Emperor of the French Napoleon I.

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think, before you do anything in the matter, you should
verify these facts and report to me. When you have made
your report, I will give you definite orders.



NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I 229

CCCXXXIII

TO GENERAL SAVARY, DUG DE ROVIGO,
MINISTER OF POLICE.

PARIS, i8M March 1811.

I SEND you a letter from General Molitor. Let the Grand
Treasurer know that the measures taken are too feeble, that
the students and townsmen of Utrecht, who have insulted
the patrols, must be arrested forthwith, and tried by a
military court.

CCCXXXIV

TO PRINCE LEBRUN, GRAND TREASURER OF THE EMPIRE,
THE EMPEROR'S LIEUTENANT-GENERAL IN HOLLAND.

PARIS, \%th March 1811.

You do not mention the constant riots at Amsterdam,
nor the steps you take to put them down. General Molitor's
correspondence with the Minister of War is full of these
events. It strikes me, that instead of concealing such crimes
against my troops, which encourage the rabble, you should
take measures to punish them.

CCCXXXV

TO PRINCE LEBRUN, GRAND TREASURER OF THE EMPIRE,
THE EMPEROR'S LIEUTENANT-GENERAL IN HOLLAND.

PARIS, i&tA March 1811.

I DESIRE you will call together the General commanding
the Division, the Colonel in command of the Gendarmerie,
the Chief of the Police, and the Comptrollers of the Finances,
and of the Department of the Interior, and deliberate with
them, in Council, as to what is to be done to insure the peace
of Amsterdam. There is no doubt that you have nothing
to fear from the moneyed classes, but there are a great number
of vagabonds in the town. These people must be arrested,
given over to the naval authorities, placed in asylums for
mendicants, or employed in labour of some kind. These
four courses, taken together, would confer all sorts of advan-
tages, and give the populace occupation. Another course



230 NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I

would be to open a military court, and make a severe
example of the first person who stirred. As these vagrants
do exist, they must be kept in order.



CCCXXXVI

TO GENERAL SAVARY, DUG DE ROVIGO,
MINISTER OF POLICE.

PARIS, i^th April 1811.

I COULD not read, without indignation, the article in the
Journal de I Empire, of the I2th of this month, which is
evidently intended to cast ridicule on one of the Emperor
of Russia's aides-de-camp, with whom I had had several
hours' conversation the previous evening, and who had
brought me a letter from his master. It is my intention
that Mons. Esmenard, the censor, shall be discharged from
your offices, and sent forty leagues away from Paris, and
that Mons. Etienne shall be suspended from his duty for
a fortnight.

CCCXXXVII

TO GENERAL SAVARY, DUG DE ROVIGO,
MINISTER OF POLICE.

PARIS, 14/7* April 1811.

MM. FRANCOIS, Gautier, Materban, and Rodier, are four
priests who reside at La Rochelle, and who are reported as
being dissidents, and enemies of the Government.

Mons. Doucin is the leader of the dissident priests in the
Lower Charente and the Vendee, whither he frequently
travels. He resides in the Commune of Dampierre, near
La Rochelle.

At Fontenay, MM. Girard, Moulin, and Henri, who live
partly at Pissotte and sometimes at Gros-Noyer, are priests
of the same kidney.

At Herbiers, one Buffart, who is generally in the Commune
of La Verrerie, is in the same position.

The same thing applies to the former Cure* of Liviere,
a man of the name of Viaud, who lives at La Chapelle
Largeau, and to a certain Tissier, living at Courlay.



NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I 231

I should wish all these people to be arrested at once, the
seals put upon their papers, and they themselves brought,
without any one knowing where they are, either to Vin-
cennes, or to some other State prison. All their papers
should be sent to Paris, where they must be examined.

But the arrest of these persons is no light matter all
these priests are instruments of civil strife, who have con-
federates in all directions. You must not trust either the
Prefects, or the Justices of the Peace, nor the local gendarmes,
but you must employ Paris police agents, and good picked
non-commissioned officers of the Gendarmerie, who will
proceed simultaneously to all the places where these priests
are to be found, and seize their persons.

This business will have to be very carefully managed, or
it will fail ; so great is the cunning of these fellows, so
far-reaching their ramifications, and so numerous their hiding-
places. You must take your measures so as to seize them
all at once, and not miss a single one otherwise it would
be better to do nothing at all.



CCCXXXVIII

TO PRINCE LEBRUN, GRAND TREASURER OF THE EMPIRE,
THE EMPEROR'S LIEUTENANT-GENERAL IN HOLLAND.

PARIS, ijth April 1811.

I HAVE been distressed by the decisions you have taken.
The fewer proclamations you issue, the less fuss you will
make, and the better that will be. They echo all over
Europe, and produce the worst effect possible. What is
the use of rushing into print? It would be far simpler to
let the military commander seize the guilty persons, assemble
a court-martial, and have them sentenced ; that could have
been done without any writing. These pompous proclama-
tions take nobody in, and are a sign of weakness. In my
opinion, they have the drawback of investing things with
importance, which are really not serious enough to make it
necessary to mention them. Steady severity is what is
wanted at Amsterdam.

I hear you have kept back the guns applied for by the
Minister of War. What does it matter whether they are
paid for, or not ? Let those guns be on the road to Wesel



232 NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I

and Liege, according to the Minister of War's order, twenty-
four hours after you have received this letter. The matter
of payment is quite a secondary one.



CCCXXXIX

TO GENERAL SAVARY, DUG DE ROVIGO,
MINISTER OF POLICE.

ST. CLOUD, 21 st April 1811.

I SEND you a letter from the Grand Treasurer. This is
a very serious business. You must send a senior police
agent, with a sufficient number of armed men. The 500
sailors who have banded themselves together, must be
arrested, and sent to France.

Who is the General in command of that Department?
Who commands the Gendarmerie? How comes it that they
have taken no steps to put down this rabble ? Give orders
that three of the worst mutineers are to be publicly executed,
and that the rest of the 500 are to be sent back to my ports
in France. I conclude you have reports from the Police
Commissary, who is there.

CCCXL

TO M. MARET, DUG DE BASSANO, MINISTER FOR
FOREIGN AFFAIRS.

ST. CLOUD, 2$th April 1811.

I send the documents about the Queen of Etruria. You
will ask the police for the originals. It will be well for you
to send some one to lay them before King Charles, at
Marseilles, and before the Princes, at Valengay, so as to make
them aware of the follies committed by their daughter and
sister. You will also send some one to the Princess, to inquire
what can have driven her to such excesses, and to inform
her that she is perfectly free to proceed to any country she
may choose ; that I might punish her, but, after this instance
of her ingratitude, I can take no further interest whatever in
her. It will be well to have a short memorandum written
upon these documents, which may be shown to the Austrian
Ambassador, and the Saxon and Bavarian Ministers, and
make them aware that I have had the Queen informed she
can depart if she chooses.



NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I 233

CCCXLI

TO PRINCE LEBRUN, GRAND TREASURER OF THE EMPIRE,
THE EMPEROR'S LIEUTENANT-GENERAL IN HOLLAND.

ST. CLOUD, yd May 1811.

I HAVE your letter of 3Oth April. Is this Mons. Lemosy
a clever man? How old is he? Can he be depended
upon?

The Prefect of Emden is a very weak man. I shall await
Comte Real's report before making a decision. It is my
intention that the 500 men who formed the mob which beat
the Prefect, shall all be sent to France, and forced to serve
in my ports. Write in that sense to State Councillor Real. I
will have no joking on this subject. The Prefect represents
me, and those persons who have taken no interest in the
matter are guilty in it. Would you not have me return my
thanks to the two towns 1 because they were so kind as to
allow themselves to be disarmed, when my troops arrived?
The houses of the persons who have taken to flight must be
burnt, their relations arrested, their goods confiscated, and
they themselves condemned to death by default, in a military
court. It is necessary to have several of the most guilty
shot. Send a copy of my letter to State Councillor Real.
Blood and chastisement alone can wash out the insult
offered to the Government.



CCCXLII

TO GENERAL SAVARY, DUG DE ROVIGO,
MINISTER OF POLICE.

ST. CLOUD, ^rd May 1811.

WRITE to Real to repeat my orders to him. My inten-
tion is, that the 500 sailors who took part in the affair at
Aurich, on the I ith March, shall be arrested and brought to
France, to serve at Toulon, Brest, and Lorient ; that several
shall be brought before a military court and shot ; that the
most guilty of those who have fled, shall be sentenced to
death by default, their fathers, mothers, wives, brothers, and
sisters imprisoned, their houses burnt, and their goods

1 The towns of Emden and Aurich, where the riots had taken place.



234 NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I

sequestrated. The crime committed is a monstrous one.
The Prefect, who is the chief civil magistrate, has been
beaten. I have no notion of sharing the Grand Treasurer's
weakness, and that of the local administration. Let Real
take measures to insure this.

CCCXLIII

TO GENERAL SAVARY, DUG DE ROVIGO,
MINISTER OF POLICE.

ST. CLOUD, 'jtk May 1811.

THE Spanish Princes are making excursions on horse-
back. Plans are being made to carry them off, and they will
be so carried off. You must take measures to stop these rides,
and even to prevent the presence of a single saddle-horse in
the establishment. The persons responsible for their safety
must be very imprudent.

Who is a certain Schmidt who is about the Princes ?

CCCXLIV

TO PRINCE LEBRUN, GRAND TREASURER OF THE EMPIRE,
THE EMPEROR'S LIEUTENANT-GENERAL IN HOLLAND.

ST. CLOUD, I2th May 1811.

I HEAR you have altered your late decision, on the occasion
of the riots in Amsterdam, and that you brought the persons
implicated in the affair before the civil Courts. Let me
know the reason of this step. You may have taken the
initiative in a moment of confusion, but this particular course
having been disapproved by me, you cannot return to it
without my consent. I cannot understand this vacillation.
Severe examples should have been made at Amsterdam.
They would have prevented what has happened at Rotterdam.

CCCXLV

TO MARSHAL DAVOUT, PRINCE D'ECKMUHL, COMMANDER-
IN-CHIEF OF THE ARMY IN GERMANY.

RAMBOUILLET, i*ftk May 1811.

I HAVE your letter of 1 2th May. I am glad to see you
are going: to arrest a large number of English agents. Show



NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I 235

no mercy. Keep these people in prison, and if there are
any prominent agents among them, have them shot.

Write to Mons. de Saint-Marsan, that he is to demand
the arrest of the Berlin and Konigsberg merchants who are
implicated in this correspondence. Write to Cassel to have
the Brunswick merchants arrested, and take steps to have
those belonging to Swedish Pornerania seized. We must
strike terror into these smugglers.

I have given directions that the General in command of
the Ems Oriental is to be warned to obey your orders, yet,
in ordinary administrative matters, you had better leave him
under the orders of the General of his Division.



CCCXLVI
TO PRINCE LEBRUN, GRAND TREASURER OF THE EMPIRE,

THE EMPEROR'S LIEUTENANT-GENERAL IN 'HOLLAND.

RAMBOUILLET, 2Qtk May 1811.

IT is my intention that the measures I have prescribed
shall be taken, in all their strictness and integrity, in the
Department of the Ems Oriental. Similar steps will be
necessary at Amsterdam and Rotterdam. It is indispensable
that honest and well-intentioned people should be protected,
and led by kindly treatment ; but the rabble must be driven
by terror. The way in which things are going on at
Amsterdam, and Rotterdam, is disastrous. Sedition-mongers
go unpunished, and, in the end, they will have to be sup-
pressed by fire and sword. And further, I cannot leave my
armies in the interior of the country for ever.

You have a right to take measures, in a moment of
pressure, but once such measures have been ratified by me,
you have no right to revoke them. The rioters at Amster-
dam and Rotterdam must therefore- be sentenced by military
courts.

CCCXLVII

TO GENERAL SAVARY, DUG DE ROVIGO,
MINISTER OF POLICE.

CAEN, ztfh May 1811.

I HAVE informed the Duke of Bassano of my intentions
with regard to the Queen of Etruria, and have desired him to



236 NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I

transmit them to you. I see two English frigates have
appeared before Nice. Let me know how soon it will be
possible to have the agents in this intrigue brought before
a military tribunal, the Princess shut up in some Roman
convent, and her son given up to King Charles.



CCCXLVIII

TO M. MARET, DUG DE BASSANO, MINISTER FOR
FOREIGN AFFAIRS.

CAEN, 26th May 1811, 4 A.M.

As news has come from Spain, I desire you will not have
the extract from the English Gazettes, which I sent you
some four hours ago, inserted in the Moniteur. All you
will do is to have a letter written, nominally from London,
for the minor newspapers, which will assert that the English
are very much alarmed, that they thought they had come to
the end of the war, but that war is breaking out on all sides.



CCCXLIX

TO M. MARET, DUG DE BASSANO, MINISTER FOR
FOREIGN AFFAIRS.

ALEN^ON, istjune 1811.

I HAVE your letter of 3Oth May. I do not understand
about this decoration set with diamonds, sent to the King of
Rome. Was this done when the Dauphin was born ? or on
what other occasions in Europe? Send me a word of
explanation on the subject.

The Grand Cordon of the Order of St. Leopold, given to
Comte Beauharnais, is explicable, as he is a gentleman-in-
waiting on the Empress, and that conferred on Comte
Regnaud is explained, by his position as State Secretary to
the Imperial family ; but as regards that given to Comte
Semonville, I don't see what it has to do with Comte
Semonville? I do not take kindly to the idea.



NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I 237



CCCL

TO M. MARET, DUG DE BASSANO, MINISTER FOR
FOREIGN AFFAIRS.



ST. CLOUD, lyhjune 1811.

I WISH you to ask for an account of the money brought
in by the trade certificates, issued at Hamburg by Mons.
Bourrienne, with the duty he has levied, and the sum it has
amounted to. It is my intention that he should account for
it accurately, and that 75 per cent, of the duty he has levied
shall be paid into the Treasury v of the Ministry for Foreign
Affairs, to pay for finishing the Ministerial residence.



CCCLI

TO GENERAL SAVARY, DUG DE ROVIGO,
MINISTER OF POLICE.

ST. CLOUD, 22nd 'June 1811.

I HAVE been interested in reading the alphabetical state-
ment of the [French and Belgian] officers in the Austrian
service. I return it to you. You must have it made out
for each Department, send it to the Prefects for them to
report, and have the property of these persons sequestrated,
without delay. You must warn the Registry Department,
so that it may cause all property and inheritances that may
fall due to them, to be seized.



CCCLII

TO PRINCE LEBRUN, GRAND TREASURER OF THE EMPIRE,
THE EMPEROR'S LIEUTENANT-GENERAL IN HOLLAND.

ST. CLOUD, 2.2nd June 1811.

I HAVE been interested in seeing the result of the military
inquiries, and that three men have been sentenced to death
and executed. There is no other way of overawing the mob.



238 NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I



CCCLIII
TO PRINCE LEBRUN, GRAND TREASURER OF THE EMPIRE,

THE EMPEROR'S LIEUTENANT-GENERAL IN HOLLAND.

ST. CLOUD, 2gtkjune 1811.

THE police did wrong to hold any communication with
England. I am giving it orders to cease doing so. I will
have no communication between Holland and England, on
any pretext whatsoever. That of obtaining military informa-
tion is quite inadmissible. We have a well organised, specially
arranged, correspondence, on the Normandy coast, which is
quite sufficient to keep us informed of what goes on in
England. There is no necessity that Holland should interfere
in the matter. Take effectual measures to have this stopped,
and give orders in the Custom-house that no such inter-
course is to be allowed.



CCCLIV

TO MARSHAL DAVOUT, PRINCE D'ECKMUHL, IN CHIEF
COMMAND OF THE ARMY IN GERMANY.

ST. CLOUD, yhjuly 1811.

I HAVE carefully read the minutes of the sitting of the
Council of the i8th of June, and I notice that to General
Libert's inquiry as to whether colonial produce from
Gothenburg is to be admitted, the Council replied in the
negative, ' because Sweden does not belong to the Continental
system.' This answer seems to me a strange one, and I
therefore write to give you the clear bearings of these
questions. Colonial merchandise and produce, coming from
Sweden, Prussia, or any other place whatsoever, must be
seized and confiscated, because it originally comes from
England. Send orders to this effect, and see they are
adhered to. This should direct your action as to Dantzig.
I conclude my line of Custom-houses has been established
on the land side, and that, no colonial produce can get
through. In consequence of a mistake, Saxony and West-
phalia had allowed colonial merchandise from Prussia to
enter their country, and had recognised the duty paid in
Prussia. But Westphalia and Saxony have changed their



NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I 239

procedure. Turn your special attention to this subject,
which is of paramount importance. Every article of colonial
produce must be stopped, unless it has paid duty to you.

Yo'j must quietly stop all communication with Gothenburg.
For this purpose, all packets, going and coming, must be
delayed twelve or fifteen days. The letters must be read,
and everything for England must be suppressed.

Whenever you are in doubt, write to me, for that gives me
an opportunity of explaining my views. Send spies to find
out if there is any colonial produce in Holstein, and if the
Danes propose to go on receiving it. Speak plainly to the
Danish agents, and take measures to have all the produce
confiscated.

I expect satisfaction for the insult offered my flag at
Stralsund. I shall perhaps decide on giving you orders to
occupy Pomerania. You will desire your agents, at the same
time, to seize all the colonial merchandise to be found there.

CCCLV
TO CARDINAL FESCH, GRAND ALMONER.

TRIANON, \2thjvly 1811.

THE -extreme displeasure caused me by the Bishops of
Ghent and of Troyes, on account of their constant miscon-
duct, which has obliged me to request the police to keep
special watch upon them, induces me to write you this letter,
to inform you that I have removed them from the list of
officers attached to my Household. You will no longer
consider them my Almoners.

CCCLVI
TO COMTE DE MONTALIVET, MINISTER OF THE INTERIOR.

TRIANON, iqthjufy 1811.

IT is necessary for you to give the Director-General of
the Department of Literature orders not to allow any
work on ecclesiastical affairs to be printed. The great art
in such matters is never to mention them. I have been
distressed by the pamphlets which have appeared on such
subjects. And to back up my intention, you must prevent
people from writing such things.
17



240 NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I



CCCLVII

TO GENERAL COMTE BERTRAND, GOVERNOR GENERAL OF
THE ILLYRIAN PROVINCES.

TRIANON, 22nd July 1811.

I HAVE received your letter about the province of Cattaro,
dated Laybach, 1st July. Appoint a good Sub-Delegate;
send a good Military Commander : both these measures are
within your duty. Have the strictest order kept, and bring
back those who have got out of hand, to their duty. Have
all contributions paid up, both arrears and those now due.
The presence of one or two battalions, for a couple of months,
will suffice for that. Have the same imposts levied at
Ragusa, as throughout the rest of your Government. Send
a Greek Bishop to Cattaro, and forbid all correspondence
with the Bishop of Montenegro, on pain of death. Make a
few examples, and arrest any priests he may have appointed.
Send a good officer of Gendarmes ; you have power to
make over the police duty to the Commandant. Let me
hear, within a month, that you have seen to everything.
Far away as you are, you have extraordinary powers ; every-
thing referred to in your letter, should have been done
already.



CCCLVIII

TO GENERAL COMTE HULLIN, GOVERNOR OF THE
CASTLE OF VINCENNES.



ST. CLOUD, zyhjnly 1811.

I HAVE received the sentences passed on Cifenti and
Sassi della Tosa. You will have the first-named a rascally
spy executed. I will permit the commutation of Sassi
della Tosa's sentence ; but you will have him taken to the
place of execution, and after Cifenti has suffered, just as
Sassi della Tosa is about to mount the scaffold, you will
cause the page bearing the reprieve to make his appearance.
But I intend Sassi shall have the full example of the punish-
ment of his crime before his eyes.



NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I 241

CCCLIX

TO M. MARET, DUG DE BASSANO, MINISTER FOR
FOREIGN AFFAIRS.

ST. CLOUD, z&hfuly 1811.

I SEND back your documents about Princess Marie-Louise's
business. 1 I do not wish to write to King Charles on the
subject, but it is necessary he should be informed of it
by you, or by the police, through a person of some im-
portance. There is an old Spanish Colonel here, who is
attached to them, and whom you might send to Marseilles
for this purpose.

CCCLX

TO GENERAL SAVARY, DUG DE ROVIGO,
MINISTER OF POLICE.

ST. CLOUD, 26th July i8n.

I DESIRE you will notify the sentence of the Commission,
to the Queen of Etruria. You will have her carried off that
very day, and taken with all speed, by carnage, to Rome.
She is to have nobody with her, but her maid and her daughter.
Her papers will be seized, and sent to the Ministry. She
will be placed in the convent in which a Princess of the
Bourbon family already is. Her daughter and her maid
will remain with her. Her son will be sent to Marseilles.
Have the contents of the documents communicated to the
Spanish Princes.

CCCLXI

TO GENERAL SAVARY, DUG DE ROVIGO,
MINISTER OF POLICE.

ST. CLOUD, z^thjuly 1811.

I SEND you the Trappist Fathers' letters. The affair had
already been mentioned to me. Have the Superior arrested,
and shut up in a State prison. Have the seals put on the
property of the monastery, and have the Trappist com-
munity broken up, so that no more may be heard of them.

1 The Queen of Etruria.



242 NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I

Take their habits away from them, and inform the Prefect
that the monastery is dissolved. There is a Trappist
monastery in the Forest of Senart. Find out what is going
on there, so that if it shares the sentiments of this other one,
I may have it suppressed.

CCCLXII

TO M. MARET, DUG DE BASSANO, MINISTER FOR
FOREIGN AFFAIRS.

ST. CLOUD, 2<)tkjuly 1811.

SEND orders to my Minister at Cassel, to proceed to the
Brunswick Fair, taking agents and brokers with him, to
watch what happens there. Before he starts, he will signify,
to M. de Fiirstenstein, my intention that all English goods
found there shall be confiscated, without any regard to
Prussian certificates. Mention this also to M. de Wintzin-
gerode. My Minister will stay at Brunswick as long as the
Fair lasts.

CCCLXIII

TO GENERAL SAVARY, DUG DE ROVIGO,
MINISTER OF POLICE.

ST. CLOUD, zgtkfttly 1811,

IF Mons. Lestrange has not been arrested before he
entered Switzerland, write to my Minister to have him
arrested at Friburg, and at the same time, to seize all his
papers.

You will have received my Decree that the Superior of
the Cervara convent is to be shot, and the monks imprisoned.
If those in the Forest of Se"nart are Trappists, have the
seals put on their house. I have revoked the gifts I bestowed
on them. Those at Mont Genevre and at . . . 2 are in the
same case. I conclude the military court will do justice on
the Superior, who has dared to preach sedition. The Trappists
have a house at the Calvaire. They have set up three
crosses, a thing worthy of the most barbarous mountaineers.
Have the seals put on their house. I am assured they have
other establishments in Paris.

1 Illegible word.



NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I 243

CCCLXIV

TO GENERAL CLARKE, DUG DE FELTRE,



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