Emperor of the French Napoleon I.

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sufficient, General Brenier himself will march, with a stronger
Brigade.

As a large number of troops must be massed at Wesel,
and as they would only be turned two or three marches out
of their way, he might even, with General Lauriston's permis-
sion, employ one or two regiments belonging to the Corps
of Observation on the Elbe, in this operation.

Inform Count Roederer, my Minister-Secretary of State
in the Grand Duchy, of these steps, so that he may give
orders as to all concerted measures in the Grand Duchy.
If General Lauriston is still at Wesel, General Brenier will
submit everything for his approbation.

The chief point is, that six of the ringleaders must be shot,
hostages taken, and a severe example made, so as to overawe
all the ill-disposed persons in those countries.



CCCCXVI

TO PRINCE EUGfcNE NAPOLEON, VICEROY OF ITALY,
IN CHIEF COMMAND OF THE GRANDE ARMEE.

PARIS, 28th January 1813.

I HAVE your letter of 2ist January. You can dismiss the
Duke of Abrantes that will be one encumbrance the less for
the army ; and indeed he is a man who would not be of the
slightest use to you. Let him know that he is no longer
employed with the army.

CCCCXVII

TO GENERAL DUROC, DUG DE FRIOUL, GRAND MARSHAL
OF THE PALACE.

PARIS, yd February 1813.

I SEND you a letter from Denon. You must make him
understand that he must not send these trifles to me. Let
him send them to the Duke of Cadore, who will lay them
before me at a convenient moment. When I receive such
letters, together with other important papers, all I can do
is to throw them into the fire.



NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I 271

CCCCXVIII

TO VICE-ADMIRAL GANTEAUME.

PARIS, 6tk Febrttary 1813.

I HAVE received your letter. I have ordered Comte
Defermon to advance you all your income, up to the 1st
January 1813. I have desired the Minister of the Navy to
allow you a gratuity of 30,000 francs out of the Treasury of
the Invalides, and I have told La Bouillerie to remit you
a sum of 20,000 francs out of the funds of the State Pro-
perty Extraordinary. I am very glad to have given you this
proof of my satisfaction.

CCCCXIX

TO GENERAL CLARKE, DUG DE FELTRE,
MINISTER OF WAR.

PARIS, 18^ February 1813.

You will answer General Vignolles that our political
relations with Austria are of the most amicable description ;
that all the alarming reports rife in Italy are put about by
the English, on all the coasts and corners of the Empire.
You would do well to write in this sense to all commanding
officers of Military Divisions on the sea-board, to make them
aware of these tactics on the part of the English.

ccccxx

TO M. GAUDIN, DUG DE GA^TE, MINISTER
OF FINANCE.

TRIANON, igfk March 1813.

I HAVE your letter, and I perceive, with the greatest sur-
prise, that State Councillor Chaban has left his post 1 without
orders. The State Councillor has behaved very ill in this
matter. He first of all took refuge at Altona, he parleyed
with the Danes, and then left his post without orders. Let
him know that he must take steps to be gone to-morrow,
before midday; he will proceed to Wesel, and thence to

1 At Hamburg.
'9



272 NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I

the headquarters of the Division, where he will take up his
duties again. As the Prefect remained at Bremen, he could
have stayed there too ; and besides, large numbers of troops
are moving in that direction.

Postscript. It will suffice if Comte Chaban has started
before the morning of the 2ist



CCCCXXI

TO GENERAL SAVARY, DUG DE ROVIGO,
MINISTER OF POLICE.

TRIANON, igtk March 1813.

I AM assured that certain letters from Langeron, which assert
that Louis XVIII. desired him to take the greatest care of the
prisoners, are being circulated in Parisian society. You do
not keep a close enough watch on the Faubourg St. Germain,
and the Bourbon coteries. If there is the smallest truth
in this report, you will have all Langeron's relations sent
forty leagues from Paris.



CCCCXXII

TO GENERAL CLARKE, DUG DE FELTRE,
MINISTER OF WAR.

TRIANON, zotk March 1813.

I SEE, by your report of the ipth, that the King of Naples
owes you 450,000 francs for guns. Have nine bills drawn,
of 50,000 francs each, the first payable on the 5th April, and
the eight others successively, three days after each other, so
that all of them shall be paid before the month of May.
Write to the Neapolitan Minister of War, to the effect that
these bills are the manufacturer's account, that he has placed
the sum to his account at his own banker's, and have the
bills drawn by some Paris banker. By this means you will
get the debt paid. It will be necessary for you to inform
the Duke of Bassano of this step, as well as my Minister at
Naples.









NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I 273



CCCCXXIII

TO PRINCE LEBRUN, GRAND TREASURER OF THE EMPIRE
AND GOVERNOR-GENERAL OF THE DUTCH DEPART-
MENTS.

TRIANON, 22nd March 1813.

THERE is a report here, that your daughters and your
nieces are leaving Amsterdam, and throwing all Holland
into a state of alarm. I cannot credit such a piece of im-
prudence. Take care that no French man or woman leaves
Amsterdam, and that no sign of anxiety is betrayed.



CCCCXXIV

TO GENERAL SAVARY, DUG DE ROVIGO,
MINISTER OF POLICE.

PARIS, 2yd March 1813.

ORDER the wife of the Commissary-General of Police at
Amsterdam, to return immediately, and make the Commis-
sary aware of it. Send the Commissary at Antwerp orders
to proceed to Gorcum, and make all the women go back.
This is the way to spread alarm all over the country. It
is a strange thing that the Police Commissary should be
the first to show bad feeling.



ccccxxv

TO M. MARET, DUG DE BASSANO, MINISTER FOR
FOREIGN AFFAIRS.

PARIS, 24th March 1813.

I SEND back your notes on Sweden. The document is
so badly drawn up that it must be done over again. Make
it over to Comte d'Hauterive, and let this chaos of docu-
ments be cleared up, so that we may know what should, and
what should not, be printed.



274 NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I

CCCCXXVI

TO COMTE BIGOT DE PR&AMENEU, MINISTER OF
PUBLIC WORSHIP.

PARIS, 2$tk March 1813.

I THINK that, for to-day, we must content ourselves with
sending the Decree, which allows the priests a month, to
Corsica, to Bologna, Piacenza, and all other places where
priests are detained in custody, so that they may be informed
of it.

You will let the Bishops know, that as several of them
have made representations to the effect that their presence
was necessary in their dioceses, on account of the Easter
solemnities, His Majesty has recognised the force of their
reasoning, and authorises them to return, so as to be there
before Holy Week. You will except the Bishops of Nantes
and of Treves, Councillors of State their presence being
necessary at the Council Board. These steps appear to
me sufficient for the present.



CCCCXXVII

TO MARSHAL KELLERMANN, DUG DE VALMY, COMMAND-
ING THE 5TH, 25TH, AND 26TH MILITARY DIVISIONS.

PARIS, 2*]th March 1813.

I HAVE your letter of the 24th. I am as much displeased
with your son as I am pleased with you. This is not the
moment when any man of spirit should put forward pre-
tensions ; however, out of consideration for you, I will give
him employment, if he wishes to serve.



ccccxxvni

TO GFNERAL SAVARY, DUG DE ROVIGO,
MINISTER OF POLICE.

PARIS, ytfh March 1813.

I HAVE your letter. I confess I could not help being
very much astonished by the play yesterday \_U Intrigante},






NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I 275

I do not refer to the platitudes and silly remarks which the
author so constantly pours forth all that was addressed to
the pit. But I had a right to expect that the Minister of
Police would not have allowed the Court to be handled in
so dull and silly a fashion. The author is said to be a
well-disposed person. In that case, he is a proof of the
adage, that it is better to have spiteful enemies, than foolish
friends. Never have people been allowed, in any country,
so to depreciate the Court. If it had not been for its clumsi-
ness, and lack of talent, the play would have had a most
mischievous effect on public opinion. What surprises me
most of all, is that it should be a man who is earning 80,000
francs a year, in your offices, who takes it into his head to
court popularity in this fashion. Put a stop to the perform-
ances of this wretched comedy, and alter the composition of
your Board of Censors. No one but simpletons, or ill-disposed
persons, would have approved such a play.



CCCCXXIX

TO GENERAL CLARKE, DUG DE FELTRE,
MINISTER OF WAR.

PARIS, $ist March 1813.

THE Viceroy informs me that General Reynier has started
without leave, and I see by the Travellers' Report at May-
ence, that he has just arrived in that town. Send an officer
to meet him, with orders that he is to turn back at once.
Make him aware of my displeasure at his having left his
post, without leave from the Viceroy, who has made a com-
plaint to me on the subject. Your officer will tell him that
if he pushes forward, and does not at once return to his post,
he will be arrested.

You are to have General Loison put under arrest at once,
and you will then have him questioned as to the reasons he
has to offer, in excuse for having left his post. You will ask
him why he was not at the head of his Division when it
came upon the enemy at Wilna a fact which caused the
loss of that fine Division.



276 NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I



CCCCXXX

TO GENERAL SAVARY, DUG DE ROVIGO,
MINISTER OF POLICE.

PARIS, 2nd April 1813.

HERE follows the course to be followed at Fontainebleau.
You will begin by sending an intelligent Police Commissary
there, whom you will provide with every facility for surveil-
lance, and whom you will take care to make known to the
officer in command of the Gendarmerie, and to the Mayor of
the town. You will give orders that no stranger is to be
admitted to Fontainebleau ; no sisters of charity, nor any
religious folk whatever, on the principle that the faithful
must only address the Pope through their Bishops, and that
they had, therefore, better apply to their Bishops. You will
give orders to the Adjutant of the Palace, Lagorse, that he is
not to allow any man or woman to be present at the Pope's
mass, nor even any ecclesiastic whatsoever, except the
Cardinals and the four Bishops, whom I have commissioned
to look after the business of Public Worship, if they should
attempt to be present. He must make it known, in con-
versation, that our principle is, that the Pope can only
bestow the blessing of the Church upon the faithful through
the Bishops.

You will commission the Adjutant of the Palace to wait
on each of the Cardinals, one after the other, and inform
them, that as they have done nothing during the two months
they have been gathered together, and have not chosen to
attend to the welfare of the Church, but rather appear to
have tried to take advantage of their meeting, to disturb
matters, I only allow them to remain at Fontainebleau on
condition that they interfere in nothing at all, write no
letter, and remain, in fact, in a state of stagnation, paying
their court to the Holy Father, and meditating on the evil
influence they have had on Church affairs ; that the slightest
transgression in this respect, the shortest letter written to
Italy, would not only make them objects of suspicion to the
Emperor, but would imperil their liberty. You will desire
the Adjutant to report each visit, and the hints he will have
given each Cardinal, in writing, and in separate letters.

You will give orders that Cardinal di Pietro is to be



NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I 277

carried off secretly, at night, that all his papers are to be
seized, and that he himself is to be conducted to some small
town in Burgundy, far removed from all traffic, and there he
is to stay, under surveillance. On the following morning,
the Adjutant of the Palace will have the Pope informed,
through Cardinals Consalvi and Pacca, that Cardinal di
Pietro has been removed, in consequence of his having
intrigued for the transmission of briefs, and because he is
one of the principal causes of nothing having been as yet
arranged with the Pope, and, in fine, because the man is an
enemy to the State. He will have the same thing signified
to the Bishop of Edessa, and to the doctor. He will tell
the sisters of charity that they are to stay quietly at home.

You will have informed the Adjutant that he must refrain
from saying anything about the letter, whether he has
delivered it or not, and that he must not enter into any
discussion. He must confine himself to this one and only
answer, that as they will do nothing for religion, they must
at all events do nothing against the State.

I am ordering the Minister for Public Worship to send
him the Bulletins des Lois, containing the three Decrees
on the Concordat, and its execution. He will allow these
documents to fall into the Cardinals' hands.



CCCCXXXI

TO GENERAL CLARKE, DUG DE FELTRE,
MINISTER OF WAR.

ST. CLOUD, %th April 1813.

HAVE the inquiry into General Loison's conduct pro-
ceeded with. It is time to make an example. The greatest
insubordination exists among the Generals ; it is affecting
the lives of my soldiers, and the glory of my arms.

Make General Loison answer the following questions :

Did he receive information at Konigsberg that he had
been placed in command of the 34th Division ?

Did he consequently make a bargain to buy horses and
teams for his artillery ?

Did he get orders to start with the Division ?

Why did he allow it to start without him ?



278 NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I

May not the breaking up of this Division at Oszmiana,
where it was left to bivouac in the open, and exposed to the
danger of death from cold, be laid at his door, as a con-
sequence of his neglect of duty ?

Was he not responsible for the Division the moment he
was appointed to command it? and had he any right, once
it had marched against the enemy, to leave it and stay in
comfortable headquarters ?

Let the minor newspapers announce that General Loison,
who left the army without leave, has been put under arrest,
and that General Pamphile Lacroix, who forsook his post,
has been arrested, and will be tried with all the severity of
martial law.

CCCCXXXII

TO GENERAL CLARKE, DUG DE FELTRE,
MINISTER OF WAR.

ST. CLOUD, %th April 1813.

LET the Comte de Valmy know, that in consideration of
his father's services, and of the regard I have for the
Marshal, and also for his own personal services at Marengo,
I have forgotten many follies ; that I am willing even to
forget this one too ; but that I hope his good behaviour and
good feeling will at last make him worthy of the name he
bears. Give him orders to proceed to Mayence, where he
will be employed according to circumstances.



CCCCXXXIII

TO GENERAL CLARKE, DUG DE FELTRE,
MINISTER OF WAR.

ST. CLOUD, \^th April 1813.

I RETURN you the documents relating to General Loison.
You will express my displeasure to him. Make him aware
that I have read his answers very attentively, and that they
are very far from justifying him. Tell him, that once his
Division had reached Kowno, it was before the enemy, and
that, from that moment, he should have marched, if not with
the leading battalions, at all events with the bulk of his
troops ; that I therefore still think the loss of the Division



NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I 279

confided to his care, must be attributed to him ; that, in spite
of this, I am willing not to forget the service he has rendered
me on other occasions, but that I hope this will be a lesson
to him, and that he will come to a better understanding of
the importance of the duty of a General commanding a
Division, for which he is answerable. Give orders for him to
be released from arrest, and let him be at his own home
within twenty-four hours. You will then let him know
his ultimate destination.



CCCCXXXIV

TO PRINCE CAMBACRS, GR V AND CHANCELLOR OF
THE EMPIRE.

MAYENCE, 19^ April 1813.

I HAVE your letter of i6th April.

I think it is most absurd that a reprieve should be sug-
gested for a man of the name of Sala, who went over to the
enemy. There can be neither reprieve nor mercy, for such
an offence. Express my dissatisfaction on the subject to
the Minister of War.

I am equally surprised that this Minister should have
used the telegraph, to desire General Delmas to join the
"army. This is the way to ruin people. The General had
given me cause for complaint. I have made a concession,
in present circumstances, to his urgent request, but it is
perfect madness to use the telegraph to tell him to rejoin,
just as if he were a saviour who was being sent to the army.
The Minister of War lacks tact, and so I complain of these
blunders to you.

I must make you aware that when the Regent begins to
sign, I do not intend her to sign promotions and military ap-
pointments to any rank above those' of Chef d'Escadron and
Chef de Bataillon, and I do not desire she should sign the
appointment of any sub-lieutenant, except in the case of
cadets leaving St. Cyr. or St. Germain, or former sergeants,
nominated by their regiments. All appointments in favour
of young men of family must be referred to me. I desire
you will take particular care that no Irishman, foreign
emigre, or youth who has not yet served in the army, should
be included in the appointments submitted for Her Majesty's



280 NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I

signature. Warn the Minister of War that all these must
be included in a special report, to be submitted to me ; the
Empress is only to sign things in the ordinary course of
business ; that is to say, matters not presenting any diffi-
culty. If you do not pay attention to this, the Minister will
end by tainting the army, and to such an extent, that I
shall be obliged to withdraw my confidence from him.



ccccxxxv

TO BARON DE SERRA, MINISTER-PLENIPOTENTIARY TO
THE KING OF SAXONY.

MAYENCE, 2O//5 April 1813.

I CAN only express my extreme displeasure at your having
sent my orderly officer, Lauriston, back without an answer.
You know the King of Saxony has 1800 cavalry, of whom I
stand in so much need, and you say nothing at all. Your
sluggishness is beyond belief. Ask categorically whether
they will send the cavalry, and in that case let it be despatched
either to Wiirtzburg, or to General Bertrand at Coburg. You
must let it be known that I should consider a refusal as the
beginning of a change of system. I should not have ex-
pected it of the King, after what I have done for that
Court. As for you, it is beyond all conception that you
should have carried your forgetfulness of propriety to such a
point, as to allow Baron Lauriston to depart without an
answer. Do not keep this courier more than twelve hours,
and send me back a statement of the strength of the cavalry,
by him. General Bertrand is only at Coburg, and the cavalry
will be very useful to him.

I send you the letter I am writing to the King. If, during
the interval which has elapsed, the King should have agreed
to my request, and sent his cavalry off, you will not give
him my letter. If, on the contrary, nothing has yet been
done, you will seal my letter, and give it to him, and you will
appear to ignore its contents.

I conclude the King will also have given orders to General
Thielmann, at Torgau, so that, as soon as communication is
reopened, General Regnier may reassume the command of
the troops, and that I may dispose of them, as well as of
the garrison, according as I think necessary.



NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I 281

You must have heard of my departure from Paris on the
1 7th. I am surprised at your not having at once sent me a
courier to Mayence, to inform me of every fresh thing which
has happened. If such a courier had been sent off on the
1 8th, he should be with me to-day.

Write to Mons. de Mercy that the Prince de la Moskowa
has arrived at Weimar, that my headquarters are being
moved to Erfurt, and that everything is in motion. For I
wish him to press a request that General de Wrede should
take command of the Bavarian troops, if he is in a fit con-
dition to do so, and that such instructions should be given
to commanding officers, as will insure their unrestricted
obedience to my orders.

I desire you will send me a daily courier, to inform me
of everything which comes to your knowledge, either by
Bohemia, through the Saxons, or Bavarians. Your couriers
will pass through Wiirtzburg, and will find out my where-
abouts from my Minister.

Postscript. Thinking better of it, I prefer sending my
aide-de-camp, Flahaut, who will be the bearer of my letter
to the King, and of my letter to you.



CCCCXXXVI

TO BARON REINHARD, MINISTER-PLENIPOTENTIARY TO
THE KING OF WESTPHALIA.

MAYENCE, 2Qth April 1813.

I HAVE your letter, dated 1 1 o'clock on the evening of the
1 8th with a postscript added at 6 o'clock, on the morning of
the ipth. I desire you will keep me informed of everything
that happens, drawing a careful distinction between rumours
and reports, and what appears to you reliable information.

The Prince de la Moskowa reached Erfurt on the evening
of the 1 7th, and should have occupied Weimar on the i8th.
I myself expect to be at Eisenach immediately.

I cannot understand how the enemy can make any serious
attempt on Cassel ; this must be mere fancy, or the work of
partisans.

Take advantage of the circumstance, to make the King
understand the insanity of his present position ; that if, at
this moment, he had a guard of 600 French cavalry, 3000



282 NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I

French infantry, and one or two companies of French
artillery, he would be lord of his own kingdom, and safe from
all attack. The King of Spain and the King of Naples have
taken good care to have this. I myself kept a French guard
in my Kingdom of Italy, until the spirit of the Italian army
became so excellent that this precaution was unnecessary,
and besides, I was not living in the kingdom. The King's
possession of the government is disputed by the former
Sovereigns, and has, indeed, never been recognised by one of
the principal great Powers, England. How comes it that,
under such circumstances, he did not take the course I
recommended to him (in itself so politic), of getting
together a reliable bodyguard which would never betray
him. I think the mistake may easily be repaired, as soon as
time permits, but a certain amount of precious time has been
already lost. If it had been done six years ago, the West-
phalian guard would be a magnificent body of men, instead
of which, it will now have to be made up of conscripts. Yet
better late than never ! The King of Westphalia will never
be certain of his throne all his life long ; for even if England
should make peace, and recognise him, it would again refuse
to do so, if a fresh war were to break out.

The Kings of France had Swiss guards, because their
French subjects were too often Burgundians or Armagnacs.
Foreign guards have been employed in every country in the
world, and certainly the King of Westphalia's circumstances
specially called for one. The King's great fault is his
ignorance of the history and principles of politics, and the
rash manner in which he behaves. Here is the result
though he has an army of from 15,000 to 20,000 men, he is
on the brink of being driven out of his capital, by two or
three squadrons of, probably, inferior troops. Who could
have been surprised at the King's raising a French guard ?
There was even a moment when I felt inclined to insist
upon it, for the sake of the dignity of my family ; but I
was prevented from doing so by the false idea instilled into
the King, that such a course would weaken his own inde-
pendence. As if independence were not a fact, rather than
a right !

I desire you will cultivate these notions, and that the
King may at last emerge from his present ridiculous position,
and place himself under the protection of good French troops.



NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I 283

CCCCXXXVII

TO GENERAL CLARKE, DUG DE FELTRE,
MINISTER OF WAR.

BORNA, $th May 1813.

WRITE and repeat your orders to the King of Spain, so
that if the English really have withdrawn their troops, he
may advance to the frontiers of Portugal, and threaten that
country. Tell him I am distressed to notice that he does
the very contrary of what he has been told to do, so that
while I leave my troops in Spain, the English are able
to withdraw theirs ; and that such action is an absolute
betrayal of French interests.



CCCCXXXVIII

TO MARIE LOUISE, EMPRESS-QUEEN, AND REGENT.

COLDITZ, 6th May 1813.

WRITE the enclosed letter to the Minister of Public



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