Emperor of the French Napoleon I.

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from the signed formal reports addressed to yourself, an
unsigned sheet, containing the reports, real or false, going
about the town, and a kind of summary of the news of the
country. You will also desire my Ministers at other Courts
to follow this plan. This system is followed by Mons. de
Caulaincourt, who sends, by every courier, a short report of
society news, and of such rumours as tend to show the feeling
of the moment.

Postscript. I have read Mons. Reinhard's report of the
1 5th Jan. [No. 9] with pleasure. I do not approve of his
delicacy, in objecting to write in cipher. Desire him, on the
contrary, never to neglect writing in cipher, and sending
letters to inform us of the actions of the Government. If he
uses cipher every day, this will become quite easy. Besides,
I keep an Ambassador at Cassel for the purpose of knowing
what happens in Westphalia.



u6 NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I

CLIX
TO COMTE FOUCHfi, MINISTER OF POLICE.

PARIS, 27 '.h January 1809.

You do not keep proper order in Paris, and you leave
evil-disposed people free to put about all sorts of rumours.
Have an eye on the conversations in the establishment of a
certain Citerni, an eating-house keeper, on the Place du
Palais de Justice, and at the Cafe de Foy. Look after the
police, and not after foreign affairs, in your Ministry. 1 A
Police Minister must be responsible for rumours which are
circulated to lead the people astray. If you were to pay a
little more attention to this branch of the public administra-
tion, you would discover the threads of the intrigues of the
agents, who are at the bottom of this malevolent system in
Paris. 2

Make me a report, showing in what portions of the town
most foolish talk goes on, and take measures to put a stop
to it. It is your business to keep me informed of everything
that- is done and said in Paris, and I only hear it from other
people.

Postscript. The neighbourhood of the Hotel de Ville is
full of people who sow foolish rumours. Why have you not
men there to deny them, and point out their absurdity ? This
method should go hand in hand with the arrest of the dis-
seminators.



CLX

TO THE COMTE DE CHAMPAGNY, MINISTER FOR
FOREIGN AFFAIRS.

PARIS, 8M February 1809.

I DESIRE you will give me the draft of a circular to
the various Kings of the Rhenish Confederation, and to the
Prince Primate. I desire it may be drawn up in the follow-
ing sense. The States of the Rhenish Confederation have
no peace ; they are perpetually disturbed by the richest

1 The last phrase of this sentence is cancelled on the Minute by the Emperor's
hand.

2 All that follows, except the postscript, was struck out on the rough draft.






NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I 117

proprietors, who serve Austria, a country which may be
looked upon as being secretly on the offensive against, and
hostile to, the Confederation. Independently of the secret
anxiety which the influence of these individuals causes the
States of the Confederation, their residence at Vienna is a
source of prosperity to that country, because the better part
of the revenue of the Confederation is spent in the capital ;
and the interest of these persons being opposed to that of
the Confederation, they foment and excite a spirit hostile to
us, in Vienna. The Act of Confederation is clearly drawn ;
the interests of the Confederated States, and of France, are
equally clear. I should desire the Princes of the Confedera-
tion to publish an order, obliging all persons holding pro-
perty in their country, who are in the service of any other
Power, except those of the Rhenish Confederation, to quit
the service of such Power, and to return to their own country,
within three months. If, within thirty days of the publica-
tion of this order, they have not given notice of their intention
to return, their property will be sequestered, and if they do
not return within three months, their property will be con-
fiscated to the State. By this means, Austria will be deprived
of a great number of officers and officials ; the Fiirstenbergs,
and others of the richest Austrian families, will be forced to
remain in the States of the Confederation, and thus to
weaken Austria, its natural enemy.



CLXI
TO JEROME NAPOLEON, KING OF WESTPHALIA.

PARIS, llth February 1809.

I AM astonished at your sending me General Morio, a sort
of madman, whom I despise ; you will permit me to refuse
to receive him.

As for the condition of your Treasury and of your Ad-
ministration, I have nothing to do with either of them. I
am aware that both are in a very bad way. This is a con-
sequence of the measures you have taken, and the luxury
in which you live. All your actions bear the stamp of folly.
Why should you confer baronies on men who have done
nothing? Why display a luxury so out of harmony with
the country, and which, were it only for the discredit it casts



n8 NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I

upon your administration, would be a calamity to West-
phalia?

Keep your engagements with me, and recollect that no
man ever took such engagements without fulfilling them.
And further, never question the great interest I take in you.



CLXII

TO THE COMTE DE CHAMPAGNY, MINISTER FOR
FOREIGN AFFAIRS.

PARIS, 2yd February 1809.

LET M. Otto know that I will allow him a sum of 10,000
francs a month, for espionage ; that I desire he will organise
a spy system at Munich, headed by reliable and intelligent
men ; and that, to avoid giving umbrage, he will give the
King full knowledge of it. The duty of these spies will be
to watch all Austrian movements in Styria and Carinthia,
and the roads to Vienna and Prague. It would be well that
this spy service should consist, as far at all events as the
chiefs are concerned, of men who could be attached to
the Military Staff, in case of necessity. You will remit the
10,000 francs a month to M. Otto, according as he spends
the money. He must set up this spy system on a large
scale, so as to be thoroughly informed as to the Austrian
movements. You will place 5000 francs a month at the
disposal of M. Bourgoing, for the same purpose, so as to
have information of what happens at Warsaw, and on the
distant frontiers of Austria and Bohemia. Let MM. Bour-
going and Serra understand, that they must arrange this
spy system so as to have men who will keep them thoroughly
informed of what is done in Bohemia, and Warsaw. Their
reports will be sent in direct to you.

CLXIII

TO THE COMTE DE CHAMPAGNY, MINISTER FOR
FOREIGN AFFAIRS.

PARIS, 2yd February 1809.

BEFORE the Note about obliging the nobility to take
service within the Confederation is presented, I desire a
requisition may be sent to the Houses of Saxe-Coburg,



NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I 119

Lippe, and other minor Princes, to the effect that all relatives
of those reigning houses must leave the Austrian service.
Send me the rough draft of this Note by M. Bacher, to-
morrow.

CLXIV

TO M. BIGOT DE PR&AMENEU, MINISTER OF
PUBLIC WORSHIP.

PARIS, yd March 1809.

LET me know why the Archbishop of Aix has ordered
a Novena because of the illness of Queen Louise, 1 and why
the clergy ask the people's prayers for any person, without
leave from the Government.



CLXV

TO GENERAL CLARKE, COMTE D'HUNEBURG,
MINISTER OF WAR.

PARIS, 6th March 1809.

TWELVE thousand prisoners have arrived from Saragossa.
They are dying at the rate of 300 to 400 a day : thus we
may calculate that not more than 6000 will reach France.
My intention is, that the officers shall be separated, and sent
towards the North. As for the rank and file, you will send
4000 of them to Niort, where they will be employed in
draining the neighbouring marshes. They will be distributed
in the following manner: 1000 men at Niort, 1000 at
Saintes, 1000 at La Rochelle, and 1000 at Rochefort. The
prisoners will be under the orders of General Du four, who
will have them guarded by the Brigade he is now collecting.
The fifth thousand will be sent into Dauphine, where it will
be employed on the drainage works ordered in that country.
And the sixth thousand will be sent to the Cotentin, to work
at draining the marshes. You will order a system of severity
these people are to be made to work, whether they like it
or not. The greater number of them are fanatics, who
deserve no consideration whatever. Begin by giving orders,
in the course of the day, to the Due de Valmy and General
Dufour, and then go on to make arrangements with the
Minister of the Interior.

1 Ex-Queen of Spain, then in Provence.



120 NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I

CLXVI
TO COMTE FOUCH, MINISTER OF POLICE.

RAMBOUII.LET, itfh March 1809.

PALAFOX, his wife and mother, should have reached, or be
just reaching, Bayonne. Palafox will be taken as a criminal
to Vincennes, and kept there in secret confinement, so that
no one may know where he is. His wife and mother will
be sent to the Castle of Ham, as hostages for a number of
Frenchmen, who are in the hands of the insurgents.

You will have the Prince of Castelfranco removed from
Fenestrelle to Naples, where he will be put in the Castle of
Gaeta, and placed at the disposal of the King of Naples.

Arrest the Vicar of Noyon, who has ventured to make
improper allusions to the conscription, in one of his sermons.
You will have him brought to Paris, and examined by one
of the Councillors of State. You will make a report of the
inquiry to me.



CLXVII

TO JEROME NAPOLEON, KING OF WESTPHALIA.

RAMBOUILLET, 15/71 March 1809.

I HAVE your letter of the 7th. I could not read it without
astonishment. Nobody is talking about you in France. I
am not aware of what Madame may have caused to be
written to you. You think your extravagant living displeases
me, and in that you are not mistaken. But, as you mention
your extravagance, and thus give me an opportunity of
telling you what I think of it, I will not conceal from you,
that I consider it impolitic, and ruinous to your dominions.

I do not know that you owe me anything, unless it be
your debt to the Sinking Fund. That I thought you had
paid, for it was lent for a term only. You must be scrupulously
exact, and you would do better to keep your engagements
than to bestow presents. A certain Morio came here. I
did not see him. He did you harm by his indiscreet
conversation. 1

1 Here come several illegible lines. The draft is very badly written.






NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I 121

Do not indulge in foolish expenditure. You tell me you im-
plore [my indulgence]. I can only judge you by your actions.
Pray reform your expenses, so as to make a considerable
economy on your civil list. The King of Prussia, even at
the time of his greatest prosperity, never spent more than
3,000,000. The Household at Vienna, too, is not kept up on
half the scale of yours. Mistaken ideas of grandeur, and a
very thoughtless generosity, have led you to bestow a Barony
on Morio. 1 . . . This being so, I may very well think that
you care little to please me, and that, as you take so little
notice of my advice, I had better not give you any more
of it.

I have begged you to let me have an exact statement of
your troops, so that I may calculate accordingly.

I am sorry to hear you are not well ; go to bed early, and
live by some rule.



CLXVIII
TO COMTE FOUCH, MINISTER OF POLICE.

PARIS, 2yd March 1809.

ALL couriers belonging to Monsieur Metternich and his
Court, whether coming from Austria, or starting from Paris
for Vienna, are to be stopped. They are to be seized half-
way between this and Strasburg. The despatches will be
brought to you, and a report will be drawn up by the agent
you send for the purpose. The report will run as follows :
4 In consequence of the violation of the Law of Nations,
exercised on a French officer, carrying despatches for the
Minister of France which despatches were taken from him
at Braunau, by main force, and in spite of his protests, and
of the fact that the arms of France appeared on the packet
all despatches coming from the Austrian Government,
or its agents, will be seized and held, until the before-
mentioned despatches are restored.' The persons employed
on this duty will work quietly, so that the arrests may be
kept secret as long as possible, and the greatest possible
number of despatches seized.

1 Here an illegible line.



122 NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I

CLXIX

TO COMTE FOUCHE, MINISTER OF POLICE.

PARIS, 2.\th March 1809.

WHY does the Journal des Debats publish proclamations
by Prince Charles, which do not appear in the Moniteurl
That Monsieur Etienne must be a great fool ! On what
does he found the observations he makes, which are utterly
ridiculous, and which may cause displeasure in Russia?

CLXX

TO GENERAL CLARKE, COUNT D'HUNEBURG,
MINISTER OF WAR.

PARIS, 27 th March 1809.

THERE is a Courier cPEspagne, published in French, by a
set of intriguers, which appears at Madrid, and which cannot
fail to do great harm. Write to Marshal Jourdan that there is
to be no French newspaper in Spain, and that this one is to
be suppressed. I do not intend to allow any French news-
paper wherever my troops are, except such as are published
by my order. Besides, do not the French receive Gazettes
from France? and as for the Spaniards, they must be spoken
to in their own language. Your letter on this subject must
be*a positive order.

4 CLXXI

TO COMTE FOUCHfi, MINISTER OF POLICE.

PARIS, 2jth March 1809.

QUEEN MARIE LOUISE 1 is to leave Compiegne on the 4th
of April, and go to Italy. It is my intention that she shall
be allowed to go as far as Lyons, and that when she has
reached that town, she shall take the road to Nice. You had
better have one or two boats ready to take her and her
carriages on board, and convey her by water to Avignon,
whence she will go overland to Nice. She must not make
any stay at Lyons, and the baggage-carts which she has sent
on beforehand, will be despatched from Lyons to Nice by road.
At Lyons the Queen will receive a letter from the Grand

1 Queen of Etruria.






NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I 123

Marshal of my Palace, informing her that I wish her to go to
the South, and that she can inhabit whatever town she prefers
on the Genoese Riviera, between Nice and Savona. She may
settle at Mentone, or San Remo ; she may even spend a few
months at Nice, but she must be dissuaded from the idea of
settling there permanently. You will give orders that she is
to be well treated in all these towns. The Queen must
dismiss all the Tuscans she has with her. It would be well
to attach some retired officer, about forty years of age, with
the rank of Chef de Bataillon, or Captain, to her suite. This
officer would remain in attendance on her, would look after
her business, and draw her income for her.

CLXXII

TO COMTE FOUCHfi, MINISTER OF POLICE.

PARIS, 21th March 1809.

I DESIRE you will write to Mons. d'Arberg, at Valengay,
that he is to send away all the Spaniards attached to the
Princes' suite, and let them go back into Spain, because the
Spanish Government proposes to confiscate their property if
they do not return. They must carry out this order forty-
eight hours after they receive it. Mons. d'Arberg may
except the relations of Canon Escoi'quiz, and some ten of the
Princes' servants ; in fact, he must be left some latitude in
this respect. He will send the Spaniards to Auch, where
they will receive fresh orders from you.

Postscript. Canon Escoi'quiz might be left with the Prince,
and San Carlos might be sent to Liege, or Brussels, under
surveillance ; but before this is done, the Spaniards must have
been got rid of.

CLXXIII

TO COMTE FOUCH, MINISTER OF POLICE.

PARIS, yd April \%OQ.

THERE is a work on Suwaroff, many of the notes to
which are very objectionable. This book is said to have
been written by an Abbe. You must put the seals on that
Abbe's papers, you must have all the notes cancelled, and
you must even stop the publication of the work, which is
anti-national.



124 NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I

CLXXIV
TO JEROME NAPOLEON, KING OF WESTPHALIA.

BURGHAUSEN, 2()tk April 1809.

I HAVE your letter of the 22nd ; Mons. Otto sends me one
dated the 23rd. I approve of your having kept the Berg
regiment. I had sent it orders to come, but you can keep it,
if you need it. You can send for the division which is at
Hamburg, although it consists of Dutch troops. I am giving
Kellermann orders to proceed to Mayence, where he may be
in a position to give you such help as circumstances, and his
means, will permit.

Your Kingdom has no police, no finances, and no organi-
sation. It is not with foolish display that the founda-
tions of monarchies are laid. What is happening to you
now 1 I fully expected. I hope it will teach you a
lesson. Give yourself ways and habits suited to those of the
country you govern. Thus you will win over the inhabitants,
by gaining their esteem, which is always governed by
their opinion of your manner of life, and by simplicity ot
demeanour. However, I feel this is not the moment to
preach to you. Make severe examples.



CLXXV
TO FREDERICK, KING OF WURTEMBERG.

BRAUNAU, isf May 1809.

I HAVE received your Majesty's letter of 28th April. The
Princes of Hohenlohe, of Stadion, etc., must be judged more
by the political, than by the civil code. They are Princes
who have ceased to be Princes, and their rights and preten-
sions give umbrage to the sovereign power. In former times
their property would have been confiscated. The Act of
Confederation has treated them favourably, but it has
imposed certain obligations on them. The first of these is
obedience to their Sovereign.

I think, therefore, that your Majesty, without entering into

1 A revolt in the Westphalian Army.



NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I 125

civil formalities, should dispossess the Hohenlohe, etc., if
they have misconducted themselves ; should sequester their
persons, and confiscate their property while allowing them
an income which shall save them from poverty. No con-
sideration is due to men who have made use of the facilities
their fortune gave them, to stir up disorder. The only way
to deprive them of their influence, is to strip them of their
property. A decree will shortly be communicated to your
Majesty, the object of which is to sequester, for high state
reasons, all Princes and Counts, who have not conformed to
the Act of Confederation. In France, Frenchmen who bear
arms against me are only amenable to the criminal code,
but in my opinion it is more in the nature of things that
all former or unmediatised Princes should be judged accord-
ing to the political law.



CLXXVI

TO THE COMTE DE CHAMPAGNY, MINISTER FOR
FOREIGN AFFAIRS.

SCHONBRUNN, l^th May 1809.

You will receive my Decree ordering the sequestration
and confiscation of all property in the States of the Rhenish
Confederation, belonging to those former Princes and Counts
of the Empire, who have not conformed to the conditions of
Articles 7 and 31 of the Act of Confederation, and especially
of those who have remained in the Austrian service. I
include the families of Stadion, Metternich, Lichtenstein,
Zinzendorf, Fiirstenberg, etc., in this measure, which should,
therefore, bring in considerable sums.

All my Ministers must be commissioned to seek out the
individuals to whom, and properties to which, this measure
is applicable. They must have an understanding with the
Commissaries to be appointed by the Princes of the Con-
federation ; they must look after my interests, and, above
all, they must correspond fully with you upon this subject
Give some one in your office orders to give special attention
to this business.



126 NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I

CLXXVII

TO GENERAL CLARKE, COMTE D'HUNEBURG,
MINISTER OF WAR.

EBERSDORF, iqth May 1809.

I SEE by your letter of the I3th, that there is alarm in
Paris. People had much better sleep quietly in their beds,
go to parties, to the opera, and to the Bois de Boulogne, etc.
General Bliicher has not stirred. Prussia has very little
thought of going to war with me. The Russians are march-
ing against the Austrians. Marshal Davout is at Vienna,
and the Prince of Ponte-Corvo is at Lintz. People have not
much sense in Paris, but at the same time the Government
must not take measures which cause alarm. You need not
mention this comical Prussian war to Fouche, nor to Cam-
baceres, nor need you let things be seen, which a real artist
would hide. You pull the puppet -strings openly, when
you send wretched companies of conscripts by the public
stage. 1

If the Minister of Police thinks it necessary to send troops
to Beaupreau you can get a battalion of 500 men from the
corps under General Dufour's command, drawing them from
Rochefort, La Rochelle, or the Isle of Aix. The Commune
which has allowed a gendarme to be murdered must receive
exemplary punishment.

CLXXVIII

TO PRINCE CAMBACRS, GRAND CHANCELLOR OF
THE EMPIRE.

EBERSDORF, 2otk May 1809.

I LOOK with contempt on the inconsistency of Paris
opinion, with its perpetual terrors, and the results brought
about by idle taU and spite. I am sorry both for the people
of Paris, and for you, who are living there. Those must be
fools indeed who believe in this nonsense, and blindly accept
the belief that Prussia is declaring war against us. It is
true, indeed, that the Minister of War has done all he can to
alarm the public, and has thus given rise to reports which
have neither rhyme nor reason.

1 This had been done on the receipt of news of an invasion of Westphalia,
by Schill's men.



NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I 127

CLXXIX

TO COMTE FOUCHE, MINISTER OF POLICE.

EBERSDORF, 20>th May 1809.

YOUR police reports are nothing but reports about
England, and foreign affairs ; they have no reference to
what happens within the borders of France. The Minister
of War has informed me of an event which has taken place
in the Department of the Loire-Inferieure the murder of a
gendarme at Chaudron, by a band of ruffians, who, after
having dragged the soldier about for six hours, put nine
bullets through him. I send you the Minister's report. If
the fact is a true one, get out a warrant against the Mayor,
and the ten chief inhabitants, and have them brought to
Paris. Make arrangements with the Minister of War to
have a battalion sent to Beaupreau, if that is thought
necessary ; it can be drawn from the troops at Rochefort.

I request you will leave politics alone, and give me
frequent intelligence of everything touching the internal
affairs of the Departments. I should have heard the in-
cident I have just quoted from yourself, before I learnt it
from any other Minister. It is to such facts as these that
I attach importance, and not to blundering nonsense con-
cerning Russia and Prussia, with regard to which you can
know nothing at all.

CLXXX

TO COMTE FOUCHE, MINISTER OF POLICE.

SCHONBRUNN, itfkjune 1809.

I HAVE received a mischievous rigmarole from that
scoundrel Palafox. I am vexed that you should have ac-
cepted it, had it translated, and thus made known the fact of
his being at Vincennes, which should have been concealed.
The villain is stained with the blood of over 4000 French-
men, whom he was barbarous enough to have murdered at
Saragossa. Let him stay at Vincennes, forgotten, without
pens or paper, or any means of attracting the sympathy
of the bitter enemies of France.

You have not carried out my intentions ; you ought to
have ignored the fact of his being at Vincennes. I repeat



128 NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I

my intention that he shall live there, cut off from the world,
without any means of writing or making himself known.
It was on this condition only, that I consented to pass over
his crimes, and not to summon him before a military court.

You should not have allowed Mdlle von Stein to come
to Paris. Write to Westphalia, that no one is to be sent
to France without your authority. This is rather giddy
behaviour of hers ! In any case, she must be shut up in
some establishment for ladies, in Paris, and you must find
out what the charges against her are.

CLXXXI

TO JOACHIM NAPOLEON, KING OF NAPLES.

SCHONBRUNN, loth June 1809.

I HAVE this instant received news that the Pope has
excommunicated us all. This is an excommunication which
will fall upon his own head. No more consideration must
be shown. He is a dangerous madman, and must be shut
up. Have Cardinal Pacca, and the Pope's other adherents,
arrested.

CLXXXII
TO COMTE FOUCH, MINISTER OF POLICE.

SCHONBRUNN, zotkjune 1809.

THE Grand Duchess did wrong to prevent the execu-
tion of the measures I ordered. I do not wish Madame
d'Albany to live in Florence ; I intend her to remain at



Online LibraryEmperor of the French Napoleon INew letters of Napoleon I, omitted from the edition published under the auspices of Napoleon III → online text (page 11 of 34)