Emma Elizabeth Calderhead Foster.

History of Marshall County, Kansas : its people, industries, and institutions online

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country. The good Friar may have heard the word "Cibobe" from the
nati\e Tehua Indians. According to their traditions it was a place in south-
ern Colorado, whence their ancestors issued from the interior of the earth.
Cibobe was the mythical cradle of the tribe. Or he may have heard the
word from the Zuni Indians. Ciba is the Indian name for rocks and the
Zuni Indians held a range of mountains in what is now New Mexico.


The Island of Seven Cities was a fabled island which, in the fourteenth
and fifteenth centuries, was supposed to exist in the Atlantic, west of Europe.
It was said to have been peopled by seven bishops who, with many followers,
had been driven out of Spain by the Moors. The number seven has been


regarded as a mystic number for centuries by disciples of the occult. Severl
is a result of combining the number three or the triad, with the number four
or the tetrad. The triad (three) was held sacred as the source of energy
and intelligence. The tetrad (four) was venerated by the heathen minds.
It represents a square and exhibits by summation all the digits as far as
ten — ( i-|-2-|-3-|-4). It marks the seasons, the elements, the four ages of
man. United with the triad the number seven resulted. Seven marked the
series of lunar phases. It \\ as the number of the known great planets. We
have the Seven wonders of the world ; seven days in the week ; the city on
Seven hills. More than likely, vSpanish students of the mystical originated
the idea of the Seven Cities of Cibola. The slave Tejo and the "Turk", no
doubt, heard the tale in idle hours from the Spaniards and sensing the greed
for gold and plunder in the Spanish mind, enlarged on the "great cities to
the North where the streets were paved with gold and the door-posts studded
with precious gems."

The stories which were told of the land of Cibola and the seven cities,
are always attributed by historians to Indian slaves or half-breed negroes
who acted as guides. By some occult means these guides were always able
to converse with any and all tribes of Indians, encountered during the
marches in search for the cities. It is evidence of the abnormal state of
mind created by the desire for gold, when men like Guzman and Mendoza
were induced to accept as true the word of a menial, in a matter which
involved danger, hardship and a great outlay of money.


In 1530 Nuno de Guzman ^^'as the ruler of New Spain. He had an
Indian slave, Tejo. v»hose father had been a trader and had gone into the
"back country," to trade with the inhabitants. Tejo told Guzman that he
had sometimes gone with his father and that there were some towns there as
large as the Citv of Mexico. In seven of those towns there were streets
given over to shops and workers in precious metals. Tejo said it would
require forty days travel to reach these cities. Guzman decided to go after
the wealth. He enlisted four hundred Spaniards and twenty thousand
Indians. His plans were not carried out and this expedition was abandoned.
This was in 1530.

Ten years prior to this in 1520, De Narvaez had attempted to subju-
gate Cortez. the governor, and had suffered defeat. Soon after this he was
empowered bv Charles V^ of Spain, to govern Florida. On the 15th of


April. 15-7, De Xarxaez landed at Tampa liay witli two Imndrcd and sixty
soldiers and forty horsemen. lie soon bet^an his travels in seareh of gold.

Volumes have been written about this expedition whieh ended in dis-
aster, only four escaping- death by the Indians, by st(jrms and star\ation.
These four were Cabaza de Vaca. the leader of the band; Maldonado, Dor-
antes, and a negro slave, Estevan. The four had wandered in the wilds of
Texas and the deserts and mountains of A^ew Mexico for se\'en years. They
were rescued on the coast of the Gulf of California in April 15, 1537.
Alendoza was now viceroy of Mexico and he bought Estevan from Dorantes,
the slave's master.

The four men related manv stories of their wanderings and of the
northern countries. These stories recalled, revived and confirmed the stories
of the trader's son, the Indian Tejo-

The greed for gold awoke in ]\Iendoza and he decided to send an expe-
dition North, and Eriar Marcos de Xiza was chosen to head it, as he had
m^cle. sUo^r.t expeditions North and had been with Pizarro in his plundering
expedition into Peru. The negro, Estevan, was the guide. The result
of this expedition was that the Eriar reported that he had been told that
there were cities to the North, where the people wore cotton clothes and had
much., gold. It appears from the records, which are meager, that the Eriar
was, somewhat guarded in his report, but when he mentioned gold — that
was suf^cient. The wildest rumors were passed from mouth to mouth. It
was said the door-posts were studded with precious gems. Royal permission
was sought to explore the country of Cibola. This privilege finally went to
Mendoza, he selected the post of Compostella on the Pacific Ocean, as the
point of assembly and appointed Coronado to act as commander of the


The foregoing historical review but serves to lead our attention to the
one man — of that group of Indians, half-breed negroes and Spaniards, who
is of interest to the people of Kansas and of Marshall county — Erancisco
Vascpiez de Coronado.

Coronado was a Spanish soldier, who came to Mexico, probably with
Mendoza. He was about forty years old and was governor of Neuva
Galicia, when Mendoza selected him to command an expedition North in
search of the land of Cibola and the seven cities.

On Monday, Eebruary 2^, 1540, Coronado with two hundred and sixty
horsemen, seventy footmen and several hundred Indians started from Com-


postella and marched due north hito the country we know as Arizona.
There he fought a battle with the Indians and defeated them, and the
Spaniards took possession of the Zuni villages on July 7, 1540. These
villaees consisted of mud and stone dwellings, rude, filthv and dark. These
were the fabled "Seven Cities" of Cibola.


Coronado wintered on the Rio Grande and during that winter another
Indian appeared with stories of a land still farther away, called Quivera.
This Indian was nicknamed the "Turk" and may have been a captive Arkan-
sas or Ouapaw Indian. His stories of a far-distant and wealthy land was
sufficient to cause Coronado to again resume his search for wealth, and after
thirty-five days of travel they came to the country of the Teyas and these
Indians told them that "Turk" was deceiving them and that Quivera lay to
the north. Coronado selected thirty of his liravest and boldest men and
half a dozen foot soldiers, and sending the remainder of the army back to
Tiguex, on the Rio Grande, he pushed due northward and according to most
• authorities arrived at the place, which is now Dodge City, on the Arkansas
river. The first act of Coronado on reaching the Arkansas river was to
execute "Turk", who had deceived him. This was the first murder on
Kansas soil of which we have any record.


■ Coronado had at last reached Quivera. It is to be regretted that his
first act in killing the "Turk"" was cruel. Ijut that was the spirit of the times.
On one point all authors practically agree. Quivera was in what is now
Kansas. That it lay in the Northeast, which was the land of the Canza
(Kansas) Indians and which embraced Marshall country, is the opinion of
Bandalier, who is an accepted authority.

Coronado spent several weeks in the exploration of Quivera. He says
in his notes that he reached the fortieth parallel, which is the line between
Kansas and Nebraska. There is no reason to question this statement. The
general opinion is that he traveled eastward from \\'^ichita, then took the
old Indian trail north and followed up the Big Blue river. If so, he traveled
through where Marshall county is now laid out.

The Pawnee Indians were of the Quivera tribe. They had villages all
alone the Big Blue. One of their oldest villages was on the site of Blue


Springs, Nebraska. In Coronado's time tlicy ranged aliiio'-t to the Missouri
river, and we may believe tliey roamed to the western limits of the buffalo


Late in the year igO(S a rapier was found by Carl John.son, youngest
son of Julius Johnson, on the hill on North Ninth street, which is the highest
point in the city of Marysville. This rapier was buried in the ground, hilt
downward, with only three inches of the point exposed. The exposed por-
tion w^as verv much corroded, the maker's name was obliterated and the
hilt is missing. The blade is thirty-three and three-cjuarters inches long,
and the unexposed portion is in a good state of preservation.

The surest and perhaps the only sign of the presence of Coronado in
this county is this weapon. It niay have been used as a marker for a cache,
or it may have marked a grave.

The rapier is a fancy sword carried by so-called gentlemen. Among
those restless Spaniards, pushing ever onward in the search of gold, per-
haps one met that enemy against whom his sword proved no protection.
It mav be that his companions bore his body to this eminence overlooking
the Valley of the Blue, and buried him with military honors; Coronado and
the rapier are alike silent. Some day, when practical men level and grade
the street, the grave may tell its secret.


There has been much discussion as to the origin and meaning of the
name Kansas. It was variously written by early explorers and we find it :
Kantha, Kanza, Cansa, Causes, Kau, Kaw and many other forms. Lieu-
tenant Pike wrote it Kaus. It has been said to mean "sw-ift" and "smoky."
Air. W. E. Connelly, secretary of the State Historical Society, Topeka, gives
the meaning of Kansas as "Wind People," or "People of the South Wind."
Undoubtedly it has some reference to wind. Exactly what this reference
is, there is little hope of finding out with absolute certainty ; but it is estab-
lished beyond question that the name means, "Wind People," or "People
of the South Wind."

"Superstition is the child of ignorance." The ignorance of the Indian like
that of all primitive races created superstition. His religion was one of fear
and his worship that of propitiation. He offered sacrifices to some unknown
power, of which he lived in av.e. He worshipped a god called WaKanda,


and this S3'i'nbol was anything which the Indian did not understand. The
forces of nature were all evil and unnatural to him. The wind was unnatural,
and so it was evil. It was WaKanda and had to he propitiated by sacri-
fices. The Kansa Indians drew out the hearts of their slain enemies and
offered them as sacrifices to the wind. In time they were called the "people
who sacrifice to the wind" or "wind people."

The Kansa or Kaw tribe of Indians lived on Kansas soil for more than
three hundred years. They called this territory theirs and ranged its plains.
They built lodges along the Blue river and contested for the hunting ground
with their enemies, the Pawnees.


In 1846 they sold to the United States government all the north part
of Kansas and south half of Nebraska. They did not own this land except
in an hereditary sense, through having lived on it. From this tribe of
Indians the state derives its name, Kansas.

Air. G. P. Morehouse, who is the historian of the Kansas Indians, states
that the Independent Creek town which is referred to by early French writers
as the "Grand Village des Canzes," seems to have been a Jesuit missionary
station, located near where the town of Doniphan now stands, as early as
1727. This fact he bases on French-Canadian records of the Province of
Ontario, which state -that the name of Canzes, or Kansas, was a well-known
geographical term to designate a spot on the Missouri river within Kansas,
where the French government and its official church, nearly two hundred
years ago. had an important missionary center. "In this document," Mr.
Morehouse says, "this mission away out in the heart of the continent was
classed with other important Indian missions such as the Iroquois, Abenaquis
and Tadousac, and that the same amount per missionary was expended." It
was "Kansas," a mission charge on the rolls of the Jesuit Fathers, for which
annual appropriation of money was made as early as 1727.

This simple line tells us that devout pioneers of that church spent lonely
hours, far from civilization, on a wild plain in order to instill into the minds
and hearts of savages that faith in which they themselves so ardently believed.
No more to bow in silence as the angelus intoned upon the air ; no more at
eve to hear the convent bell or join with clasped hands the reverent black-
robed procession. In place of the companionship of the scholar, the brutal
face of the brave and his stolid squaw confronted the missionary. The
sword alone is not the symbol of heroism.



Early in tlie eigiiteenth centniy tlie Spanish attempted to invade and
colonize tlie Missouri \alley. 1'lie iM-ench became alarmed and sent men
to explore the valley and treat w ith the Indians.

M. de Bouremont liad been commissioned militarv commander of the
Missouri valley in 1720 and made an expedition into the land of the Kansas
in T724. He \isited tlie Grand Village des Canzes, and held a celebration
wliicli lasted two weeks, coiLsisting" of powwows, councils, trading horses or
merchandise and making presents to the Indians. No doubt, many other
adventurous traders and hunters spent time with the Kansas Indians, but no
record is made of them.

In the summer of 1804 the famous "Lewis and Clark expedition" passed
tip the Missouri river and traded with the Kansas Indians. In 1818-19
Alajor Stephen A. Long's exploring expedition visited them. In 18 19 Major
John O'Fallon was appointed sutler of the post and Indian agent for the
upper Missouri, and on July 4. 18 19, the nation's birthday was celebrated
and the Kansas Indians learned their first lesson in patriotism. In 1847
the Kansas Indians lived in the Kaw Valley, east of Manhattan and that
same year were moved to a reservation in the Neosho valley, adjoining
Council Grox'c. And from then on they mo\^ed south and west along what
became known as the "Old Kaw trail," hunting buffalo. Those hunting
trips were usually made in the fall. The old Indian agency building still
stands about four miles from Council Grove.


From left to right: Jesse W. Greist, agent; Arkaketah, chief; Howdy-Howdy;
Pawnee Cuchee; White-horse; Wahanyi; Joe-John; Toehee; Baptiste DeRoin, inter-
preter, and Captain Pearman, United State Army paymaster. Chief Arkaketah is the
man for whom the town of Oketo was named. The picture was taken shortly before
the removal of the tribe from their reservation in the northern part of Marshall county
to Oklahoma.

Indians in Marshall County.

In the days of Coronado, the Kansas Indians occupied a strip of terri-
tory on each side of the Missouri river, from the vicinity of the mouth of
the Kansas river to Independence creek. That and adjacent land continued
to be the habitat and hunting- ground of the tribe for more than two

They hunted west for bultalo going as far west as the RepubHcan river.
In those days the Pawnees and Wichitas were the strong tribes in the terri-
tory reaching from the Missouri river to the Rocky Mountains and stretch-
ing as far north as the Platte. The Pawnees claimed the land as far
east as the Missr)uri river and regarded the Kansas Indians as intruders and
made war on theuL Evidences of l^attles have Ijeen found in Marshall

Arrow heads and spear heads have been found in large numbers on
section 7 in Rock township, the former home of Mrs. S. S. Martin. Mrs.
Martin can recall the Indian village near Winifred, and that Indians from
all sections of the country gathered there in large numbers to trade and hold
councils. She remembers one fierce Indian l)attle near there.


Mr. Otto Wullschleger has a large collection of arrow- and spear-heads
of many different varieties, which he found on sections 12 and 13. Center
township. These arrow-heads indicate that a battle was once fought on
that ground. He has also a number of stone axes found near the old lodge,
which was located on the Walker farm.

The Indian trail crossed the Vermillion, near Winifred, and traversed
Marshall county in a northwesterly direction, crossing the Big Blue, at the
point where Frank Marshall afterwards established a ferry at Independence
crossing. This trail is said to ha\-e been the longest Indian trail in North
America, reaching from the Missouri river to the Pacific coast.



Mr. George Fddy says tliat an Tndi.an \illa^-e, or lodoc, was located <m
section jo in W'alnnl township. Many arrow -heads lia\e been fonnd there,
all of small size, exidently nscd in Imntins;- small L;ame.

On section 19. ••".Ini C reck towr.shi]), there is a \ery steep cliff, and it
was the practice of the Indians to stampede the hulTalo over that cliff, then
kill all the cattle that were injnred by the fall an<l nnable to get away. Mr.
Eddy found at the foot of this clilT a stone "killing hammer," and some flint

The old Indian trail used by the many different tribes of Indians, and
by Fremont, became the Mormon trail and the gold seekers" trail to Cali-
fornia. In |)lace of the single trail of the Indian, the Mormons and other
immigrants traveled along three parallel roads, covering a width of seventy-
tixe to one hundred yards. The wagons, whenever possible, were kept nearly
abreast, so that in case of an attack by the Indians, they could be quickly
parked, the women and children ])laced in the center and the defense made.
In a long-drawn-out train on one road this could not have been accomplished
so readily, so the three-parallel-road method was adopted. Three parallel
roads are discernible today in such stretches of the trail as have not been

Stone axes, hammers and different utensils of Indian make have been
found in all parts of the county.


The Otoe Indians did not own any of the country in Marshall county
until after it was ceded by the Kaws. The Otoe Reservation was assigned
by treaty and it was only accidental that but two miles of it came into
Kansas. The Otoe and Missouri Indian Reservation was twenty-five miles
long and ten miles wide. It began at a point on an island near what is now
Oketo, Marshall county, Kansas, extending about four miles east, ten miles
north, twenty-five miles west and ten miles south and back to place of begin-

On account of the locators not knowing where the Kansas-Nebraska line
was, a part of the reservation was in Kansas, through mistake. This reserva-
tion contained one hundred and sixty thousand acres and by a treaty with the
government about two-thirds of the west part was sold in 1878. This land
was appraised by F. M. Barnes, of Otoe agency, William La Gorgue, of
Gage county, Nebraska, and Captain Baker, of Salina, Kansas. The remain-


ing one-third was appraised and sold in 1883, the Indians having gone to
the Indian Territory in 188 1.

A day school for the Otoe Indians was established in the earlv seventies
and was discontinued in 1877. when the boarding school was established. This
school was in full operation until June. 1881, and was not reconvened in the
fall owing to the Indians having left. The Otoes and Missouris were affili-
ated tribes for many years and were supposed to be closely related to the
lowas, Sacs and Foxes, and the Osages, as their languages were practically
the same. All traces of the burying grounds, of which there were several,
have di.'^appeared, having been plowed up by the farmers who bought the
land on wliicli those grounds were located.


Among the oldest settlers in tlie Vermillion valley were the Puntneys,
John D. Wells, Fred H. Brockmeyer, Daniel M. Leavitt, Elizabeth Witham
and G. H. Hollenberg. Hollenberg was a German, the founder of Washing-
ton county, Kansas, and for whom the town of Hollenberg was named. He
later died while crossing the Atlantic, on his way to visit his old home in
Germany, and was buried at sea.

On coming in the year 1855 to the valley of the Vermillion they found
there Louis Tremble, a Frenchman, who had married a Sioux scjuaw, and
who had been driven from the Rocky Mountains by an order of General
Harney, expelling everyone of that nationality. Louis Tremble built a
puncheon toll-bridge across the Vermillion at the old Mormon or Hollenberg

Tremble had a neighbor, another Frenchman named Changreau, whose
wife was also a Sioux. Mrs. Changreau had a sister, a girl about fifteen, who
lived with them. They had a familv of several small children.

Roving bands of both Kaws and Sioux traveled up and dow'n the Blue
river in search of prey. They were enemies and at war with each other.
The two Frenchmen felt that they Avere in danger, but both were prospering,
Tremble from his toll-bridge and Changreau from a little farm of about
twenty acres, which he cultivated with care. This furnished him a living
and he sold plenty to travelers.


One day Changreau's house was surrounded by mounted Sioux Indians.
They soon discovered that Changreau was absent, entered the house and


pillaged it. TIk- chief seized the youni;' i^irl, all mounted their jxniies and
rode rapidly a\va\'. Changreau's wife ran to the tield where he was at work
and told what had happened. He well knew the fate awaiting the young girl
and appealed tn his neighhors to go with him to her rescue. Sduk' of the
neiefhhors ioined him and followed the trail until thev feared an ambush, when
thev decided thev had hest return to the defense of their own families.

Changreau followed the hand with their helpless prisoner. When night
fell the lodges were pitched and a brilliant campfire lighted. After a feast,
the poor girl was led out and bound to a tree. He rode away in the dark-
ness and from a distant hilltop watched the fire and saw the cruel dance, too
far awav to hear the prisoner's cry of anguish or the hideous yells of the
torturing hends.

In the gray dawn he crept stealthily near enough to know that the young
girl, bound and helpless, had been scourged to death amidst revels of the war
dance and orgies of the night. Sick at heart he hastened home and removed
his family to a place of safety. Tremble also mo^'ed from that localit}-. Iliese
two men were the earliest settlers on the A'ermillion.

Some historians state that this murder took place near Council Grove,
but neighbors of the Changreau's, who are still living, state positively that
the murder of this young Indian maiden took place near wdiere Irving now


During the }ear 1857 the overland emigration to California was
immense. During May and June in that year the trails leading westward
across Kansas \vere crowded with the trains of emigrants and their herds.
A party of tw^enty-five men, women and children were crossing the prairie
taking a short cut to Ft. Kearney. .'\t a point near where Republic City now
stands, they \vere surprised by a band of Pawnees and robbed, and half the
men in the party were killed, including the captain.

The Indians took everything they could carry away and ripped open
sacks of tiour. spilling the contents on the ground, in order to carry away the
sacks. The poor people were far from any settlement and were in danger
of starvation. Two men of the party started east and procured assistance
in Marshall county.

In May, 1862, occurred the massacre of the Cassel party in Cloud county.
This was soon followed by the White Rock massacre, and these were fol-
lowed by the Indian raids in the Solomon Valley.

As time went on, roving bands of Indians attacked and robbed emigrants


and ranchmen and murdered settlers, until panic reigned. On the loth of
August, 1864, the citizens of Alary sville were thrown into great excitement.
Refugees poured into the town with stories of an Indian massacre on the
Little Blue. TeauLs witli wagons hlled w ith settlers, ranchmen and their
families arrived, bringing stories of the outrageous torturing of men. women

Online LibraryEmma Elizabeth Calderhead FosterHistory of Marshall County, Kansas : its people, industries, and institutions → online text (page 4 of 104)