Emperor of the French Napoleon I.

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the 18,000 men were to be paid if they were present; that
if that had been so, I ought to have insisted on their being
paid from the very day on which they should have entered
Westphalia ; that no person in the Westphalian army has
the command of my troops ; and that I have censured the
Generals who allowed my troops to be inspected, without my
orders. You will write to the Prince of Eckmiihl to inform
him of my intentions.



CCCVIII

TO GENERAL SAVARY, DUG DE ROVIGO,
MINISTER OF POLICE.

FONTAINEBLEAU, \^th November 1810.

I SEE the Journal de V Empire denominates the new Arch-
bishop of Paris, ' Administrator of the Diocese.' Let the
editor know that he should not have ventured to use such a
title, with reference to Cardinal Maury. The Cardinal is
Archbishop of Paris, and must always be described as such*



216 NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I

I will not permit him to be called by any other name, and I
conclude the Cardinal himself neither accepts, nor assumes,
any other title. The newspapers should be the very first to
recognise what is recognised by the Government. Every-
thing continues to show that this Journal de I* Empire is
badly managed.

CCCIX

TO GENERAL SAVARY, DUG DE ROVIGO,
MINISTER OF POLICE.

PARIS, 2isf November 1810.

THE Pope continues to keep up a very mischievous corre-
spondence. The most explicit orders must be given to
reduce it. No letter must reach him except through the
Prefect.

CCCX

TO THE COMTE DE LAVALLETTE, DIRECTOR-GENERAL OF
THE POSTAL SERVICE.

PARIS, 2%th November 1810.

GIVE orders that all letters written by the Pope, or by the
members of his household, and all those sent to the Pope, or
to his household, are to be forwarded to Paris.



CCCXI

TO GENERAL SAVARY, DUG DE ROVIGO,
MINISTER OF POLICE.

PARIS, 2%th November 1810.

MEASURES must be taken to prevent any letter from
reaching the Pope, and to get possession of all those he
writes. For this purpose, you must be very sure of the post-
master at Savona. If you are not quite sure of him, it might
be well to change him. I am ordering the Bishop of Savona
to proceed to Paris. If there are any intriguing people about
the Pope, they should be removed, and even searched, if
there is any reason to suspect they have letters about them.



NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I 217

CCCXII

TO PRINCE BORGHESE, GOVERNOR-GENERAL OF THE
TRANSALPINE DEPARTMENTS.

PARIS, %ist December 1810.

I HAVE received the report you sent me. The Minister of
Police will send you the Decree I have issued. I send you a
copy in case of delay. Give the Chief of the Police instant
orders to take measures for the arrest of the Vicar-General
and Canons [of Asti] named in the Decree, to have them
taken to Fenestrelle, and have the seals affixed to their
papers. You will call the Chapter together, to receive the
notification of my Decree, and of the suppression of the five
prebends. You must take care that nothing is put upon
Bishop Dejean, so as to save him from all odium.

The Chapter will be informed that my first impulse was
to suppress it altogether, and to merge its property in
the Crown, but that I came to the conclusion I ought
not to charge the Chapter with the punishment earned by a
few ill-disposed persons ; yet, that if it does not behave
itself better in future, I shall be driven to that extreme
measure.

Take care that the agent sent to arrest the Canons arrives
at eight o'clock in the evening, and that they are seized, and
sent away to Fenestrelle, under good escort, before the town
knows anything about it. The notification of my Decree,
and the summoning of the Chapter, will not take place till
twenty-four hours later.

CCCXIII

TO GENERAL SAVARY, DUG DE ROVIGO,
MINISTER OF POLICE.

PARIS, 31^ December 1810.

SEND orders by to-night's express, to the Chief of Police,
at Turin, that he is to take the necessary steps for having
Dani, the Vicar-General, and the three Canons, Curione,
Cavalleri, and Barberi, arrested, and taken with post-horses
to Fenestrelle, before any one at Asti can be aware of it
You will have their papers sealed up. Give orders that not



218 NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I

only the persons mentioned in my Decree, but any others
who may misconduct themselves, or are known as being
amongst the worst disposed, are to be arrested. You will
order them to be examined, and kept in solitary confinement
at Fenestrelle. The Chief of the Police will lay informations
against these persons, as being guilty of intrigues against the
safety of the State. You will send me a report of the
examinations, and a further report on the proceedings ;
meanwhile, give stringent orders to prevent their communi-
cating with any one. You will write to the Register Office
to seize the property of the suppressed canonries.



CCCXIV

TO COMTE BIGOT DE PR&AMENEU, MINISTER OF
PUBLIC WORSHIP.

PARIS, \stjanuary i8il.

You will give orders to General Miollis, that if, at any
future time, he should have to arrest any priests, he is to
send them to Civita Vecchia, where they are to be put
on board a brig. When a score of them have been thus
collected, they will be sent to Corsica, where they will be
kept together. Let me know how many there now are at
Piacenza, and at Pinerolo, and whether the youngest and
worst disposed could not be got rid of, by sending them to
Corsica.

CCCXV

TO PRINCE BORGHESE, GOVERNOR-GENERAL OF THE
TRANSALPINE DEPARTMENTS.

PARIS, 1st January 1811.

As the Pope has been misbehaving himself at Savona, I
desire you will give orders that the carriages I had placed
at his disposal should be sent back to Turin, and that his
household expenses should not be allowed to exceed 12,000
to 15,000 francs a year. Make sure that no letters are
received at Savona, nor sent from there ; that the Pope has
no secret correspondence, and no intercourse with any one
but the Prefect.



NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I 219

Send me a list of the people about the Pope. If some of
them, especially those who do most writing for him, can be
removed, the result will be very beneficial. Everything he
does is full of poison. It is therefore desirable to limit him
to his own pen, and to get rid of this pack of fellows who
write for him.

Generally speaking, I beg you will give the Governor
strict commands to keep the most stringent order, to see
that none of the servants carry out letters, and to have them
closely watched. The Chief of the Police should have some
agent in the Pope's household, who would find out through
what secret channel the letters pass, and would supply in-
formation as to what goes on in "the house.

You will have seen what I have done about Asti. Have
the Pope told, that he does very wrong to preach disturbance,
and stir up disorder, in Christendom, and that if he thinks I
am likely to be frightened by such wild folly on his part, he
is mistaken.

CCCXVI

TO ELISA NAPOLEON, GRAND DUCHESS OF TUSCANY.

PARIS, 1st January 1811.

I AM displeased at your allowing the Florence Chapter,
and other priests, to receive letters from the Pope, and at
their not bringing them to you, with the seals unbroken,
when they do receive them. You must have any of the
Canons who have received such letters, arrested, and sent to
fortresses, because they had no right to receive them without
showing them to the Council of State.

Take the strongest and most active measures to prevent
the flame of sedition, which the Pope is kindling everywhere,
from reaching Tuscany.



CCCXVII

TO GENERAL SAVARY, DUC DE ROVIGO,
MINISTER OF POLICE.

PARIS, zndjamiary 1811.

THE Florence Chapter has sent two ecclesiastics, one of
whom is Signer Mancini, nephew of the Bishop of Fiesole,



220 NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I

to meet the Archbishop of Florence, and notify him that the
Chapter cannot recognise him. Send orders, by this evening's
express, that these two ecclesiastics are to be arrested, that
the seals are to be put on their papers, and that they are to
be taken to Fenestrelle, whether they are at Piacenza, have
turned back towards Bologna, or are at Florence.

Issue warrants of arrest against Canons Mozzi, Gentile,
and Berto. Have their papers sealed up, and send them
to Fenestrelle. Have a Florence lawyer, of the name of
Valentini, arrested, and put the seals on his papers. Have
Corboli, a vicar, arrested also. Send all these warrants to the
Grand Duchess, because she may have taken steps, and there
must be no confusion. All this must be done in a determined
way. Those persons who have caused the Pope's so-called
brief to be read out, without laying it before the Government,
must be arrested, and lastly, give the Grand Duchess, the
Prefect of the Arno, and Archbishop Osmond, my orders,
that this last is to be recognised as Archbishop, and that, if
the Chapter should be recalcitrant, the Grand Duchess must
suppress it, and have the seals affixed to all its property.
Write to the Grand Duchess, that the principal culprits are
those persons who have laid a letter they had no business
to receive, before the Chapter.



CCCXVIII

TO PRINCE BORGHESE, GOVERNOR-GENERAL OF THE
TRANSALPINE DEPARTMENTS.

PARIS, 2nd January i8il.

You have set no watch upon the Pope, and the consequence
is, that he corresponds with any one he chooses. I gave you
orders yesterday, and I repeat them to-day, to deprive the
Pope of all means of correspondence, and even, should that
become necessary, to shut him up in the Citadel of Savona.
Have such of his servants as are known to have passed out
his letters, or helped him in his work of preaching disorder
and insubordination, forthwith arrested.



NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I 221

CCCXIX

TO PRINCE BORGHESE, GOVERNOR-GENERAL OF THE
TRANSALPINE DEPARTMENTS.

PARIS, 2nd January iSil.

THE Pope is stirring up disorder everywhere. I have
written you orders to withdraw all external signs of
respect, to send the carriages with which he was provided
back to Turin, and to reduce his household expenses so that
they may not amount to more than 12,000 or 15,000 francs
a year. I have given orders that the Bishop of Savona is to
be summoned to Paris ; that his papers are to be sealed up,
and put into safe hands, so as to find out what intrigue is
being carried on through that channel. I have written you
that all suspected persons, and those who helped the Pope
to write so much, must be removed from his neighbourhood,
for he is sending whole sheets of diatribes in all directions ;
that it is even necessary to have the servants you suspect
replaced by foreigners, and not to allow any outside com-
munication, and that if he writes letters, they must be sent to
the Minister of Public Worship ; that the Prefect is the only
person who must be allowed to see him.

I have made you aware of my intention as regards Asti.
I conclude that the papers containing the key to this
intrigue have been seized. I have been obliged to dismiss a
Vicar-General, in whose possession letters from the Pope
were found. The Pope must be told by the Prefect, that as
he abuses his liberty by sowing discord in every direction, he
can only be looked on as the enemy of the Empire, and
the State.

cccxx

TO GENERAL SAVARY, DUG DE ROVIGO,
MINISTER OF POLICE.

PARIS, yd January 1811.

As the Pope has probably written to the Chapter of Aix,
in Provence, you will send a special courier to the Sub-
Prefect, or to the Police Commissary at Marseilles, or, if you
have no confidence in these persons, to the Prefect, with
orders to send suddenly for the Vicars-General, and ask them



222 NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I

for the letters from Savona, and the correspondence arising
out of them. No attention is to be paid to their excuses,
and they are not to be set at liberty, until that letter is given
up, for they most certainly have received it.



CCCXXI

TO THE PRINCE DE NEUFCHATEL, MAJOR-GENERAL OF
THE ARMY IN SPAIN.

PARIS, ^thjamiary 1811.

YOU will see news from Portugal in to-morrow's Moniteur.
The English make great game of General Gardanne. That
simpleton was not more than three leagues from the French
troops on the Zezere.

You will find the whole despatch. Send it to General
Drouet, and give him orders to send the General, who seems
an arch idiot, back to France. Send to-morrow's Moniteur
all down the road, and send some to Madrid, as well.



CCCXXII

TO PRINCE BORGHESE, GOVERNOR-GENERAL OF THE
TRANSALPINE DEPARTMENTS.

PARIS, 6th January i8ll.

THE Pope has taken advantage of the liberty I have allowed
him at Savona, to sow rebellion and disorder amongst my
subjects. I had been satisfied [until the great question of
the Canonical Institution had been settled 1 ] to allow the
Bishops whom I had appointed, to govern in the name of the
Chapter, and as Vicars Capitular, according to the maxims
of the Church, and to the example of Louis XIV. and other
European Sovereigns.

Nevertheless the Pope [inspired by the disorderly spirit so
characteristic of him] has contrived, by means of sly and
seditious intrigue, to communicate briefs, contrary to the
laws of the Empire, to the Chapters of Paris, Florence,
and Asti [and contrary indeed to the laws of the rest of

1 The passages in brackets were struck out by the Emperor, in the original
draft.



NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I 223

Europe, the Sovereigns of which continent, feeling the
necessity of defending themselves against the peevish action
of the Popes, had forbidden any communication with the
Chapters without their own permission. The Pope is all
the more wrong in this matter, because, even according to the
Ultramontanes, he has no right to alter the decisions of a
Chapter while the diocese is vacant, and this is yet far more
opposed to the liberties of the Gallican Church.]

As I desire to protect my subjects from the rage and fury
of this ignorant and peevish old man, I hereby order you to
notify him, that he is forbidden to communicate with any
Church of mine, or any of my subjects, on pain of the punish-
ment consequent on his disobedience, and theirs.

You will remove all suspicious persons from the Pope's
household. You will only leave the number of persons
necessary to wait on him, and you will not permit any one
of any kind to visit him. You will take steps to increase
the garrison of Savona. You will take care to have all the
Pope's papers, books, and documents taken from him, and
you will have them sent to Paris. If the Pope should in-
dulge in any extravagant behaviour, you will have him shut
up in the Citadel of Savona, which you will have taken care
to provision, and furnish with all necessaries, beforehand.

Take steps to have these orders carried out. The Prefect, or
some other person, will be desired to send him the notification
[in writing], and to tell him [that I no longer recognise him
as Pope, and] that a man who preaches rebellion, and whose
whole soul is full of hatred and malice, ceases to be the
mouthpiece of the Church.

You will realise the importance of these measures. I have
sent an officer of Gendarmes to Savona. It will be easy for
you to select some thirty old Gendarmes from the Legion, and
confide the carrying out of the orders to them. [The time
for tacking has gone by !] As nothing will teach the Pope
sense, he shall see that I am strong enough to do as my pre-
decessors did before me, and depose a Pope.

The examination of the Pope's papers must be skilfully
done. You will leave him no paper, nor pens, nor ink, nor
any means of writing. You will give him a few French
servants, and you will remove the unsatisfactory ones. Be-
sides this, the people of his household can be forbidden to
go out.

16



224 NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I

CCCXXIII

TO ELISA NAPOLEON, GRAND DUCHESS OF TUSCANY.

PARIS, %thjanuaiy 1811.

I HAVE your letter of 28th December. You did quite
right to have Canon Muzzi arrested. The island of Elba
too, appears to me a very well chosen spot. You will send
the dissident priests there, taking care not to let them remain
at Porto-Ferrajo nor at Porto-Longone, but to send them
into the villages. I conclude you will have forbidden the
lawyer Valentini to correspond with the Pope. You must
also have those members of the Chapter who misconduct
themselves arrested. Indeed, the Chapter, which numbers
thirty-six members, may very well be reduced to twenty. I
suppose you have received the Pope's brief, sent to the
Chapter, which has just been sent to me. It is the very
height of ignorance and absurdity.

CCCXXIV

TO GENERAL SAVARY, DUG DE ROVIGO,
MINISTER OF POLICE.

PARIS, \$th January 1811.

THE Abbe Reboul, formerly Almoner to Mesdames, came
from Trieste, and brought the Pope's Bull to Paris, with him.
This man writes a great deal, lives on the fifth story, and
appears very fanatical. He goes every evening to see Mme
Seguier's mother. This person must have a watch set upon
him, so as to find out where he lives, and whom he sees.
After having tracked him for several days, you will have him
arrested, outside his house, just at the very time when his
papers are being seized. His arrest should throw some light
on this intrigue. This Abbe Reboul sees a great deal of the
Cure of St. Roch.

Mme Seguier,the wife of the Chief President, is exceedingly
religious. A great many questions relating to the present
condition of the clergy are discussed in her house. If you
introduce some person into this circle, he will hear many
things, which will enable us to find out a great deal about
this affair. Mme Seguier has read the Pope's message. This






NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I 225

watching must be done very circumspectly, and the only use
you must make of the hint I give you, is to have an eye upon
the house. The matter is of some importance, because it
may enable the police to make discoveries, which may be of
interest.



CCCXXV

TO PRINCE BORGHESE, GOVERNOR-GENERAL OF THE
TRANSALPINE DEPARTMENTS.

PARIS, I5//& January 1811.

I HAVE your letter of Qth January. I am glad to observe
you have taken the steps I prescribed, to prevent the Pope
distilling his poison into the Empire. The sum of 15,000
francs is perhaps too small. I give you liberty to arrange
matters, so that he shall not suffer, and to raise his expendi-
ture to 100,000 or 1 50,000 francs. Do not allow him any
external sign of consideration, but furnish him with an
abundance of all necessaries, so that no one may be able to
suppose him to be in any discomfort.

I conclude the Bishop of Savona has started for Paris, and
that you have had all the Pope's papers seized.



CCCXXVI

TO GENERAL SAVARY, DUG DE ROVIGO,
MINISTER OF POLICE.

PARIS, 20th January 1811.

I SEND you the Prefect of Montenotte's confidential report
on the persons composing the Pope's household, and on
their various characters. You can leave the Pope his doctor,
Porta ; his steward, Palmieri ; Campa, his florist ; Targhini,
his cook ; and Cotogni, his footman. You will have Ceccarini,
his surgeon ; Soglia, his chaplain ; Moiraghi and Morelli, his
valets de chambre ; Bertoni, a footman, and Petroncini,
Monsignor Doria's man-servant, arrested. If the Pope needs
one or two more servants, you will take Frenchmen, and
persons on whom you can rely. You will be careful that all
the persons I have just mentioned to you, as to be removed



226 NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I

from Savona, should start simultaneously, at midnight, with-
out seeing the Pope. You will give directions that their
papers shall be seized and sent to you ; they must have pre-
served some important documents. All these people, with
the exception of those who are to be sent to Paris, can be
sent to Fenestrelle. You will take care to keep them in
solitary confinement for five or six months, before you set them
at liberty, so that they may have been a long time separated
from the Pope, before they return to general society. You
will have them cross-examined when they get to Fenestrelle ;
something about the intrigues which have been carried on
will be got out of them. Monsignor Doria will also depart
without seeing the Pope. He will be taken with post-horses
to Naples, via Ancona, and he is to live there with his sister.
You will advise him to be wise, and you will write the King
of Naples to that effect. As for Porta, and the other persons
you leave with the Pope, you must make them clearly
understand that the smallest intrigue with the outside
world will be severely punished, and that their very lives will
be endangered.

You will reiterate my orders to the Prefect of Montenotte
and the Commandant of the Gendarmerie, that the Pope is
not to be allowed to correspond with any one, that all the
approaches to Savona, and all inns, are to be closely watched,
and that all suspicious characters are to be secured. It
would even be well to watch the places frequented by the
servants who are to remain about the Pope, and, on the
slightest misbehaviour on their part, to confine them within
the house, and sequester them altogether.



cccxxvn

TO COMTE DARU, CHIEF COMPTROLLER OF THE

EMPEROR'S HOUSEHOLD.

PARIS, 2.2nd January i8u.

I HAD given orders to sequestrate St. Leu. My intention
is that you shall send for Queen Hortense's man of business,
and have that place made over to him, so that the Queen
may have the full enjoyment of it, and make what arrange-
ments she chooses there.



NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I 227

CCCXXVIII

TO GENERAL SAVARY, DUG DE ROVIGO,
MINISTER OF POLICE.

PARIS, loth February 1811.

IT would be well to stop all letters coming from England
on licensed ships, and to have them carefully examined.
They nearly all of them contain important matter. I do
not refer to the letters sent to England. I conclude no more
of these go, as I have laid an embargo on the French ports.
Have an explanation on this subject with your Police Com-
missaries at Ostend, in Holland, and at other ports. The
only possible communication with England is through Mor-
laix, and letters cannot pass except through your hands. I
especially desire that all letters referring to the condition of
trade may be laid before me.

CCCXXIX

TO COMTE DE MONTALIVET, MINISTER OF
THE INTERIOR.

PARIS, z\st February 1811.

You must instruct the Prefect of Geneva that he is never
to see Madame de Stael at all, that he is to keep that
scheming woman within reasonable bounds, and apply his
mind to making Geneva thoroughly French.

cccxxx

TO M. DE CHAMPAGNY, DUG DE CADORE,
MINISTER FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS.

PARIS, yd March 1811.

I RETURN your draft letter to the Duke of Vicenza. It
seems to me that a few passages should be added, to inform
him that I shall not declare war on account of the Ukase
and the Tariff, but that I shall hold myself in readiness to
resist the effects of the bad spirit which inspired this action,
and that I shall only make war if Russia intends to be
reconciled with England. The Duke of Vicenza must dis-
avow any measure supposed to have been taken prior to



228 NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I

the Ukase. I have myself told Mons. de Czernitschef that
since I have been made aware of the Ukase, I have raised
the conscription, which step will cost me a hundred millions
this year. You will inform the Duke of Vicenza that I am
sending 10,000 Poles to reinforce the Dantzig garrison, and
tiiat I am pushing forward a regiment of cavalry, and another
of infantry, to garrison Stettin. As these movements will
be very late in taking place, the Duke of Vicenza should be
informed of them, so that when they are mentioned to him,
he may reassure the St. Petersburg Cabinet. In the first
place, he will say that this fortress must be prepared against
an English attack, and there can be no harm, at last, in
saying openly that, under present circumstances, so important
a fortified town must be secured.



CCCXXXI

TO GENERAL SAVARY, DUG DE ROVIGO,
MINISTER OF POLICE.

PARIS, \^th March 1811.

HAVE all the works of art, and other property, belonging
to the Senator Lucien, either in Rome or elsewhere, seques-
trated, so that it may not fall a prey to the English. You
will request Mons. Campi to hand you a declaration on the
subject.

CCCXXXII

TO GENERAL SAVARY, DUG DE ROVIGO,
MINISTER OF POLICE.

PARIS, rith March iSil.

THERE is a printing-press in Mons. de Chevreuse's house
at Dampierre. My intention is that you shall have it seized.
There is a governess in the family, an Englishwoman, and
four bad priests, who direct the children's education. There
is no objection to Mons. de Chevreuse having a governess
and priests in his house ; but the governess must not be an
Englishwoman, nor the priests evil -disposed persons. I



Online LibraryEmperor of the French Napoleon INew letters of Napoleon I, omitted from the edition published under the auspices of Napoleon III → online text (page 19 of 34)