Emperor of the French Napoleon I.

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the Spanish business. Fresh marching regiments, drawn
from your depots, are proceeding to join the army. Before
the month of October, your effective infantry strength will
have reached 36,000, and your cavalry 18,000 men. This
will give you a body of 60,000 men, which, supported by the
Prince of Ponte-Corvo's 10,000 infantry, and by 15,000 men of
the Confederation troops, will form a strong army.

Marshal Davout's Corps should be a little stronger yet.
The fifth Corps is proceeding to Bayreuth ; I have not quite
decided to bring it back to France. lam going to take up
my winter quarters on the left bank of the Elbe, except for
9000 men, whom I leave to garrison the fortresses, and those
who must be left in Pomerania.



CXXXVI

TO M. DE CHAMPAGNY, MINISTER FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS.

ST. CLOUD, 2nd September 1808.

I SEND you what, as far as I can understand it, seems a
very extraordinary letter. 1 Have it translated, and make a
report to me about it. Bring it back to me to-morrow at
the Lever, so that we may talk it over. Make a report to
me, also, on all these papers.

1 An intercepted letter from Herr von Stein to Herr von Wittgenstein, who was
Prussian Minister in Cassel during the war of 1806.



NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I 103

CXXXVII
TO MARSHAL SOULT, SECOND IN COMMAND OF THE

GRANDE ARME, AT STETTIN.

ST. CLOUD, tfh September 1808.

HERR VON STEIN'S letter strikes me as being very ex-
traordinary. I think it would be a good plan to have Koppe,
the assessor, conveyed to France, under good and safe escort,
so as to subject him to a detailed examination. Meanwhile,
get all you can out of him, by putting him into secret con-
finement and cross-questioning him. The Prussians are a
poor wretched set. If you have, any suspicion of General
Riichel, have him arrested, and brought to France, but you
must not let him slip. To-morrow a Decree will appear,
calling out 140,000 men of the conscription. This levy will
raise your Corps to fifty-six battalions, or 48,000 infantry
soldiers. Marshal Davout's will be raised to the same
strength, so that the loss caused the Grande Armee by the
departure of the 1st and 6th Corps is made good, as far as
numbers go. Everything Austria does is done out of fear.
But if thorough measures were not taken, she might grow
bold. As for the present, peace is assured ; but there is no
knowing what English intrigues may bring forth, between
this and next May. I desire to have 200,000 men in
Germany, and 100,000 in Italy, by that time.

cxxxvni

TO JOSEPH NAPOLEON, KING OF SPAIN.

ST. CLOUD, %th September 1808.

I CANNOT conceive your wanting to send the Prince of
Masserano to Venice ; it is strange -policy to choose a man
who will act against both you and me, to be your Ambassador
in Austria. Send one of the Negrete, or the son of your
Minister for Foreign Affairs, or some other man of that kind,
whose fate is closely bound up with yours. Otherwise you
are not to send any one at all.

The five or six persons who have been arrested at Bilbao,
by General Merlin, must be put to death, especially a person
appointed Governor-General by the proclamation of the



104 NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I

Junta. If you do not take some vigorous action, there
will be no end to it all. This appears to me very important.
It is very strange that so much should be done to spare
Navarre. Biscay, Navarre, and Bilbao, must feed the army,
otherwise what am I to do ? It is absurd to grant them any
indemnities. Bilbao could have paid 4,000,000.



CXXXIX

TO JOSEPH NAPOLEON, KING OF SPAIN.

ST. CLOUD, gth September 1808.

I THINK it is necessary you should bring Santander
into submission. It would be sufficient merely to move
6000 men on Reinosa, and to send another column from
Bilbao. The point is a very important one, entailing the
submission of the Montana, and it is indispensable this
should be done before the army makes a general move.

I suppose Marshal Moncey to have remained at Tudela.
The troops he has, are more than double what he needs for
holding that position, and I imagine he will not allow the
enemy to establish itself four marches away from him.

You have also, doubtless, had Burgos occupied in force.
You must leave the new troops which are there, in Bilbao ;
they are quite sufficient. Above all things, you must carry
out the disarmament of Biscay and Navarre. I request you
will make a severe example of the insurgents at Bilbao,
more especially of the officer arrested, in command of the
armed force, and send numerous hostages to France.

On Sunday, I shall review the Sebastiani division, which
starts on Monday to proceed to Perpignan. It consists of
four fine regiments of infantry, a regiment of dragoons, and
twelve guns. The roads of France are covered with troops,
either from Italy, or from Germany. You must oblige the
villages to grind corn, and not get everything from France.
The provinces you occupy should, and can, furnish you with
provisions. The Spanish population is base and cowardly
very much as I found the Arabs to be. It gives you a good
reception at Burgos, and elsewhere, because you have a great
number of troops, and are able to crush it ; but upon the
smallest symptom of retreat, it would fire on you. We must



NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I 105

have hostages, and a general disarmament You must not
listen to your Ministers, who appear to have no information.
Spain has been ruined by a disastrous system of indulgence.
The infantry should have been disarmed, the cavalry dis-
mounted, and all made prisoners. Madrid has furnished the
enemy's army with 2000 horses ; these might have been
taken, on leaving Madrid, to horse my artillery. All English
colonial merchandise at Bilbao must certainly be confiscated,
and that town must pay a tax of at least 2,000,000. If you
think these people remain in the path of duty out of sheer
good feeling, you are deceived. If they do not rise in
rebellion, it is not for lack of inclination, but because they do
not dare. Take that for certain. ,

You must have received the Decree for organising the
Spanish army ; it must be adhered to as closely as possible,
for the present.



CXL

TO GENERAL CLARKE, MINISTER OF WAR.

ST. CLOUD, gth September 1808.

You will have General Marescot arrested, and brought
alone to Paris, to a military prison, where he will be kept in
solitary confinement. His aides-de-camp will be arrested
separately. All their papers will be sealed up, and sent to
you. When the General has been separated from his aides-
de-camp, and the aides-de-camp from each other, you will
have the General subjected to the enclosed cross-examina-
tion, which will be returned to you, signed by him, and by
the person whom you will depute to examine him. You
will subject each of the aides-de-camp to almost the same
examination.

Cross-Examination of General Marescot.

QUESTION i. Where were you on the I3th, I4th, i5th,
l6th, I ;th, 1 8th, and iQth of July?

2. How was it that you did not perceive that the enemy
was marching and manoeuvring in your rear, although
General Belair was attacked at Murgibar (?) on the 13th,
and was in retreat on the i6th?



106 NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I

3. Why did you separate, instead of marching all together
on Baylen, on the i6th ?

4. Where were you at three o'clock on the afternoon of
the igth, when General Vedel's guns were heard?

5. Why did you not then attack, and force the enemy's
line, or die gloriously, like Frenchmen ?

6. Who caused General Vedel to cease firing ?

7. Where were you at six o'clock on the evening of the
1 9th, and all that night?

8. How did you hear that General Vedel was retreating
on Madrid ? What did the enemy's general say to you ?
What share did you have in the order sent him to come
back to his destruction ?

9. How could you, a Great Officer of the Empire, and
Chief of the Engineers, light-heartedly add the loss of
Vedel's and Gobert's Divisions, to that of Dupont's Division ?

10. How could you put your hand to the capitulation of
Baylen, that eternal disgrace to the French name? Why
did you include General Vedel and his division in it?

11. How was it that you did not insist on the sanction of
an English Commissary, and how came you not to realise,
that the French troops would be lost, if they laid down their
arms, and would never re-enter France without a guarantee
from the English ?

12. Why did you sign the dishonour of the French
army, by consenting to say that the soldiers had stolen the
Sacred Vessels?

13. Why did you go into so much detail about your
baggage, and thus increase the disgrace of this infamous
capitulation, by your interested conduct?

14. Why did you disguise yourself as a Spanish General,
and why did you not follow the troops whom you had sur-
rendered without their weapons ? Did you not feel it was a
cowardly act to put off your uniform, and to show this panic
of fear ?

CXLI

TO M. FOUCHfi, MINISTER OF POLICE.

ERFURT, 9^ October 1808.

SINCE, as appears from your report of the 3Oth, the officer
at Valengay does not suit, he must be changed. The dentist



NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I 107

Gallet, who tried to speak to the Prince of the Asturias, must
be arrested. I think it is absurd of you not to have taken
these measures yourself. If people from Madrid are allowed
to prowl round the Palace after this fashion, we must expect
something to happen.



CXLII

TO JOACHIM NAPOLEON, KING OF NAPLES.

BURGOS, \2th November 1808.

I HAVE seen edicts of yours, which are perfectly senseless.
Your sole object is reaction. Why recall exiles, and restore
property to men who have taken up arms, and are plotting,
against me ? I give you notice you must take measures to
withdraw these edicts, for I will not permit persons who
hatch conspiracies against my troops to be received and
protected in your dominions. Your action as to the fisher-
men is no more prudent : it will only give the English a
means of obtaining earlier knowledge of what takes place.
You are making concessions to a false popularity. You will
lose it by means of such foolish steps. It is absurd to release
all the sequestered property, so that the people in Sicily may
be supported by it. Really and truly you must have lost
your head !

CXLIII
TO JOACHIM NAPOLEON, KING OF NAPLES.

BURGOS, \%th November 1808.

I CONCLUDE you have caused the property within your
kingdom, owned by the Duke del Infantado, and other
Spanish Grandees, to be sequestered. My French and Italian
subjects in Spain have been plundered, and I propose to
compensate them out of that property. Do not lose a moment
about this sequestration, if it has not been already made. I
am assured that half the kingdom of Naples belongs to these
Spanish Grandees. Have an inventory made of all their
possessions, and do not free them from sequestration without
my leave. I am losing enough as it is, over this Spanish
business.



io8 NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I

CXLIV
TO M. FOUCH, MINISTER OF POLICE.

BURGOS, \$>th November 1808.

I HAVE your letter of the nth. Have young St. Aignan
placed in the Military School at St. Cyr. You will let him
know this is my will. You will also let him know that
I do not intend him to marry, till he has fought two cam-
paigns. You will have him taken there bodily. This
method will have to be followed with several others of the
same kidney.

CXLV

TO GENERAL MENOU, GOVERNOR OF THE GRAND DUCHY
OF TUSCANY.

ARANDA, 28^ November 1808.

MARET sends you a Decree which is not to be published
till after its execution. Have the valley disarmed. Have
thirty or forty persons those best known as having always
taken part in former revolts arrested, whatever their present
behaviour may be. There must be no delay about the
execution of this order. Eight-and-forty hours after the
receipt of my letter, these thirty or forty persons must be in
prison. You will, at the same time, let me know their names,
their families, their fortunes, and the part they have played
at different periods. If any should escape, you will have
their property confiscated. You will have them all taken to
the Citadel of Fenestrella. The peace of Italy demands
that an example should be made of this town of Arezzo,
which needs it badly.

CXLVI

TO GENERAL MENOU, GOVERNOR OF THE GRAND DUCHY
OF TUSCANY.

ARANDA, 28^ November 1808.

I HAVE just received, from Paris, a proclamation dated 3rd
November, and bearing your signature, which means nothing
at all. What is the use of threats ? It is far better to strike.



NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I 109

Who is going to answer for the town of Sienna, which has no
organisation? All these proclamations only delight our
enemies, and make them think Tuscany is in flames. Would
it not have been far simpler to march with two or three
columns, of from 300 to 400 riflemen, to appoint a military
commission, to shoot the principal mutineers, to take host-
ages from the towns which have behaved ill, and to disarm
the most disaffected - cantons ? This would have settled
everything. Besides, reports should have been sent to the
Ministers of War and of Police, and you tell them nothing.



CXLVII

TO M. DE LAVALLETTE, DIRECTOR-GENERAL OF THE
POSTAL SERVICE.

CHAMARTIN, 6th December 1808.

YOUR work is badly done. You send me nothing but
fools, and my express from Bayonne has just been
captured, because the Postmaster at Bayonne gave the
courier two portmanteaux instead of one, and two bottles of
wine as well. The courier has saved the portmanteau with
the wine, and has allowed that containing Mons. de Cham-
pagny's correspondence to be taken. I have just dismissed
the Postmaster. Let all the other Postmasters know of his
dismissal. Long ago I gave orders that no express was to
carry more than twenty-five pounds weight. The Spanish
express must not carry any letters but mine, and no one is
to make up the packets but Mons. Meneval. This had
been regularly done hitherto. Mons. Meneval has the key,
and the letters should only be sent when I think fit ; instead
of which it frequently happens that, contrary to my intention,
other people have news from Paris before me.



CXLVIII

TO M. FOUCHfi, MINISTER OF POLICE.

MADRID, *jth December 1808.

1 HAVE received your letters of 28th and 29th. You do
wrong to be alarmed about me. The Spaniards are no



no NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I

more wicked than other nations. The weather here is as
fine as the loveliest May weather in France. We have
taken every advantage of it ; for we have beaten all our
enemies, and have established ourselves firmly in Madrid.

Send me a good man to be Chief of Police in Madrid, and
another for Lisbon. I do not want chatterboxes, but up-
right and impartial men, who will not take advantage of
circumstances, to steal and disgrace themselves.



CXLTX

TO M. DE CHAMPAGNY, MINISTER FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS.

MADRrD, lotk December 1808.

You will receive a Decree by which ten Spaniards are
declared enemies of France and Spain, and traitors to the
two Crowns. You will have this Decree made known in
Holland, and at Naples. All these individuals' property
belongs to me, to be applied to the war expenses. It must
be confiscated, and sequestrated, everywhere. There will be
no difficulty about this in the Kingdom of Italy, but it may
cause some in Naples. Speak about it to the Duke of
Monteleone. Make him understand that nothing must pre-
vent the carrying out of my intention.



CL

TO THE PRINCE DE NEUFCHATEL, MAJOR-GENERAL
OF THE ARMY IN SPAIN.

CHAMARTIN, i$th December 1808.

GIVE orders to have the Count de Noblejas' property
sequestrated, and let him be warned that if he does not
come back within a month, it will all be confiscated. As for
the Dowager Duchess of Ossuna, you will not only have all
her property sequestered, but you will have her jewels, plate,
etc., seized, and taken to the Treasury. Inform the Governor
of Madrid, and Mons. Savary, of this decision.



NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I in

CLI

TO M. DE CHAMPAGNY, MINISTER FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS.

MADRID, \6th December 1808.

SEND the subjoined order to all my Ministers to the
Princes of the Rhenish Confederation, and inform them that
Herr von Stein continues to concoct fanciful plots against
the Rhenish Confederation, with the English. You will
demand that the Prince of Nassau shall sequester his pro-
perty. You will inform the Prussian Court, that my Minister
will not go to Berlin, unless Stein is sent out of that capital,
and out of Prussia. You will go still further: you will
demand, by letter to the Prussian Minister, that this person
shall be given up as a traitor, and as being employed by the
English, to stir up enmity between the two Courts. Speak
strongly on the subject to the Prussian Minister in Paris.
Write to my consul at Konigsberg, to mention the subject
to the King, and let it be understood that if my troops lay
hands on Stein, he will be put to death.



CLII

TO M. FOUCH&, MINISTER OF POLICE.

BENAVENTE, $isf December 1808.

I AM informed that the emigre families screen their
children from the conscription, and keep them in grievous
and guilty idleness. Of course those rich old families who
do not belong to the system, are opposed to it. I desire
you will make a list of ten of these chief families, for each
Department, and of fifty for Paris, showing the age, fortune,
and rank of each member. I intend to publish an edict
which will send all youths of these families, over sixteen, and
under eighteen years of age, to the Military School at St.
Cyr. If any objection is made, the only answer you will
give is, that such is my good pleasure. The future generation
must not be allowed to suffer for the hatreds and petty
passions of this present one. If you ask the Prefects for
information, make this idea evident.
9



ii2 NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I

CLIII

TO COMTE FOUCHfi, MINISTER OF POLICE.

BENAVENTE, \st January 1809.

I HAVE your letter of the 1 7th. The English have aban-
doned the Spaniards in a shameful and cowardly manner.
We are pursuing them hotly. The Spaniards who formed
their left are crushed. La Romana had a few thousand men
left, whom he has lost. The English, it appears, had sent
for 10,000 horses, so as to escape more quickly. Have all
this shown up in the newspapers. Have caricatures made,
and songs and popular ditties written ; have them translated
into German aud Italian, and circulated in Italy and Ger-
many.

CLIV

TO M. BIGOT DE PR&AMENEU, MINISTER OF
PUBLIC WORSHIP.

BENAVENTE, \st January 1809.

LET the Archbishop of Bordeaux know of my extreme
displeasure at the sermon preached by the Abbe Langlade,
on the 4th December. Tell him I do not recognise in it,
either the Bishops' own feelings, nor those I have a right to
expect from the Bordeaux clergy. As to this Langlade, I
have ordered the Minister of Police to have him arrested,
and I will punish him in such a way as will serve to warn
others.

You will also inform the Archbishop of my dissatisfac-
tion with the bad spirit evident in his Pastoral, as to the
message by which I called my subjects to the defence of
their country. This spirit is particularly evident in the
expressions : * You will not fail, when you make this com-
munication to your parishioners, to urge them, with prudent
zeal, to submit themselves to the command of Divine Provi-
dence, when it calls upon us to purchase that repose which
is the object of all Christian hope, by painful but temporary
sacrifices.' The Archbishop of Bordeaux is, doubtless, a
worthy man, but he is surrounded by ill-conditioned people,
whom he either does not distrust, or cannot restrain. Send
them to Paris instantly.



NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I 113

CLV

TO THE COMTE DE CHAMPAGNY, MINISTER FOR
FOREIGN AFFAIRS.

VALLADOLID, *jth January 1809.

I HAVE received your letter, and that of Mons. de Caulain-
court. You can reply, that the two Russian vessels at
Toulon will be paid for, the crews paid, and all supplies
given. There will be no difficulty of any sort about that.

As regards the Grand Duchess, my intention is that
Mons. de Caulaincourt should do what is agreeable to the
Emperor. My Ambassador must not, and cannot, yield
precedence to the Hereditary Prince of Oldenburg ; but he
must yield it, without any difficulty, to the husband of the
Emperor of Russia's sister, whenever he is recognised as such.
Mons. de Caulaincourt may even notify, that if the Prince and
Princess came to Paris, they would be treated the same as in
St. Petersburg, that is to say, they would be seated in the
Court circle, etc. Yet, to make things correct, the Emperor
should give his brother-in-law the title of Imperial Highness.
The Emperor of Austria did this for Prince Albert of Saxony,
and I have done it for the Grand Duke of Berg. The whole
thing becomes quite simple, once the Emperor gives notice,
by a letter to his Master of the Ceremonies, that he has
bestowed this proof of his regard for his sister, and thence-
forward his brother-in-law will be treated as an Imperial
Highness, in whatever European Court he may visit, without
any difficulty being made.

In the matter regarding Sweden, Russia must be left to
do as she pleases. Reply, that I care very little what she
takes from Sweden ; that I am ready to make peace ; that I
am ready to carry on the war ; that I approve anything
Russia may do.

As for Austria, Mons. de Caulaincourt must take the
correct tone. Be sure he says, ( I am not afraid of Austria,
even during the war with Spain/ Mons. de Caulaincourt
must press the Emperor to take measures to close matters
at Vienna. He must make him understand, that I have
150,000 men in Italy, without counting my army in Naples;
1 50,000 men in Germany, without counting the forces of the
Rhenish Confederation ; 400,000 men, in fact, ready to
march into Austria ; that I am raising 80,000 more, and all



H4 NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I

that without withdrawing a single battalion from my armies
in Spain. Mons. de Caulaincourt should tell the Emperor,
in confidence, that my Guard is retracing its steps ; that it
will soon be back in Paris, and ready to move on Austria, if
this state of things does not end.

Immediately then, on the receipt of this letter, you will
send off a courier to St. Petersburg. Add that the Duke of
Dalmatia is at Lugo, that 2000 of the English rearguard
have already been made prisoners, and that part of its
artillery and waggons are already in our power.

CLVI

TO THE COMTE DE CHAMPAGNY, MINISTER FOR
FOREIGN AFFAIRS.

VALLADOLID, 8M January 1809.

I HAVE your letter of the 23rd, your two letters of the
24th, and those of 26th and 3<Dth of December. There is no
harm in having the story of Andreossy's despatch inserted
in the minor newspapers. Put it into the mouth of a
Viennese lady. It appears you have not yet received letters
from my Charge d'Affaires at Constantinople, and that
business is not yet cleared up.

Inform Mons. Otto, and my various Ministers to the
Courts of the Rhenish Confederation, that they are to speak
with scorn of the Austrian forces, and with confidence of
mine. Tell them I have an army of 160,000 men in Italy,
and one of 250,000 men (including the Confederate troops)
still remaining in Germany, and on the Rhine. Write also
to Mons. Otto, and to my Ministers in Saxony and Vienna,
that they are to speak as if I were already back in Paris,
Spanish affairs not being worth my attention, once the
English had embarked.

CLVII

TO THE PRINCE DE NEUFCHATEL, MAJOR-GENERAL
OF THE ARMY IN SPAIN.

VALLADOLID, qth January 1809.

INFORM General Belliard of my displeasure at the weak-
ness of his government. Frenchmen are murdered every day,



NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I 115

in Madrid, and he has done nothing as yet. Tell him thirty
of the worst characters in the town must be arrested, and
shot ; that this is what I have done at Valladolid ; and that I
shall hold him responsible for the first murder of a French-
man that occurs, unless it is instantly followed by the
arrest of a Spaniard. The way things are going on at
Madrid is ridiculous.



CLVIII

TO THE COMTE DE CHAMPAGNY, MINISTER FOR
FOREIGN AFFAIRS.

PARIS, 2$th January 1809.

I RETURN your portfolio. Write to my Minister in
Westphalia, to enter into the fullest details as to the ad-
ministration of the country ; his letters will not be seen. Let
his despatches speak of the King's conduct, of that of his
Ministers, and of all the operations of the Government, both
for the Emperor's information, and to enable him to direct
the action of the said Government, which will not know
whence his information comes. Desire him to add, apart



Online LibraryEmperor of the French Napoleon INew letters of Napoleon I, omitted from the edition published under the auspices of Napoleon III → online text (page 10 of 34)