Emperor of the French Napoleon I.

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You will have it delivered to him during the day. My



190 NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I

intention is that he sliall retire to his Senatorship. If,
however, he should have planned a journey through the
kingdoms of Naples and Italy, I should not oppose it, but
in that case he would have to furnish you with his itinerary.
You will let him know that if he does not travel, I wish
him to retire to Nice. I need not tell you, that as he retires
as an exile, into his Senatorship, he is not to exercise any
influence, or to receive any honours within it. You will
take care that my order is executed, and that he starts
before the twenty-four hours have run out.

CCLXIX

TO M. SAVARY, DUG DE ROVIGO, MINISTER OF POLICE.

ST. CLOUD, t>rdjuly 1810.

IF what your report of ist July states, concerning the
Antwerp Beguines, is true, you must have three or four of
the chief ones arrested, and put in the gaol at Vilvorde, and
at the same time, several of the Vicars, or Priests, who direct
them, must be arrested, and shut up at Fenestrelle.

CCLXX

TO GENERAL CLARKE, DUG DE FELTRE,
MINISTER OF WAR.

ST. CLOUD, yd July 1810.

GIVE orders to the Due of Reggio, that as soon as he
has entered Amsterdam, he is to have all the cannon,
mounted on the lines of that town, which might be used
against me in future, quietly sent away to France. All guns
placed there with the intention of using them in revolt, shall
be sent to France.

CCLXXI

TO COMTE BIGOT DE PR&AMENEU, MINISTER OF
PUBLIC WORSHIP.



RAMBOUILI.ET, lyhjuly 1810.

I HAVE carefully read your report of loth June, and the
documents attached to it. It would be far too much to



NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I 191

establish institutions for 6000 orphan girls in France.
What should we do with this great number, when they reach
the age of twenty-one ?

It therefore appears to me more convenient, merely to
open six houses, within the ancient boundaries of France, of
which that at Paris would be the principal, each to contain
600 orphans. These orphans would, in the first instance, be
children whose fathers had died on the field of battle, or
belonged to the Legion of Honour. Taking 600 to be the
total number, I would pay 400 francs each for 300, and 200
francs for the other 300. Thus they would cost me 180,000
francs. I would charge this sum on the landed property of
the Legion of Honour, which would pay the pensions. The
six houses would be arranged in such a manner, that each
should be able to receive an equal number of paying inmates,
so that the education of L2OO orphan girls would thus be
provided for. I have consequently modified the plan you
laid before me. I have placed these houses under the pro-
tection of the Princess who is at the head of the establish-
ments of Ecouen and St. Denis, as all the institutions will be
connected with each other.

I desire to establish other institutions, under the Ursuline
rule, though not bearing that name, the number of which,
including Holland, may reach fifty or sixty, and which should
be able to receive about 5000 pupils. Two thousand five
hundred of these scholars will have 300 francs a year, or half
scholarships, and their parents will pay another 300 francs.
This would cost 750,000 francs. For the other 2500 pupils
I would give 5 francs, which would bring my total ex-
penditure up to 2,000,000. I should provide for this, partly
through the Legion of Honour, and partly by endowment
Five thousand extra paying pupils may be received, and
this would give us 10,000 girls, distributed between forty
or sixty institutions. In the course of this week, you will
submit the draft regulations for the formation of these
institutions.

The six houses for the education of these orphans
will form an institution specially attached to the Legion of
Honour, whose orphans will be placed there.



192 NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I

CCLXXII

TO THE COMTE DE MONTALIVET, MINISTER OF
THE INTERIOR.

RAMBOUILLET, \6thfuly 1810.

I HAVE decided on the system of our trade with the
Americans, and I conclude you will lay the thirty permits
for the cotton trade before me, at the Council. If there
should be any difficulty as to the necessary association with
factories, you can dispense with that. You may content
yourself with the promise, which may or may not be worth
anything. But I see no objection to your proceeding
further. When these thirty permits are exhausted, you will
issue thirty more, so as to have some sixty or eighty persons
licensed for the American trade. By this means, my factories
will be fully supplied with cotton.

The corn trade in France is forbidden, as a measure of
public safety. As soon as I am satisfied about the harvest,
I shall re-open my ports, and exportation will be allowed
along the whole frontier. I conclude that at the present
time, in those places where the export of corn is permitted,
no ship is allowed to sail without a licence, and that, as my
Decree provides, no ship is allowed to sail as an adventurer.
If I should be mistaken, you must revise the law, so as
positively to forbid this, and prevent any ship from sailing
for the merchant trade, without being licensed.

I suppose you will submit the licences for Bordeaux, La
Rochelle, and those ports from which exportation is allowed,
for my signature, to-morrow, so that trade may not be
checked ; and I suppose you will also submit the licences
for the Mediterranean ports, so that trade with the Levant
and Africa may be carried on.

Having thus provided for the most pressing needs of the
export trade of the Empire, we must attend to that of the
Allied Countries. Submit the draft of a Decree which will
set forth the arguments on both sides, and will grant licences
for Hamburg and Bremen. According to these licences, the
ships actually belonging to that country, and no others, will
be sent away laden with corn : you will let me know whether
these ports contain much wheat. They will be sent to the
port of Dunkirk, with Customs permits. These ships,



NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I 193

properly numbered and registered, like those in the
American trade, and each bearing on its licence a sentence
in cipher (which the Consul will also mention in a letter to
Paris) can go to England, anchor there, and unload their
corn. But (i) the return cargo must be timber, or matters
needful for my fleet, which must be landed at Dunkirk.
(2) At Dunkirk a fresh cargo must be shipped, of wine, silk
stuffs, and other French goods, which must be discharged at
Hamburg ; (3) the licence must be paid for at so much per
ton, and I desire the charge shall be a heavy one, quite equal
to the double duty imposed in France on exported wheat,
so that I may draw considerable benefit from it. This
course will bring me three advantages: (i) Heavy navi-
gating dues ; (2) the exportation of French goods ; (3)
timber, tar, and other supplies which my navy may require.
I shall follow the same course for Dantzig. This will rejoice
the heart of Poland, which country is overflowing.

Hamburg and Bremen are the outlets of the Elbe and
Weser, as Dantzig is that of the Vistula. I shall thus be
able to lay a heavy duty on these ports, supply my Navy
with Northern timber, and gain very advantageous results.

From the date of the issue of my edict, no vessel will sail
from Hamburg, Bremen, or Liibeck without a licence.

This Decree, of which you will bring me the rough draft,
will be to the effect :

(1) That the ships may put in at Dunkirk or Nantes.

(2) That part of their cargo must be in timber.

(3) That they are to carry a certain proportion of wines
and goods, produced and manufactured in France, out of
this country.

(4) That there are to be French Custom-house officials at
Hamburg, Bremen, and Lubeck, who will send out the ships,
with licences and permits, number them, notify their sailings
to the Director-General of Customs, and take the further
precautions usual in the American trade.

As to Italy, I will grant licences for exporting corn from
Venice and Ancona. This corn may go out of its way, and
be taken to Malta, and even to England. Apart from the
corn trade, I will allow the exportation of cheese, and other
products, grown in Italy. My Consuls will take the same
precautions for these ships as for the others. Those which
go to England must call and discharge cargo at Nantes,



194 NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I

on their way back. Those going to Malta must return by
Genoa, Toulon, or Marseilles. Permission will be given for
the exportation (either direct, or by Venice and Ancona) of
cloth, silk fabrics, and other raw and manufactured goods,
both French and Italian. And I shall also authorise the
issue of licences for the export of oil and cottons, on board
Neapolitan boats. The origin of the cotton goods would
have to be certified, and the vessels would have to load with
French merchandise, in my ports.

You will perceive that this huge system will help to feed
my ports, will make this trade an exceptional one, and will
bring me in a considerable revenue. The plan is therefore
advantageous, from every point of view. It replies to the
English Naval tax by a Continental one, it pays back
injustice with injustice, and answers one arbitrary act with
another. Thus it is no piece of folly which I here under-
take.

CCLXXIII

TO PRINCE LEBRUN, GRAND TREASURER OF THE EMPIRE,
THE EMPEROR'S LIEUTENANT-GENERAL IN HOLLAND.

ST. CLOUD, \1thjnly 1810, midnight.

I HAVE your letter of the Hth, and was glad to hear of
your arrival, and the good reception given you at Amsterdam.

It is my intention to keep the Palace at Amsterdam in its
present state, and not to have any furniture sold or removed.
I am giving orders to Comte Daru to proceed thither ;
there will be no difficulty about your being lodged in it. It
would not do to strip it of furniture. I keep it for myself,
and expect to go there in six weeks or two months.

Let the Palace servants know I keep them on, at their old
wages.

Both men and horses belong to me.

Comte Daru will make all arrangements as soon as he
arrives. You will settle with him that the horses you need
shall be placed at your disposal, without your having to buy
any.

Send the King's two young private secretaries to me, in
Paris, with all the King's private papers, found in his study
or elsewhere, duly sealed up. When I have them at St.



NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I 195

Cloud, I will settle what is to be done with them. You will
also send everything that belonged to the King, before he
ascended the throne, to Paris.

Write Dr. Latour that I not only give him permission to
join the King, but that I even desire him to do so ; that
the Prince is still dear to me ; that I shall be glad to think
he will remain with him, and take care of him ; and that I
shall look upon all service he may bestow on him, as a
personal service to myself.

I think the title of Moniteur is not suitable for the Gazette
d* Amsterdam, because such a title presupposes the paper to
be an official one. Call it the Courrier d Amsterdam.

It is not the present Finance Minister whom I have sent
for to Paris, it is the old one. The new Minister must be
left in his stead, to see to the collecting of the revenue.
However, give no counter orders.

When I asked you to appoint a Police Commissary, I did
not intend to appoint either Gohier or Noel, but a Dutch-
man. Look about for a man who is attached to France ;
there are many who have long been so.

I have settled that a deputation from the Legislative Body
is to proceed to Paris, and I have since ordered you to
add a deputation from the Council of State. This Com-
mission will make arrangements here, about matters relating
to the various debts that on the hospitals, the communes,
the mortmain ; meanwhile everything must be reduced by
two-thirds. This is not an absolute settlement, but it is
better than nothing. As regards the money borrowed by
the King, that can only be settled in Paris, with the Council.
The whole question is reduced to this, that only one-third
of everything is to be paid. When I have full information,
I will settle about the rest.



CCLXXIV

TO GENERAL SAVARY, DUG DE ROVIGO,
MINISTER OF POLICE.

ST. CLOUD, zothfttly 1810.

I SEND you back your statement, with notes in my own
hand ; I am heartily sorry I set several people at liberty on



196 NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I

the occasion of my marriage. I was not then aware of
all Mons. Fouche's intrigues. The person who proposed I
should set some of these people free, must have desired to
betray me.

I see, on the list of persons removed to a distance from
Paris, several whose position the police have ventured to
mitigate. You will recall these orders. The police has no
right to make any alteration in arrangements I have made.



CCLXXV

TO GENERAL SAVARY, DUG DE ROVIGO,
MINISTER OF POLICE.

TRIANON, tfh August 1810.

HEREWITH you will find a letter from General Morand,
and another from the Russian Charge" d'Affaires at Cagliari.

You will write to General Miollis, to express my dis-
pleasure at his allowing vessels to sail from Civita Vecchia
without my leave. You will give him orders that no more
are to be allowed to leave the Roman ports in future, and
that the ship which has gone to Sardinia, is to be seized
when she returns.

You will inform General Miollis that he is to watch the
Senator Lucien, who appears to be keeping up correspond-
ence with enemies of the State ; that he is to let him go on,
and that if he should actually take steps to embark, and give
himself up to the English, he is to be arrested ; that I
confide this secret to his fidelity and zeal. He will watch
the Senator Lucien as long as he remains in the neighbour-
hood of Rome, but he will have him arrested the moment he
sets foot on board ship.

You will make arrangements with the naval authorities
for seizing the vessel which has gone to Cagliari, when she
returns, taking possession of the ship's papers, and having
the seals affixed, arresting the captain and crew, and having
them sent to Paris. Write straight to the Police Commissary
at Civita Vecchia.






NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I 197

CCLXXVI

TO GENERAL CLARKE, DUG DE FELTRE,
MINISTER OF WAR.

TRIANON, %th August 1810.

I HAVE your letter regarding Madame d'Orleans. Her
letter astonishes me ; I thought she was at Palermo. She
did go there for her son's marriage ; I think I hold proof of
that. I cannot understand why she is at Barcelona. Let
me have some light on the subject.

CCLXXVlf

TO M. DE CHAMPAGNY, DUG DE CADORE,
MINISTER FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS.

TRIANON, i8M August 1810.

WRITE to General Rapp, and inform him of my dis-
pleasure, first of all, because he had no business to give an
official dinner ; secondly, because he ought to have given
the Russian Consul precedence over the Consul of Prussia,
and every other ; and lastly, because it would have been
far simpler to have invited no one but his own officers to
dinner.

Tell him I am specially displeased with his letter, because
it fails in courtesy to a great Power, which is allied with
France. I desire you will let Caulaincourt know of my
displeasure, when you write to him. You will also go and
see Mons. de Kourakin, and make him aware of it. Tell him
I was on the point of recalling General Rapp ; that, however
wrong any Russian Consul had been, no letter should ever
have been written in such a tone, and that the act was that
of a madman.

CCLXXVIII

TO PRINCE LEBRUN, GRAND TREASURER OF THE EMPIRE,

THE EMPEROR'S LIEUTENANT-GENERAL IN HOLLAND.

TRIANON, nth August 1810.

I HAVE your letter of 8th August. As the King's papers,
and his secretaries, are in Paris, he cannot have them.



198 NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I

The private secretaries have taken the oath of allegiance. I
have given orders to Mons. Daru to send his wardrobe to
Paris. I do not intend you to correspond with him. Nor
do I intend him to hold any correspondence with Holland.

Mons. Bylandt will remain in Holland. I do not intend
him to leave it. The Comptroller of the Crown Property
is to cease to act, altogether. No agent is to correspond
with any one but me.

I have your letter about the Castle of Loo. I am in no
hurry to give it away. I shall keep the Castle for the
present. I have no inclination to give away either the house
of the French Minister, or the King's Palaces. A fit of
generosity was on you when you wrote me that letter.

I do not know why vessels belonging to the United
States sail from Dutch ports, without my leave ; they go to
England. As for the ship for Batavia, let it start as soon as
possible.

Have the Titles Office established by the King suppressed
by Decree, and declare it broken up. Send all the documents
to Mons. Pasquier in Paris ; all those who require them
must apply to him. You will announce that all endowments
are revoked. The King had no right to give away what did
not belong to him, whether Crown lands, or State property.



CCLXXIX

TO GENERAL SAVARY, DUG DE ROVIGO,
MINISTER OF POLICE.

ST. CLOUD, 2ist August 1810.

I THINK no notice should be taken of the Duke of Otranto.
I believe he is returning to his Senatorship. You must write
to him to do so.

CCLXXX

TO COMTE BIGOT DE PREAMENEU, MINISTER OF
PUBLIC WORSHIP.

ST. CLOUD, 22nd August 1810.

I SEE you have 500 contumacious priests at Parma. That
must be rather too large a number for Parma. You might



NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I 199

leave 200 of them at Parma, and send 200 to Bologna.
Speak about this to Aldini. The priests will be very com-
fortable at Bologna.



CCLXXXI

TO M. DE CHAMPAGNY, DUG DE CADORE,
MINISTER FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS.

ST. CLOUD, 2oM August 1810.

RFPLY to Mons. Bourgoing, that I am very glad he has
not been in Bohemia, and that he has not had any meeting
with the King [of Holland] ; that I disapprove of what he
has written and said, and that I desire he will take no
further part in this business. If the Comte de Saint Leu
consults him, he will give him no reply whatever. He will
let him do as he chooses, and not interfere in any way.



CCLXXXII

TO GENERAL SAVARY, DUG DE ROVIGO,
MINISTER OF POLICE.

ST. CI.OUD, list August 1810.

SEND me a report about General Rousseau, an officer in
the Austrian service, who is at Brussels. Who authorised
his coming there ? Who gave him passports ? He must be
denounced to the Chief Judge, and a report must be sent to
me. Before you make me that report, you will remove the
fellow from Belgium, and have him sent to Valenciennes,
until I have decided what is to be done with him.

The Chief Judge will revise the sentence, and submit it to
the Court of Appeal. In a general way, let no passports for
Belgium be given to Belgians qualified by the Treaty of
Campo Formio, unless they take advantage of the amnesty.
Write about this to Comte Otto, at Vienna. I will not have
these Belgians, nor those in the Austrian service, who
come on six months' furlough. There is an amnesty ; they
can take advantage of it if they choose. If any come, send
them forty leagues away from Belgium, and make me an
individual report as to what should be done with them.



200 NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I

CCLXXXIII

TO M. DE CHAMPAGNY, DUG DE CADORE,
MINISTER FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS.

ST. CLOUD, $th September 1810.

I HAVE just read your report, which I enclose, and I
think, notwithstanding, that ever since the I5th August,
Mons. Billiot has conducted himself very ill. Generally
speaking, I cannot approve of this Consul's tone. It has
been the custom, from time immemorial, that whenever a
General Officer of the Consul's nation, invested with the
command, was present where the Consul was stationed, the
Consul should show him all proper respect and consideration,
help him with all his knowledge and information, and never
raise any barrier, nor set up any authority, against him.



CCLXXXIV

TO MARSHAL BERNADOTTE, PRINCE DE PONTE-CORVO,
PRINCE ROYAL ELECT OF SWEDEN.

ST. CLOUD, loth September 1810.

{This letter was published in the Correspondence, No. 16,890. Instead
of the last phrase, the original draft bore the following paragraph,
which the Emperor afterwards struck out^\

These letters patent give you authority to become a
Swede ; one clause only has been added, to the effect that
you, personally, cannot bear arms against France. This
restriction is in conformity with the Constitution of the
Empire ; it agrees with your own inclination, and is not,
indeed, opposed to the duty of the throne you are about to
ascend, which can never, except in utter madness, be at war
with France.

CCLXXXV

TO THE PRINCE DE NEUFCHATEL, MAJOR-GENERAL OF
THE ARMY IN SPAIN.

ST. CLOUD, i&h September 1810.

STRONG complaints of General Kellermann reach me
from all quarters. Send an officer to make him aware of



NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I 201

my displeasure at the vexatious acts committed in his
Government, and ask him for a categorical statement of all
the contributions he has levied. Everything, even to the
liberation of prisoners, is sold in that Government, and this
occurs in other places, even at Valladolid. You will inform
him that I hold him responsible for abuses so hurtful to the
wellbeing and interests of the army. You will let him
know that I have asked for a report on the subject, that the
officer you send has orders to bring back his reply, and that
1 expect he will report to you, that he has caused the persons
guilty of such crimes to be arrested, and tried by court-
martial. You will tell him that if he does not punish
these horrible abuses I shall believe he protects them (as
public rumour asserts), and that there are more robberies
committed in his Government, than in -any other in Spain.



CCLXXXVI

TO THE PRINCE DE NEUFCHATEL, MAJOR-GENERAL OF
THE ARMY IN SPAIN.

ST. CLOUD, i6tk September 1810.

LET General Drouet know that serious complaints are
brought against General Barthelemy at Santander ; that
I intend he shall be dismissed, and replaced by another
General, and that an inquiry shall be held as to the em-
bezzlement committed. The same thing is to be done with
regard to General Avril. Write him, also, that great com-
plaints are made of General d'Agoult's nephew ; that it is
urgently necessary that severe examples should be made ;
that corruption is carried to such lengths, that the freedom
of prisoners is sold ; and that I desire he will be most
energetic in his inquiries. Embezzlement is also going on
in the province of Biscay. Desire him to seize the stores of
Colonial merchandise, cotton goods, coffee, sugar, etc., on
the French frontier of Biscay, and Navarre. All these goods
are intended to be smuggled into France.



202 NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I

CCLXXXVII
TO PRINCE LEBRUN, GRAND TREASURER OF THE EMPIRE,

THE EMPEROR'S LIEUTENANT-GENERAL IN SPAIN.

ST. CLOUD, igth September 1810.

I HAVE your letters of the i6th, and that of the Director
of Customs at Amsterdam. You might have sent my Decree
into East Friesland without delaying six days. A courier
would have conveyed it there in twenty-four hours. My
Decree was founded on your letters, and on the claims of the
Dutch. It seemed to me absurd that, after I had given them
such immense advantages, they should request me to put off
the dates of payment that is to say, that I should let them
wait till their correspondents in England sent them funds ;
for the goods they have in Holland are not their own, they
only have them on commission, and on current account. Since
receiving information on the subject from London, I am
half sorry I did not confiscate them all.

The Minister of Finance is giving orders to facilitate the
payments. By payment, we mean an undertaking to pay
then no blame can be attached, if the sums cannot be levied.

I am sorry the Dutch mind should be full of terror. Make
them aware that I am not King Louis, and that I know how
to insure obedience to my orders. There must be no
listening to improper claims.

I do not know how a man of your experience can believe
these people are terrified, because they cannot pay. Terror
is only for those who have no means of paying. Well then,
let such persons make a declaration that the goods do not
belong to them.

CCLXXXVIII

TO PRINCE LEBRUN, GRAND TREASURER OF THE EMPIRE,

THE EMPEROR'S LIEUTENANT-GENERAL IN HOLLAND. 1

PARIS, z$th September 1810.

You speak of the complaints of the inhabitants of
Amsterdam ; of their alarm and discontent. Do these

1 This letter was printed in the Correspondence, No. 16,497, but Napoleon
cut out all the end. We now give it as it was originally drafted.



NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I 203



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