Emma Elizabeth Calderhead Foster.

History of Marshall County, Kansas : its people, industries, and institutions online

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as America had been made by Masons to provide a means wdiereby women
relatives could prove themselves such.

About the year 1850 Robert Morris, a master Mason, and afterwards
grand master of Kentucky Masons, formulated a system and taught it to
many master masons and their wives. The system grew and expanded ;
headquarters were established in New York and during the w-ar and on into
the seventies, organizers traveled over the Eastern and Middle states, estab-
lishing local chapters. A few were organized in eastern Kansas. There is
a rumor that one was formed in Marysville, but no positive proof has been
found.

In 1867 delegates from fifteen of the local chapters in IMichigan met and
formed a grand chapter for their state. This is the first and oldest grand
chapter in the world organized by representation. Other states soon followed
and, in 1876, Kansas organized a grand chapter of the Order of the Eastern
Star.

In the first book of the secretary's record of Hilda Chapter No. 164,
Marysville, under date of July 17, 1894, is a statement that Mrs. P. W.
Hutchinson, Mrs. M. S. Goodwin, Mrs. Mary Kirkwood, Mrs. Haddie Davis,
Mrs. Viola Shaw, Mrs. Mary Campbell, Mrs. Kate Hatfield, Mrs. Delia Bit-



380 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS.

tell, -Miss Lillian Edwards, Edward Hutchinson. G. Goodwin. A. W. Kirk-
wood, F. V. Shaw, T. I. Hatfield. Jacob Schloss, I. B. Davis, Robert Campbell,

E. A. Bittell. Charles H. Schmidt, and Edgar Ross Enlton signed and sent a
petition to John E. Postlethwaite, grand patron of the order of Eastern Star
of Kansas, asking for a dispensation.

It is further stated that a favorable reply had been received with blanks
and instructions, and that on motion, Robert Campbell was elected chairman,

F. \'. Shaw, secretary; Mrs. l\ \V. Hutchinson, worthy matron, and R.
Cami)l)ell, worthy patron; Mrs. Haddie Davis, associate matron. The blanks
were filled out as instructed and with a check for ten dollars, returned to
the grand patron and the meeting adjourned after resolving that Miss Hilda
Marquardt, of Hanover chapter, be requested to come and organize the new
chapter, and that she be commissioned by the grand chapter for that purpose,
and also that the chapter be named Hilda, in her honor.

The dispensation was under date of July 28, 1894, and the records show
that Hilda Chapter No. 164 was duly organized and the following officers
installed under the grand chapter of the Order of Eastern Star of Kansas :
Mrs. P. W. Hutchinson, worthy matron ; R. Campbell, worthy patron ; Had-
die Davis, associate matron; E. R. Fulton, secretary; F. V. Shaw, treasurer;
Mary Campbell, conductress ; Delia Bittell, associate conductress ; Mrs. G.
Goodwin, chaplain ; Miss Lillian Edwards, Adah ; Mary Kirkwood, Ruth ;
Viola A. Shaw, Esther; M. S. Goodwin, Martha; Kate Hatfield, Electa;
J. J. Schloss, warder; T. L Hatfield, sentinel. Four petitions for degrees
were received at this meeting. The date of the charter is May 16, 1895.

The present officers are : Alice Hohn, worthy matron ; R. C. Guthrie,
w^orthy patron ; Matilda Kraemer, associate matron ; Kate Broihier, treasurer ;
Mildred Kirkwood, secretary; Blanche Potter, conductress, Elizabeth Davis,
associate conductress; Nettie Breeding, chaplain; Julia Hohn, marshal;
Minna Mohrbacher, organist; Martha Guthrie, Adah; Mary Ew^art, Ruth;
Hallie Willson, Esther ; Margaret Douglass, Martha ; Hyacinthe Koester,
Electa; Lulu Faulkner, warder; Walter Breeding, sentinel. On January i,
191 7, the chapter had a membership of one hundred and.ninety-eight. Stated
meetings are held first and third Friday evenings of each month.

«

Elnora Chapter, Order of the Eastern Star, was instituted at Blue
Rapids, February 6. 1896, In' Elnora Gilson, with the following charter mem-
bers: Elnora F. L. Gilson, A. E. Winter, Ella B. Wilcox. Kittie E. Winter,
Jessie A. Cheney, Julia C. Hewitt. Cora Hall, Ella Heathman. Julia M.
Chenev, Phoebe Hawk, Wash Hawk. Ida ^^IcNab, W. A. Gilson, E. Russell



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 38 1

Clieney, Sadie L. Wanamaker, Jennie E. Stearns, Luella M. Trnmbo, J. T.
Trumbo, J. Grace Morgan and Edith Nevins.

The first officers were : Ehiora Gilson, worthy matron ; A. E. \\'inter,
worthy patron : Ella B. Wilcox, associate matron ; Sadie L. Wanamaker,
secretary ; Jessie Cheney, conductress ; Kittie Winter, treasurer ; Julia C.
Hewitt, associate conductress ; Jack T. Trumbo, chaplain ; Cora Hall, Adah ;
Ella L Heathman. Ruth; Jennie Stearns, Esther; Ella Trumbo, Martha;
Julia Cheney, Electa ; Wash Hawk, sentinel ; Grace Morgan, marshal ; Ida
McNab, organist ; Phoebe Hawk, warder.

The present officers are: Eva Sandborn. worthy matron; H. H. Fen-
ton, worthy patron ; Jessie Fenton, associate matron ; Ella Heathman, secre-
tary ; Julia C. Hewitt, treasurer ; Sarah A. Burr, chaplain ; Leula Estes, con-
ductress ; Geneva Stauffer, associate conductress; Pearl Van Valkenburgh.
warder; Cora Hall, organist; D. S. W. Gilson, sentinel; Bessie Trombla,
marshal; Iva Ryan, Adah; Sudah \\'oolley, Ruth; Harriet Axtell. Martha;
Elizabeth Headrick, Electa.

The membership of the chapter at January, 19 17. was eightv-two.

Palace Chapter No. 174, Eastern Star, was organized in the Masonic
hall, Frankfort, June 19, 1895. The first officers were: Winifred Holtam,
worthv matron ; Walter H. Lewis, worthy patron ; Ella Lane, assistant
matron; Marion Whittaker, conductress; Addie M. Brandenburg, associate
conductress; Emma Lewis, treasurer; R. E. Trosper, secretary; Nettie Tay-
lar, chaplain ; Amanda Horr, Adah ; Hattie Busby, Ruth ; A. C. Brawley,
Esther; K. E. Trosper, Martha; Annie E. Souders, Electa; Mary E. Bliss,
warder; Albert Busby, sentinel. The following are the officers for 1917:
Tempie S. Bishop, worthy matron; William Campbell, worthy patron; Emma
Lindsey, assistant matron ; Caroline Anderson, secretary ; Mary Scholz,
treasurer ; Mary Warnica, conductress ; Nealie Scholz, associate conduc-
tress ; Aldean Haskett, chaplain ; Sadie Scholz, marshal ; Ella Lane, organist ;
Marie Wasser, Adah; Haskel Haskin, Ruth; Dora Olson, Esther; PhyUis
Rankin, Martha; Winifred Shearer, Electa; Jennie Campbell, warder; Wal-
ter Scholz, sentinel.

Cordelia Chapter No. 247. Order of the Eastern Star, at \^ermillion, was
instituted in April, 1901. by Grand Worthy Matron Cordelia Bittell, with
eighteen charter members. The first officers were : Lucy A\'oodman,
worthy matron ; G. W. Warren, worthy patron ; Elizabeth Hall, associate



382 MARSHALL COIN T^, KANSAS.

matron: Anna I)c Wall, secretary; Carrie Arnold, treasurer; Clarissa Weeks,
conductress; ]Mao;iiie Warren, conductress.

Tile past worthy matrons are as follow: Lucy Woodman, Clarissa
Weeks, Phoebe Havens, .Margaret Warren, Ida Duffy, Laura Woodman,
Allie B. Rogers, Rose Clifton. Carrie Arnold, Aima DeWalt and Tressie
Hybskman. Miss A.my Nauman is the present worthy matron.

Angerona Chapter Xo. 205, meets every first and third Wednesday in
Masonic hall, Axtell. Morence Simpson, worthy matron; Euphemia Strayer,
secretary.

*

The foregoing are all of the lodges of Speculative Ancient Craft Masonry
in Marshall countv consisting of three degrees ; Entered apprentice, fellow-
craft and master Mason, representing the three stages of human life — youth,
manhood and old age, with all its joys and pleasures, responsibilities, rewards
and disappointments, and pointing to its final destiny. The object lessons
here displaved by types, emblems and allegorical figures point out the whole
duty of man and constitute the three foundation steps from which the three
expansions of Masonry as practiced in America are erected. These three
expansions are : The Order of the Eastern Star, the York Rite and the
Scottish Rite. Membership in any one of these three can only be obtained
and maintained through and by the qualifications in the first three steps.
The work of these three branches is entirely independent of each other, but
like college work, compared with our public schools, so may these be com-
pared with the lodge work. A proper training in the lodge is necessary before
the branches can be fully understood.

This chapter contains the names of all the organized bodies of Masons
in Marshall county. There are many master Masons in the county who are
members of local organizations and who hold membership elsewhere in the
council. Scottish Rite and Shrine. A complete list of the Order of the East-
ern Star is also given.



CHAPTER XVH.
The Medicvl Profession.

By Dr. Robert Hawkins.

''Backward, turn backward, oh. Time in vour flieht.
And make me a chikl again just for tonight."

In ahno.'it all topics of general importance, and long years of general
development, it is impossible to know positively the details of origin. Med-
ical' history in Alar.shall county is no exception.

-As it is impossible to thoroughly understand the adult man without at
least some knowledge of the child, so it is advisable to go back into the child-
hood period of medical history to understand the present and be of benefit
to the future.

Let us then together turn l)ack the pages of time in this period of hurry-
ing fligiit and endeavor to learn something of early conditions. At once we
find ourselves confronted with only fragments of records, memories and tra-
ditions.

All that we know of early conditions among the Indians who frequented
this part of the great American desert, is what we can learn and deduce from
habits, customs and traditions existing at the time the white man first invaded
his domain, coupled with his later mode of life. Standing on this broad
platform we have reason to believe that the Indian as he roamed over and
cam])ed in the country, practiced a system of preventive medicine that in
some respects was, in its results, superior to our methods of today. He had
a smaller percentage of defectixe and undesirable adults than we have at the
present time. His manner of living and his standard of ethics did not pro-
duce that ever-increasing and ever-varying host of drones and swarms of
vultures that we now harbor by our methods and feed from the earnings of
our workers.

HEALTH FROINI THE WATERS.

The early trappers and hunters, the advance guard sent out by Brigham
A^oung to spy out a modern promised land for Modern Day saints, and the
explorers. Pike and Fremont, probably all were directed to the invigorating



384 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS.

waters and licalthful siirronndini^s of Alcove Springs. There thev found
conditions fa\(»rahle for hnildin<,^ iij) man and l)east after tlie lon|n; (lri\-e from
the Missouri ri\cr. and la)- up a reserve supply of energy for the long weary
journc)' to the mountains.

Here was a summer he.alth resort open for all. Here, clear pure spring
water was flowing from the rocks and .Xaron's rod had not l)cen required;
here was found a variety of food more \aried than the manna of old and
easy to gather, as represented by the catfish in the river, the quail in the
underbrush, tlie wild turkey in the trees, the antelope, rabbit and 1)uffalo up
the draw, or out over the hills. And here was abundance of grass for the
horses and ox teams. Here was an opportunity for preventive medicine in
a life of open-air freedom surrounded with })lenty.

TflE INDIAN MEDICINE MAN.

Alcoxe Springs has the reputation of having been the summer camping
ground of the nomad Indian. Here the Indian medicine man had for many
generations sent his patients to camp on the hills and to breathe" the clear,
pure and invigorating air of Kansas breezes, or recline under the leafy
branches of big spreading elms or bask in the warm sunshine out in the open,
while his fevered brow was cooled l)y the gentle Kansas south winds. I
doubt not but that many a convalescent Indian patient was aided by a channel
cat-fish from the waters of the Blue river near Alcove Springs.

\\niile the Indian, in his summer hunting trips camping here, was a fre-
quent patron of Nature's dispensatory, and many a functional and pathological
abnormality was warded off or aborted, yet, like the labors of the modern
followers of Aesculapius, the prognosis was sometimes unfavorable and the
Indian medicine man was called in the case. His methods usually consisted
in spectacular demonstrations and barbaric endeavors to drive away the evil
spirit.

We are told by early observers of Indian customs that the old-time
medicine man practiced a system of counter-irritation somewhat similar to
the mustard plaster of our grandmothers.

I remember in my boyhood days of seeing a picture in a history of
primitive Indian customs and conditions that illustrated the similarity.
.\ccording to that early-day observer it would be a frequent picture to see
the Indian medicine man, after his fantastic demonstration had failed to drive
aw^ay the bad spirit that had taken possession of the poor Indian with a head-
ache, practice more heroic methods.







BELOW THE DAM, MARYS VI LLE.



^.:^\^




'"M^



ALCOVE SPRINGS.
E. E. Forter, below, and John Schilling, above.



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 385

Come with me, in your imag-ination, and let ns stand on one of the bluffs
overlooking that beautiful landscape garden surrounding Alcove Springs in
its original grandeur, just before the late summer sun had ceased to cast the
long shadows of evening, but is still lighting up hill and valley and giving
a luster to the autumn foliage.

Focus your field glass and take a careful survey of the entire field. Up
the valley, just across the bend of the draw, the herd of ponies is feeding on
the fresh growth of grass that has sprung up since the recent fall rains, under
the spreading trees that the white man has not yet cut down, the men are
gathered in a small group discussing the exploits of the day and making plans
for the morrow. Some of the women are getting supper while others are
curing the fresh buffalo and antelope meat by cutting it into strips to dry in
the smoke of a slow fire, kindled from dead twigs and buffalo chips.

CURING THE SICK.

The special part of the picture in which we are interested is down the
valley and almost hidden by a clump of underbrush. Here we see a young
Indian naked to the waist seated on a half decayed log that some cyclone had
twisted from that deformed, bushy-topped cottonwood, his head grasped
tightly with both hands, the face is cast down from our view, the elbows are
supported on the knees and the entire body is as motionless and apparently
as devoid of feeling' as the old log under him.

The medicine man has apparently exhausted all ordinary methods to
cure the headache ; his drum has been set aside ; his buffalo head mask rests
on the end of the log and now he is applying a live fire brand to the sick
man's bare back. Here is counter-irritation with a vengeance, and who can
say it will not divert the mind of the patient away from his headache.

When the gold seekers of the 1S49 I'^^^h and the emigrant train of the
forties and fifties came rolling in from Independence, Missouri, they crossed
the Big Blue river at Alcove Springs and called it Independence Crossing.
Fremont, in 1842, crossed here and, recognizing this as a health resort,
camped here for some weeks. In 184Q, when the Mormons first began their
exodus to the West in large numbers, they camped here and it became an
annual summer hospital for their sick and dying. A large number of graves
were located here and scattered over the adjacent hills. No organized bury-
ing plot was arranged nor permanent markers erected, and nothing now
remains to show the last resting place of many an emigrant. Westward bound,
who here received the call to which all must respon.l. Here mothers lost
^25)



386 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS.

their babes and children lost their mothers. The survivors must pass on with
the current of humanity, leaving- on the hillside all that was visil)le of the
dear departed.

This evidence of the frailty of humanity w(juld indeed l)e dark and'
gloomy were it not for the symbolic meaning of the evergreen on the bluff
close by. "From the voiceless lips of the unreplying dead there comes no
word ; but in the night of death, hope sees a star and listening love can hear
the rustle of a wing."

AMPUTATION UNDER DIFFICULTIES.

The story is told by early historians that among those emigrants passing
through Marshall county was a company of Missouri farm boys with ox
teams. One of their number broke his leg shortly after leaving the Missouri
border. It w^as a compound fracture and soon became infected, not only
with pus but also with the larvae of the flies. By the time they reached
Alcove Springs his comrades decided that the boy's life was in immediate
danger. A consultation resulted in the decision that the leg must come off
in order to give him the last hope. Not one of them had ever seen such an
operation ; they must be their own doctors, and, worse, they had no modern
operating equipment, no antiseptic and no anesthetic. They were farm boys
from IMissouri and knew no such word as fail.

With a lariat rope for a tourniciuet and one of their hunting knives and
a handsaw, the leg was soon removed above the infected injury. With a
pair of common pincers they tried to find the severed arteries but could not.
They heated the king bolt from one of the wagons and seared the entire face
of the flaps and sewed it up with a waxed end such as had been provided for
repairing their shoes.

The story as I have heard it declares that the patient made a good stump
and became one of the settlers on the coast. Here was emergency surgery,
with thorough sterilization of the field of operation.

gr.a.ndmother's remedies.

Up to this time there was no local doctor settled in the county. There
w^as no county organization. The floating, moving, ever-passing hosts were
thrown on their own resources.

With the coming of the actual settlers, who stayed here with the idea



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 38/

of making this a permanent home, all was changed. The good housewife
came with grandmother's ideas of catnip and boneset tea and a supply of
roots, dried barks and herbs, and the spring time dosing followed.

"When they see the tender grasses,

And the fragrant lilacs bud, ;

Kate takes sulphur and molasses,

For to purify her blood."

From the time Frank Marshall started his ferry boat across the Blue
river and on to i860 and the starting of actual hostilities in the war, many
families had formed several settlements in different parts of the county.
There was a struggle for existence and none but the stoutest survived. Many
a homesick young girl found herself a housewife with the house unbuilt, long-
ing for the supporting hand and cheering sympathy of mother or the heavy
step and hope-giving voice of the old family doctor back "in the states."
Those were trying days. In times of sickness neighbor helped neighbor.
What little medicine had been brought from home was usually shared with
the ailing. The open-air methods of living; the absence of modern luxuries
and the fact that but few delicate persons came, all helped to keep the standard
of health high and the death rate low.

THE FIRST BABIES.

The first known white ba])y born in the county was George W. Thiele
on September 14, 1855, about one and one-half miles east of the present town
of Bigelow. llie ancestry came from Germany and first settled in old Con-
necticut. Later, they came to the free home life of "Sunny Kansas." George
W. Thiele was born in the log cabin home on the free one hundred and sixty
acres then farmed by the family. He is now a prominent business man of
Washington, Kansas.

The second baby, of which we can find any record, is William H. Todd,
born on August 13, 1856. The last heard of him, he was in Colorado.

The third baby was a girl, Sarah P. Martin, born on September 3, 1857,
in the log cabin farm home six miles southeast of where the town of Beattie
is now located. The family came from Indiana, where an elder brother,
George, had been born two and one-half years prior. This little girl, now a
grandmother, Mrs. William Crane, lives just west of the Marysville bridge
and attends daily to the household duties of her own home. She tells me



388 MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS.

that at tlie time of her birth there was neither door nor window in the log
cabin, but simply a blanket hung o\er the opening in the log wall for a door-
way and the cracks between the logs stopped with clinnks of wood and daubed
up with mud. Mrs. Martin's sister, Mrs. Life, li\ing on an adjacent farm
officiated as nurse.

In all three of these cases the general conditions were similar. Mrs.
Crane tells me that when she was three years old she and her father, Mr.
Martin, had chills and fever all summer imtil they were nearly exhausted.
This was the prevailing ailment of the early settler. After using all the home
remedies and exhausting the small supply of quinine in the neighborhood,
the mother took them in a farm wagon with an ox team sixty miles north
into Nebraska, where they heard there was a doctor. This one hundred and
twenty miles round trip with an ox team, camping on the high prairie and liv-
ing in the open with winter coming on, was the last supreme effort of the
despairing wife and mother to cure what she believed to be dying patients.
They made the round trip, saw the doctor, got their medicine and made a
recovery. The combination of conditions produced the desired result. The
patients were removed from the vicinity of the creek and mosquitos, the sum-
mer season was past and they lived on the high prairie for several weeks.

While it is but reasonable to suppose that other white babies were born
here prior to these three, yet it remains a fact that the Old Settlers' Associa-
tion has failed to find any.

The first doctor known to come to the county to locate, was Dr. J. P.
IMiller. who came in 1856. During that summer a number of young- men
came from Atchison and from different points in the south for the purpose
of starting a town. They were all pro-slavery party men and they came to
Marshall's ferry and organized the town of Palmetto, supposedly under ter-
ritorial laws.

How near they complied with the legal requirements, is best answered
in the general statement which is made on page 914 of A. T. Andreas' "His-
tory of Kansas", 18S3:

"The first election in Alarshall county was on March 31, 1855. Every
inhabitant, who should be an actual resident, was a qualified voter. The
pro-slavery party put the most liberal construction on the law. At the elec-
tion on October 5, 1857, only one Free-state vote was counted in the county."
That vote was given by James E. White.

Dr. J. P. >\Iiller was one of this group of pro-slavery party men, who
came for the purpose of making Kansas a slave state.

They were not of the home-making kind, like the settlers in other parts



MARSHALL COUNTY, KANSAS. 389

of the county. In the border-turmoil days, just before the war, there was
httle opportunity for Doctor Miller to become a family physician. His
patients for a few years were the floating and emigrant kind. Might made
right and the arguments concerning differences were often settled with the
gun. The doctor had a wide and varied experience along this line. Under
the pro-slavery methods of conducting politics, it was an anti-election decision
that all important positions should be taken by their members.

ONE OFFICIAL TO FOUR OFFICES.

Doctor Miller was elected to the pro-slavery Legislature and served the
party well. Later, he was elected to several local county offices, and held
them all at the same time being, respectively, sheriff, clerk of the court, justice
of the peace and coroner. His endeavors to manipulate [X)litical matters
apparently occupied most of his time. As a doctor he was independent of
the drug stores, because there were none in the county. In answering calls
among the scattered settlers, he went on horseback and his saddlebags stock
was chiefly quinine, calomel, opium and a poor grade of Missouri whiskey.

One of his contemporary settlers informs us that Miller was a fine
example of the southern gentleman of the early frontier type; that he was a
heavy user of the last-named article in his saddlebag supply, but that the
Missouri article did not agree with him and he died before he reached his full
measure of usefulness.

Before the opening of national hostilities in the War of Secession, a
bitter contest was raging in eastern Kansas. Marshall county, as one of the
extreme frontier points, on a direct route to the mountains and the coast and
occupied by extreme representatives of both factions, was a history-making



Online LibraryEmma Elizabeth Calderhead FosterHistory of Marshall County, Kansas : its people, industries, and institutions → online text (page 35 of 104)