, James A. 491

Henry, Ira E. 696

Hermann, Henry 655

Hermann, Herman 655

Herring, Benjamin W. 560

Hessel. Clement T. 554

Hirt, Andrew 806

Hohn, Karl 693

Holtham, William J. 460

Howell, Lewis R. 743

Howes, John 614

Howes, Tliomas : 750

Hunt, John H. 1013

Hunt, William B. 960

Hunter, William. M. D. 668

Hutchinson, Frank W. 468

Hutchinson, Capt. Perry 464



Ilutcliinson, Wallace W. 472

Hutciiison, .Andrew D. 601

Huxtal.lc, William C. 543

I

Irvin, Ed 583

J

Jacohson, I'eter F. : 815

Johnson, Alfred 930

Jojinson,, Andrew 893

Johnson. Herman 1000

Johnson, Hutchinson 1012

Johnson. Nels E. 996

Johnson. William 950

Johnston, Erskine W. 1004

Jones. Albert L. 760

Jones, Arthur T. 741

Jones, Charles B. 972

Joseph, Fred R. 612

Judd, J. L. 974

K

Kabriel, Venzel 791

Kapitan, Rudolph A. 975

Keck, Sterling 700

Keefover, James E. 1035

Keller, Gottfried 847

Kerschen, Nicholas S. 471

Kinsley, W. J. 821

Kirlin. Linden 720

Kjellberg. Andrew 938

Koeneke. Ernst 718

Koeneke, Henry W. 1019

Koepp, Charles W. 783

Koppes, Nicholas 753

Krasny, Joseph 804

Krug. John H. 658

Kruse, George A. 706

Kruse. William 690

Kr.or.i, Mathias 528

L

Lackland, H. W. 923

Lackland. W. T. 923

Lamb Family. The 963

Larkin, Frank 1030



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX.



Larson, Hans P. 846

La3'ton, George B. 738

Lewis, John L. 535

Lewis, Jonathan C. 839

Lewis, Robert J. 644

Lewis, Thomas H. 1009

Lilliljridge, Hiram 885

Lindeen, Alfred 986

Lindquist, John A. 874

Link, John 619

Lofdahl, John 970

Lofinck, Capt. William 526

Ludwick, D. W. 557

Lynch, Patrick 787

Mc

McAtee, William H. 922

McKee. Edward J. 524

McKee, John F. 774

McKee, William L. 909

M

Alaitland, Henry 610

Malicky, Vencel 677

Malone, Thomas 981

Manly, Oliver R. 991

Manly, Ross 1015

Manninij, Joseph 871

Marksman, Francis J. 1038

Meybrimn, Jacob 646

Miller, George 863

Moden, J. M. 807

Moeller, Henry W. 829

Mohrbacher, George T. 533

Moore, Ziba H. 632

Morse, Arthnr D. 932

Moser, Fred 660

Myers, Bernard 767

N

Nelson, Franz E. 813

Nelson, Godfrey H. 994

Nelson, John G. 799

Nelson, Oscar 788

Nichols, Clarence E. 876

Nyqnist, Rev. Gustaf 959



O

Obermeyer, Fred 603

Olson, George L. 590

Olson, Lars P. 943

O'Neil, Timothy P. 731

P

Pape, Gustav C. 724

r'arthemer, Jonathan C. 842

Paul, Samuel F. 498

Pauley, Roley S. 816

Pecenka, Anthony C. 865

Pecenka. John 568

Peterson, George 623

Pishny, Ignatz 878

Poteet, James L. 831

Potter, William W. 459

I'ralle, Fred H. 566

Pul'leine, Percy R. 693

R

Rabe, William 630

Reb, Henry 1010

Reed, Asher F. 528

Rice, Guy L. 493

Rice, Milo M. _. 979

Riekenberg, William 680

Ringen, Ed. W. 832

Robinson, Morley P. 1022

Robinson, Neil 758

Rodkey, Clayton 746

Rueger, John 870

Runkle. H. 881

Russell, Oscar T. 666

Rutti, Jacob 695

S

Saathofif, A. B. 678

Scanlan, Frank A. 653

Schlax, Benjamin E. 776

Schmidler, J. G. 562

Schmidt, Mathias M. 578

Schulte, Henry 939

Schumacher, Peter J. ^ 509

Schwindaman, William 716

Scott. James M. 584

Sediv3% Frank 868

Sedlacek, Joseph A. 834



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX,



Seematter. John 880

Shaughncss}', James 848

Sheldon. Frank D. 582

Sheldon, Julius J., M. D. 574

Shroyer, Peter 540

Shumate. Joseph M. 520

Skalla, Thomas H. 992

Smith. John 735

Smith, John V. 850

Smith. Robert W. 531

Smith. Thomas B. 840

Smith. William E. 796

Spratt. Charles A. 1034

Stedman. Samuel W. 728

Steig. John 712

Stephens. Dr. L. H. 592

Stevenson. Lewis M. 954

Steward, Catherine L. 496

Stewart. Clark M. 477

Stewart. James W. 887

Stewart, William J.. :\I. D. 596

Strayer. William, M. D. 628

Stromer. John W. 792

Strong. James G. 944

Suggett. John W. 710

Suggett. Thomas J. 762

Sullivan. James 899

Swanson, Oscar A. 819

T

Tarvin, Charles H. 1028

Taton. Rev. Francis H. 480

Thacher. George I., AI. D. 474

Thiele, George H. _.___ 722

Thomann, Frank 536

Thompson, James A 648

Thomson, Frank 808

Tibbetts, Charles C. 634

Tilley, Samuel W. 934

Times. The Blue Rapids 634

Toedter, John P. 594



Train, F. A. 1040

Travelute, Andrew J. 488

Traxler. Henry 883

V

Vanamhurg. Jolm D. 827

Van X'liet. (ieorge 997

W

Wagner, John F. 704

Wagner, Louis J. 1032

Warnica, Calvin 987

Warnica, William D. 546

Waters. Henry C. 618

Weaver, Henry 779

Weber, Carl 752

Wells. James 587

Wells. Oliver C. 549

Werner. Frank A. 580

Westburg, Kasper . 999

Wilcox. James R. 688

Willey. Charles L. 727

Winquist. John A. 1007

Winter. Burton M. 1024

Witt. Gustav A. 772

Wittmuss. Albert 671

Wohler. Frank T. 856

Wohler. Ortwin F. 889

Wood, Orlin P., M. D. 564

Wuester. Joseph B. 837

Wullschleger. Jacob 928

^^'ullschleger. Robert 844

Y

Yiinssi. Frank . 522

^ aussi, Rudolph 951

Z

Zarybnicky, Joseph 708

Zimnierling, Ernst W. 790

/immerling, Oscar W. H. 1037



WHERE THE W^EST BEGINS.

Out where the West begins,
Out where the hand clasps a Httle stronger,
Out where the smile dwells a little longer,

That's where the AVest begins.
Out where the sun is a little brighter,
Out where the snow falls a trifle whiter,
A\^here the bonds of home are a wee bit tighter.

That's where the West begins.

Out where the skies are a trifle bluer,
Out where friendship's a little truer,

That's where the West begins.
Out where a fresher breeze is blowing,
Where there's laughter in every streamlet flowing.
Where there's more of reaping and less of sowing,

That's where the West begins.

Out where the world is in the making,
Where fewer hearts with despair are aching.

That's where the West begins.
Where there's more of singing and less of sighing.
Where there's more of giving and less of buying,
Where a man makes friends without half trying,



That's where the West begins.



— ^Arthur Chapman.



(3)



HISTORICAL



CHAPTER T.
Geology, Ornithology and Flora.

The geolog-ist has drawn an irregular Hne diagonally across the county
from northeast lo southwest, from near Summerfield. where the altitude is
one thousand four hundred and fifty feet above sea le\-el. to a point near
where the Big Blue river leaves the county and where the altitude is about
one thousand one hundred feet above sea level. He tells us that east of that
hne the territory is of the Carboniferous and west of the line, is composed
of the Permian age, an equal di\ision. which has been satisfactory so far to
all concerned.

The Big Blue, which carries more water in dry weather than any other
stream in Kansas, enters the county on the north, eleven miles east of the
west line and leaves it on the south, twelve miles' east of tlie west line, flow-
ing through a bottom from one-half to one and one-half miles wide, of the
richest farming land known.

The Vermillion rher receives the w^ater from the eastern and south-
eastern part of the county and pours it into tlie Big Blue, about a mile north
of the southern line of the county.

Along the rivers and creeks is found a plentiful supply of limestone for
building purposes, the quarries at Oketo and Florena on the Big Blue and at
Beattie on the Vermillion, having shipped stone for many years in thousands
of carload lots to Nebraska and Missouri.

An apparently inexhaustible supply of gypsum is found near Blue
Rapids, where hundreds of thousands of dollars are invested in its manu-
facture.

rRECIOUS STONE.S.

Semi-precious stones, such as agates of all kinds, opals, white sapphire,
topaz, turquois, quartz crystals and jasper of various kinds, are found in the



36 AlAK^JiAIJ. COLNTY. KANSAS.

sandbars of the Big' Blue and its trilnitaries, on llic liiyh hills and the glacial
drift, in almost e\ er}- part of the county, in small (|uantities.

Many of these have been j^round and make beautiful jewelry. There
is. howe\er, not enoueh of anv one kind to market i)rofitablv. Quite a num-
her of fresh \v;iter pearls have been found in the mussels taken from the
Big Blue river.

.V poor grade of coal has been fcjund near Axtell, but not in quantity to
assure profitable mining.

The first attempt at drilling for coal or gas was made at Marysville in
1884, l)ut when salt water was struck at about four hundred feet, operations
were discontinued. In 1887 a well was sunk near Hutchinson's mill to a
dei)th of one thousand one hundred and fifty feet, and abandoned in salt
w^ater. In 190G the Schmidt brothers sunk a well one thousand one hundred
and fiftv feet near the river bridge at Marysville and abandoned it in salt
water. Another well was sunk between Axtell and Vermillion to one thou-
sand three hundred feet, with similar results.

During the year 1916 thousands of acres of Marshall county land were
leased bv various oil companies for the ostensible purpose of drilling for oil.

In Februarv, 19 17, a home organization, strictly mutual, by landowners
onlv, was perfected with a view to testing the territory to a depth of three
thousand feet. The officers of this company are, C. A. Hammett, president;
Alexander Schmidt, secretary ; M. W. Schmidt, treasurer, with directors in
both Marshall and Washington counties.

FORESTRY.

The Cottonwood was the native monarch tree of Kansas for many years.
It grew plentifully along the rivers, and as the pioneer built his cabin near
the streams, the cottonwood furnished shade and shelter for himself and the
small herds lie possessed. The cottonwood, being full of sap withstood the
drought and prairie fires, and because it made rapid growth, settlers were
urged to plant the trees for wind-break for orchards and stock.

Everv farm had its "row" and grove of cotton woods. Sometimes a
furrow was plowed and twigs stuck in the ground, which would soon show
sturdy growth. The rapid growth, of the cottonwood was its redeeming
feature. It lost its foliage early and did not make prime lumber. The cot-
tonwood tree is gratefully remembered for the protection it gave to the
pioneer, but it is rapidly being eliminated and replaced by the catalpa, ash,
mulberry, walnut, box elder and maple. The box elder, maple and willow



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 37

were close friends of tlie cottonwood, for the reason. that they, too, resisted
the drought and fire. Native cedar grew in the canyons and draws and
along the bluffs.

The catalpa, a deciduous tree, makes a fine shade and produces clusters
of large, fragrant, white blossoms, which are beautiful and make the tree
popular.

.\ great deal of attention is given to tree culture and in most towns
there are too many trees. The straggling, ill-formed trees are being culled
and replaced by straight, symmetrical trees of many different \-.arieties.

FARMING.

Farming has been and is the great pursuit of the people of the county.
Of the twenty-three thousand inhabitants, only seven thousand reside in the
towns. The 1916 reports show that three hundred fifty-three thousand two
hundred and eighty acres are under cultivation ; two hundred eighteen thou-
sand three hundred and forty acres in pasture or not under cultivation, and
eleven tliousand three hundred and eighty-five acres in wild timber. Most
of the hardwood grows along the creeks and small streams, while the soft
timber prefers the river bottoms, and the wild cedar inhabits the almost inac-
cessible bluff's at any point.

The great staple products of the farm have ever been corn, wheat, oats
and, for a good many years, alfalfa has been a great factor as food for beast
and fowl. There is scarcely a product of the soil raised anywhere, which
cannot be raised profitably in this county.

THE GYPSUM INDUSTRY.

Kansas has unlimited quantities of gypsum in a great variety of forms,
and it is fast becoming one of the greatest resources within the domain of
the state. There are three gypsum districts and the northern area or dis-
trict is in Marshall county.

The Big Blue and Little Blue ri\-ers unite near the town of Blue Rapids
and furnish at that place the best water power in the state, estimated at one
thousand five hundred horse-power at low^ water.

The plaster manufacture is the prominent industry of Blue Rapids, a
town of one thousand seven hundred inhabitants, where there are three gyp-
sum mills and a fourth one in prospect.

In 1 87 1 J. V. Coon of Elyria, Ohio, came to Blue Rapids, burned some



38 MARSHALL (OUNTV, KANSAS.

of tlic ,L;yi)suni and carried it hack to Cle\"cland, wlicrc it was proiiDunccd to
be oi good (|ualit\- and two carloads were ordered at a good price. He
returned to Hlnc Kapids and he and his .son. Emir J. Cooil in 1872 Imilt
a frame shed on the east bank of the river, below the town. In an iron
kettle, which held about tue barrels and which \vas heated by a stove, they
commenced the manufacture of plaster of Paris. In 1875 they built a stone
mill on the west side of the river and the water power of the river was used
for grinding. This mill was operated for twelve years, when the firm dis-
continued business.

Hiram and Frank Fowler followed Coon & Son in the plaster business,
building a single kettle, frame mill at the west end of the bridge over the
dam.

In 1892 A. E. Winters formed a company and built the Blue Valley
mill, constructing a dam across the Little Blue, about one-half mile above its
junction with the Big Blue. This is the point referred to by early settlers
as "marble falls," because of the rapids of the river there and the gypsum
deposit in the west bank of the river, which they thought resembled marble.

This mill was purchased by the United States Gypsum Company and
was operated until 1916, when they abandoned and tore down the mill after
building a new modern steel and concrete mill, just south of town at a cost
of one hundred and fifty thousand dollars. This mill stands on the I. D.
Yarick ranch where Mr. Yarick had previously opened up a gypsum mine.

GYPSUM INDUSTRY DEVELOPED.

Following this, Dr. William Hunter, H. H. Russell. Frank Paul and
Jesse Axtell, of Blue Rapids, and Dr. W. E. Ham and N. T. Waters, of
Beattie, built a mill, which was purchased by Mr. Henley, of Law^-ence, for
the American Cement Plaster Company. This mill has been greatly enlarged
and is still in operation.

In 1902 after the sale of the Great Western Plaster Company's mill to
Henley, Hunter, Russell, Ham and Waters purchased the gypsum deposits
north of town and built a two-kettle mill which they operated by electric
powder, naming their corporation the Electric Plaster Company, and install-
ing an electric-light plant in Blue Rapids. This mill was operated until
191 2, when Mr. Henley of the American Cement Plaster Company bought a
controlling interest in it and dismantled it.

In February, 1906, the Blue Rapids Company, a corporation of Marys-



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS, 39

ville men, began operating a new mill on the north side of the river, with
F. W. Hutchinson as manager. It was sold to Henley in December of the
same year and is now operated as the American cement plaster mill No. 2.
This mill has been much enlarged by the installation of a plaster-board plant,
the output of which is a great success as a substitute for laths and plaster in
buildings.

Experts declare the Blue Rapids gypsum to be the purest as well as the
whitest found west of Nova Scotia. The United States Gypsum Company
and the American Cement Plaster Company purchased mills at Blue Rapids
in order to get the best possible quality of gypsum from which to make plaster
of Paris, dental and molding plaster. Most of the plaster for the staff work
at the Worlds Fair at Chicago and St. Louis was made in Blue Rapids. It
has been shipped to almost every country in the world, one shipment being
made to Japan in the fall of 1916. The annual shipment of the product
of the gypsum mills at Blue Rapids is about two thousand five hundred cars.
The average car carries forty tons of stucco, which never sells at less than
eight dollars per ton.

PREHISTORIC.

In a sand pit on the east bank of the Big Blue river, half a mile south
of Marysville, and about twelve feet below the surface, laborers found a
number of large bones which soon crumbled in the air, and several very large
teeth which are petrified.

The largest of these teeth measures eight inches by three and one-half
inches on the face, the others being a little smaller. Whether these were
teeth of a mastodon or some other long extinct creature, has not been
determined, and to what age it belonged, is likewise an enigma.

Imbedded in our limestone are found almost every species of what had
been animal, plant and Crustacean life. ' Walnut and cedarwood have been
found while digging wells at various points, from twenty to forty feet below
the surface. While digging a well near Eighth and Alston streets in Maiys-
ville, charcoal and crude pottery were found at a depth of twenty-seven feet.
Stone axes, hammers and similar crude tools have been and still are being
found many feet below, as well as on the surface at almost any point in the
county.

These stone tools probably contribute the evidence of the connecting link
between the age which produced the enormous bones and teeth and the age
which produced the Indian. At least the gap between the large teeth and



40 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS.

tlie stone ax is not covered by any other visible evidence, unless it be the
so-called glacial drift which covers various parts of the county to various
depths.

BIRDS.

Ornithologists tell us that there are over three hundred distinct varieties
of birds in Kansas, not counting those of the domestic breeds. The earliest
settlers tell us that when they came here there were many wild turkeys in the
timber along the streams, but they did not last long after the rifle and shot-
gun came. Grouse and prairie chickens fairly covered the country for many
years, and older settlers get a sort of lonesome feeling in the spring mornings
for the reason that no longer is heard the familiar cackling of the prairie hen
and the drumming of her mate, which was familiar on all sides from thou-
sands of happy throats in former days. Alas, the avarice of the hunter has
reduced the number of this "native," until now there are not a hundred left
in the county, in spite of the strict game laws.

The quail, which roamed our fields and woods in thousands, the special
friend of the farmer, and everybody's pet wild bird, has become so scarce that
the call of "Bob White" has become a novelty. The innocent quail has fallen
a prey to the highly civilized white man, as has the magnificent deer, antelope
and the buffalo.

EXIT OF THE EAGLE.

The great American eagle, which was once a daily visitor, has become so
rare, that now the newspapers print his appearance as an item of news. He
was not hunted, but he must have noticed what happened to the chicken and
the quail, and he moved on. We still have hawks, crows and owls. The
winged scavenger— the buzzard — always was scarce here, but much more so
of late years. Wild geese and ducks in their flight north or south, formerly
visited us by the thousand. They come in dozen lots now, and these lots are
far between, and the migratory crane is seen only a mile high.

The snipe and curlew, formerly plentiful, have become as scarce as the
prairie chicken. There are still a few plover, but they seem to have been
more a bird of the sod than of the field. The cry of the whipoorwill has not
been heard in this county since 1880, but there are many more song birds
than formerly, mockingbirds, thrushes, redbirds, robins, orioles, grossbeaks
and others ; blackbirds, martens, swallows, kingbirds, linnets and larks, wrens
and humming-birds, all favorites. The blue-jay is not a favorite, nor is the
English sparrow, which made his first appearance here in the summer of 1878,



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 4 1

and was first discovered by that genial Irishman, Tom McCoy, who was every-
body's friend and who made harness, and by Sam Forter, who worked across
the street from McCoy in a blacksmith shop. They were watched very closely
for a long time ; there were only two of them when first seen, and they had a
nest on McCoy's shop, and had things their own way for a while. Their mnl-
titudinous offspring have become veritable pests.

During the summer of 191 6 a heretofore unknown bird in this locality
made its appearance. It looks much like a grossbeak and will become a favor-
ite above all for the reason that it eats potato-bugs in great number, and it
is the only bird known that has such an appetite.

NATIVE FLOWERS.

Pre-eminent among the wild flowers of the state is the sunflower, which
is generally accepted as the "state flower." It is a very hardy plant, grows
rampant and thrives wonderfully in the least favorable weather as well as in
propitious seasons. In times gone by it covered every spot of uncultivated
land, with rank growth, along roads and byways and its yellow fac^ greeted
one everywhere from early summer till frost. In the early days quite a little
fuel was obtained from the stalk of this wild flower. For some unknown
reason the sunflower has been much less plentiful in the last five years than
at any time before.

The first dandelion made its appearance in this county about the year
1888. It was quite a favorite while it was in its years of modesty; it is no
longer a favorite, the horticulturist and the storebox philosopher, the scien-
tists of the agricultural departments of the various states and the nation and
the ordinary man with a hoe have exhausted all their wisdom in its suppres-
sion.

The native wild flowers are rapidly disappearing. The wild rose, the
field lily, wild daisy and violet are about the only remaining wild flowers of
the prairies that are familiar to the boys and girls of today. The old-time
wild primrose, the yellow poppy, white and purple larkspur, wild parsnip,
sageflower and asters are very rare. Here and there are to be found a wild
yucca or soapweed and a cactus, which recall the days when this was supposed
to be a part of the great American desert. A favorite and familiar native
flower is the goldenrod, also the sweet wild rose, which is most delicate in
coloring and fragrance.



CHAPTER II.
Early Explorations.



SPANISH,



One of the myths in the minds of early Spanish explorers was that of
"The Seven Cities."

In 1532 Francisco Pizarro had conquered Pern from the Incas and had
extorted from the governor an enormous sum of money. Stories of fahul-
ous wealth, gold and precious stones had so inflamed the Spanish minds, that
the people accepted as true, various myths regarding the New World.

Even so experienced an explorer as Ponce De Leon, who had been the
companion of Columbus on his voyages, became- infatuated with the myth
of the Fountain of ~^'outh and believed that if he could find the fountain and
lave in its magic waters, old age would "fall from him like a garment," and
he would walk again in the strength and vigor of youth.

The name Cibola and the Seven Cities was given in 1 536-1 540 to sup-
posed large and powerful cities in the present New Mexico, by Friar Marcos
de Niza, who had made some excursions from Old Mexico into the North



Online LibraryEmma Elizabeth Calderhead FosterHistory of Marshall County, Kansas : its people, industries, and institutions → online text (page 3 of 104)