Emperor of the French Napoleon I.

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Worship.

* To the Minister of Public Worship.

' I send you a circular which I desire you will transmit to
the Bishops. Be good enough to insure its reaching them
without delay.'

Circular to the French Bishops.

'The victory won by the Emperor and King, our very
dear husband and Sovereign, on the field of Liitzen, must
be considered a special mark of the Divine protection.
We desire you, on receipt of the present letter, to arrange
with the proper persons, that a Te Deum may be sung, and
thanks offered to the God of Armies, and you will add what
prayers you deem most suitable, to call down the Divine
protection on our arms, and above all for the preservation of
the sacred person of the Emperor, whom may God shield
from every danger! His safety is as necessary to the wel-
fare of Europe, and of the Empire, as to that of religion,
which he has raised up, and which he is called upon to
confirm and strengthen. He is its sincerest and truest pro-
tector.'



284 NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON 1

CCCCXXXIX

TO THE PRINCE DE NEUFCHATEL, MAJOR-GENERAL OF
THE GRANDE ARMEE.

WALDHEIM, *]th May 1813.

SEND an officer to Bremen, to inform the Prince d'Eck-
muhl of the events which have just occurred ; and that we
shall probably be at Dresden to-morrow ; that the Prince de
la Moskowa is about to cross the Elbe, and march on Berlin.
It is indispensable that the Prince d'Eckmiihl should move
on Hamburg, seize that town, and forthwith send General
Vandamme into Mecklenburg. This is the course he must
take.

He will at once arrest all subjects of the Town of Ham-
burg, who have taken service under the title of 'Senators
of Hamburg.' He will bring them before a court-martial ;
he will have the five worst culprits shot, and he will send
the rest, under strong escort, to France, where they will be
detained in a State prison. He will have their property
sequestrated, and declare it confiscated. The Crown will
take possession of all houses, landed property, etc.

He will have the whole town disarmed. He will have the
officers of the Hanseatic Legion shot, and he will send all
persons who have enlisted in that corps to France, to the
galleys.

As soon as my troops have reached Schwerin, he will
endeavour, without saying a word, to lay hands on the
Prince and his family, and will send them to France, to
a State prison. These Dukes have been traitors to the
Confederation. Their Ministers will be treated in the same
way.

He will not permit any hostile act against the Swedes, so
long as they remain in Pomerania, and undertake to remain
quiet.

He will draw up a proscription list of 500 of the richest
and most ill-behaved persons, belonging to the 32nd
Military Division ; he will have them arrested, and will have
their property sequestrated ; it will be taken over by the
Crown. This measure is particularly necessary in Oldenburg.

He will mulct the towns of Hamburg and Liibeck, in a
sum of fifty millions. He will take steps to have this



NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I 285

contribution assessed in such a manner as to insure its
prompt payment.

He will have the whole country disarmed, and will have
all gendarmes, gunners, coastguardsmen, and officers,
soldiers, or officials, who have behaved as traitors, arrested.
Their goods must be confiscated. Let him especially re-
member those Hamburg families which have behaved ill,
and whose intentions are evil. The landed proprietors
must be turned out, or we shall never be sure of the country.

He must have the fortress of Hamburg armed ; he must
have drawbridges made to the gates, place guns on the
ramparts, raise the parapets, and make a citadel on the
Harburg side, in which four or five thousand men may be
out of reach of the populace, and safe from all attack. He
will also have Liineburg armed, so that it may be secured
against sudden attack, and he will reorganise Cuxhaven.

All these measures are indispensable, and the Govern-
ment must not be allowed to modify any one of them. The
Prince d'Eckmiihl must declare these my express orders,
and must act, in due time and place, with the necessary
caution. All known ringleaders of rebellion are to be shot,
or sent to the galleys.

As to Mecklenburg, my general view is, that the Princes
of that country have forfeited the Emperor's protection ;
but you must not allow this to become apparent, and
I shall probably have time to give orders. As the Prince
d'Eckmiihl may not be aware of these arrangements, he
may, in the first instance, promise anything he is asked,
under the sole reservation of the Emperor's approval being
obtained. When that approbation is received, everything
will be in order.

You will observe this letter is in cipher.

Hamburg being in a state of siege, the Prince d'Eckmuhl
will appoint a strong commanding" officer to keep order.
He will send General Vandamme forward, with his head-
quarters, but he will spare the General, for such warriors are
growing rare. Write to General Vandamme, that I am well
pleased with his conduct ac Bremen, and that I intend to
give him a good command ; that, meanwhile, he must second
the Prince d'Eckmuhl by every means in his power ; that
I shall be obliged to him for doing so, and shall take due
account of what he does in this respect.



286 NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I

CCCCXL

TO PRINCE CAMBACRS, GRAND CHANCELLOR OF

THE EMPIRE.

DRESDEN, nth May 1813.

I HAVE your letter of the 5th. It would be quite natural
that the Bishops should take the oath to the Regent. It
will also be quite natural for the Regent to grant the usual
sum for the expense of establishment, to the Bishops.

I beg you will send me a memorandum as to replacing
the Chief Judge, if that should become necessary. Have
inquiries made in all the Law Courts ; we shall need a man
of very great talent.

I conclude the Minister of War never inserts any official
news of the army in Spain, in the Moniteur, without first
submitting it to the Regency. Such news, however, had
better appear as being extracted from the Minister of War's
letters, that being the natural course, and a different form
having been adopted for news from the Grande Armee, only
because I myself command it. It is none the less necessary
that the Regent should have the first knowledge of the
news, and should judge whether it is to be printed or not ;
for there may, from time to time, be some objection to the
manner in which it is drawn up.

CCCCXLI

TO M. MARET, DUG DE BASSANO, MINISTER FOR
FOREIGN AFFAIRS.

NEUMARKT, \st June 1813.

I HAVE your letter ; the only thing to do is to gain time.
In the first place, constantly on horseback as I am, and
probably at Breslau, I cannot have received the letter yet.
By this excuse, you will gain two or three days. The
armistice is now in course of negotiation ; I do not know if
it will be carried through. If it should be concluded, I will
let you know at once.

I conclude Mons. de Stadion keeps his Court very well
informed as to all this business. You had better say-
nothing about it to Count Bubna. You can tell him, that it
was by no fault of mine that the battle of Wurtschen took



NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I 287

place ; that I had proposed to send the Duke of Vicenza to
attempt overtures for an armistice, without, however, making
any positive proposal, because such proposals, on the eve of
a battle, are always looked on as a symptom of inferiority.
Make that clear, so that it may come out in his correspond-
ence with Vienna. Try, too, to discover whether he has no
other proposals to make, than those already made. It seems
to me, that if those were his only ones, he would not have
been so much disturbed by his instructions having fallen
into the enemy's hands ; for I think he hardly could have
received any which would have been more agreeable to the
Russian Cabinet. Give him details of the battle of
Wiirtschen, so that he may send them on, and try to get
at the bottom of all his instructions. I propose to avoid
seeing him. If the armistice is not concluded, the circum-
stances of the war will be sufficient justification for this. If
it is concluded, I shall send you back to Dresden, where I
shall be supposed to come, and whither I shall not go.

You might try, very delicately, to find out what benefits
this peace would be likely to bring me ; for, to make it
appear honourable, it must bring me something. You must
try to make him speak. If you can get nothing out of him,
you must fall back on generalities, and the common ground
of what can be done against England.

Have you news from Denmark, or from the Hamburg
side?

CCCCXLII

TO M. MARET, DUG DE BASSANO, MINISTER FOR
FOREIGN AFFAIRS.

NEUMARKT, 2nd June 1813.

As I desire to write to you in cipher, I shall be very
concise.

We must gain time, and to gain time without displeasing
Austria, we must use the same language we have used for
the last six months that we can do everything, if Austria
is our ally. Metternich asserts that the alliance still con-
tinues, and proposes to negotiate a treaty to replace the
secret articles, which, on his own authority, he declared
annulled. Work on this, beat about the bush, and gain
time on this head.

20



288 NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I

Look through the treaty of alliance, to find the articles
Austria desires to preserve. Does she desire to preserve
the integrity of the Empire? the mutual guarantee of the
two States ? the article as to the integrity of the Ottoman
Empire ? You can embroider on this canvas for the next
two months, and find matter for despatching twenty
couriers.

The armistice is in process of negotiation. If it does not
come into force I should wish you to proceed to Dresden,
so as to be in a position suitable to a Minister, holding so
many documents, and keeping up intercourse with so many
quarters.

I will write to you to-morrow.



CCCCXLIII

TO MARSHAL DAVOUT, PRINCE D'ECKMUHL,
COMMANDING THE GRANDE ARM&E.

BUNZLAU, 7th June 1813.

I NEED not tell you that you are to disarm the inhabi-
tants [of Hamburg], to seize all muskets, swords, guns, and
powder, to make domiciliary visits wherever necessary,
and to utilise everything for the defence of the town. Nor
need I tell you that you are to press all the sailors, up to
three or four thousand, and send them to France ; that
you are to press all bad characters, and send them to
France, also, to be enrolled in the 12/th, I28th, and I29th
regiments. You will thus clear the town of five or six
thousand men, and the hand of justice will be heavy on the
rabble, which, it appears, could hardly have behaved worse.
As regards other arrangements, I refer you to the Major-
General's letter, dated ;th May.



CCCCXLIV

TO JEROME NAPOLEON, KING OF WESTPHALIA.

DRESDEN, lothjune 1813.

BROTHER, I notice with the greatest astonishment, in a
letter written by you to General Dombrowski, to change that
General's route, that you assert you write by my order, and-



NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I 289

according to my instructions ; and thus fail in your duty to
yourself and to me. Such behaviour, which I will not define,
is too objectionable to be endured by me. The first time
you venture to express such a supposition, I will have a
paragraph inserted in the General Order of the Day, to the
effect that nothing you write is to be attended to. It is not
that I do not think it quite natural, under the^circumstances,
that you should request commanding officers to alter their
route, as you did in the case of General Teste ; but it is contrary
to the welfare and the honour of my service, for you to assert
you do so in my name, and thus annul my order. Such a
proceeding might disturb the progress of my armies. It is
a complete falsification, which no" other person would have
ventured on.

CCCCXLV

TO M. MARET, DUG DE BASSANO, MINISTER FOR
FOREIGN AFFAIRS.

DRESDEN, ijthjune 1813.

PRESENT a note to Mons. de Kaas, to inform him that I
am having a list of absentees (which is the same thing as
emigres) drawn up, to include all persons who have left the
32nd Military Division ; that many of these have taken
refuge in the King of Denmark's dominions, and that I
desire the King will send all such persons out of Holstein.

I do not contend that they must not be received in Norway
and in Zealand, but I desire they may not remain in the
neighbourhood of Hamburg. All those who are not ill-
disposed, and have not taken part in the riots, can return to
Hamburg ; but those who took any active part in the dis-
turbances must, at least, retire to a distance from that town.
Send an express to Baron Alquier, to inform him of my
intentions.

CCCCXLVI

TO GENERAL SAVARY, DUG DE ROVIGO,
MINISTER OF POLICE.

DRESDEN, \%thjune 1813.
I HAVE your letter.

It is my intention that Hamburg shall be treated with
great severity. The various Decrees you have received will



290 NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I

give you proof of this. I desire all proprietors, and all guilty
persons, may be driven out, so that all property in that
Military Division may change hands. The Prince d'Eckmuhl
is therefore only carrying out my orders, and you, instead
of thwarting him, must help him, by every means in your
power. The cackling of the Paris bankers matters very little
to me. I am having Hamburg fortified. I am having a
naval arsenal established there. Within a few months it will
be one of my strongest fortresses. I intend to keep a stand-
ing force of 15,000 men there.

As for Mons. d'A , I do not know him. But I am

inclined to think him not over scrupulously honest, seeing
he sends sums of 60,000 francs to his wife, in Paris, for her
to buy property in Normandy. As regards his influence on
military matters, the fault lies with the Generals, who should
not listen to the arguments of a man who knows nothing
about war, much less consult him.

Generally speaking, the police does not do good service ;
it accepts all the false rumours that come from London,
and dins them into the General's ears. The Antwerp Com-
missary never does anything else. All these police reports
mean nothing, and, luckily, do no harm when they are sent
to me, but Generals who have no habit of command, and no
steadiness of mind, take them for official documents. They
mind what they are told, and act accordingly, to clear their
own responsibility. Forbid the Commissaries of Hamburg
and Antwerp, as well as the Commissary at Amsterdam, to
give this sort of information to the military authorities.
They are all three duped by the English, who purposely
spread reports of steps they have no real intention of taking.



CCCCXLVII

TO PRINCE CAMBACRS, GRAND CHANCELLOR OF

THE EMPIRE.

DRESDEN, \WiJune 1813.

THE Minister of Police, in his reports [with which, generally
speaking, I am very well satisfied, owing to the many details
they contain, and the frequent proofs of zeal they furnish],
seems to desire to incline me to peace. This can have no
result, and it wounds me, because it gives rise to the supposi-



NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON 1 291

tion that I am not peacefully inclined. I desire peace, but
not a peace which would force me to take up arms again
within three months, and would dishonour me. I know my
own financial position, and the condition of the Empire,
better than he does, and therefore he has nothing to say to
me on the subject. Make him aware of the impropriety of
his behaviour. I am no blusterer, I do not make a trade of
war, and no one is more pacific than I am. But my decision
on this subject will be ruled solely by my sense of what a
solemn matter this peace is, by my desire that it may last,
and by the general situation of my Empire.



CCCCXLVIII

TO THE PRINCE DE NEUFCHATEL, MAJOR-GENERAL OF
THE GRANDE ARMEE.

DRESDEN, \%thjune 1813.

HERE is a very extraordinary article out of the Journal de
Leipsic. Send it to the officer in command, that he may get
an explanation of it. Let him have the gazetteer arrested
on the spot, brought before a court-martial, and shot, if there
is the smallest evidence of evil intention.



CCCCXLIX
TO VICE-ADMIRAL DUC DECRES, MINISTER OF THE NAVY.



DRESDEN, ztfhjune 1813.

ADMIRAL WILLAUMEZ does not possess my confidence.
I do not wish to employ him. I would rather try the last
promoted post-captain, and make promotions like that of
Baudin, which at all events leave me a certain amount of
hope.

I see no difficulty about your recalling Admiral Lhermite
from the Elbe, and Admiral Duperre from Venice, and re-
placing both of them by post-captains. You must send me no
Dutchmen to Hamburg ; you must send me Frenchmen, to act
in concert with other Frenchmen. Rear-Admiral Petit being
dead, I desire you will submit the name of one of your best
post-captains to fill his place.

To conclude: if the Dutch Rear-Admiral should be at
Toulon, where his rank would give him a right to be second



2Q2 NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I

in command, I think it would be well that the Chief of the
Staff, or the Naval Prefect, should have a sealed letter from
you, appointing the most distinguished of the French Rear-
Admirals Vice-Admiral.

Give a little promotion to a few young men.

Vice-Admiral Allemand would perhaps do well at Venice,
if that place were to be besieged. He has the requisite
energy for taking measures to defend the lagoons. Let me
know your opinion on this subject.

CCCCL

TO PRINCE CAMBACJfrRfcS, GRAND CHANCELLOR OF
THE EMPIRE.

DRESDEN, ^otkjune 1813.

I HAVE your letter of 23rd June. All this gossip about
peace, among the Ministers, is doing me the greatest possible
harm ; for everything is known, and I have seen more than
twenty letters from foreign Ministers, to their own countries,
stating, that in Paris peace is desired at any price, and
that my Ministers are writing to me daily, to that effect.
In this way, peace may be made impossible, and the chief
fault lies with the Minister of Police. Instead of this pacific
talk, a somewhat warlike tone should be assumed. People
in Paris are very much mistaken, if they think peace
depends upon me. The enemy's pretensions are excessive,
and I know very well, that a peace not in conformity with
French opinion concerning the strength of the Empire, would
be very ill received by every one.

CCCCLI

TO GENERAL SAVARY, DUG DE ROVIGO,
MINISTER OF POLICE.

DRESDEN, yzthjune 1813.

YOU will inform Mons. Bourrienne that he is to break ofif
all correspondence, on any pretence whatsoever, with Ham-
burg ; for that the first time he writes about, or concerns him-
self, directly or indirectly, with Hamburg affairs, I will have
him arrested, and I will make him disgorge everything he
has stolen from that city.



NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I 293

CCCCLII

TO JOSEPH NAPOLEON, KING OF SPAIN.

DRESDEN, ist July 1813.

I HAVE thought proper to appoint Marshal the Duke of
Dalmatia my Lieutenant-General, in chief command of my
armies in Spain and in the Pyrenees. Make over the com-
mand to him. I desire you personally will remain, accord-
ing to circumstances, at Burgos, Vittoria, St. Sebastian,
Pampeluna, or Bayonne, until I further inform you of my in-
tentions. You will put your Guards, and all armed Spaniards,
under the command of the Duke of Dalmatia ; and I desire
you will not concern yourself in any way with the affairs
of my army.

CCCCLIII

TO PRINCE CAMBACERES, GRAND CHANCELLOR OF
THE EMPIRE.

DRESDEN, \st July 1813.

I HAVE letters from the Minister of War, enclosing General
Foy's letter of the 22nd. The Minister of War will make
known my intentions to you.

I am sending the Duke of Dalmatia to Spain, with the
rank of my Lieutenant-General ; but he will be under the
orders of the Regency, and will report himself to the Minister
of War.

As for the King of Spain, my intention is that he shall
remain at Pampeluna, St. Sebastian, or Bayonne, and there
await my orders. In any case, I do not intend him "to come
to Paris, nor that any high dignitary, Minister, Senator, or
Councillor of State, shall see him,, until I have informed him
of my intentions. If he should have crossed the Loire, you
will arrange with the Ministers of War and Police, to do
whatever is most proper, without worrying the Empress
with details. The King should not cross the Loire without
my orders ; but if he should actually have crossed it, he
must proceed to Morfontaine, in the most profound incognito^
and neither he, nor any officer of his household, must go
from that place to Paris, to disturb the government of
the Regency. You will settle with the Minister of Police as



294 NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I

to who should be sent, to inform the King of my intentions.
You might select Roederer, or any other person whom the
King is accustomed to see ; but however that may be, you
must employ the utmost secrecy in carrying out my orders.
Generally speaking, I desire any communication to the
King of Spain may be made to him through "the Minister
of War, and not through the Minister of Police. On receipt
of this present letter, you will send for the Ministers of War
and of Police, and you will give them their letters, impressing
on them, at the same time, the necessity of keeping the most
perfect silence about the whole matter.

If the King should have recovered his advantage, and
reoccupied Vittoria, you will take all the more care to spare
his feelings. I presuppose that Senator Roederer, or any
other person in the King's confidence, might be sent to
convince him that I had been obliged, by present circum-
stances, and my opinion of his military powers, to confer
the command of the army on a General who possessed my
confidence.

I also send you a letter for the King of Spain ; you will
give it, or not, to the Duke of Dalmatia, according as it may
seem necessary to the Minister of War. I desire the Duke
of Dalmatia may not deliver it, unless it should appear
impossible to do otherwise. It seems to me that an exten-
sion of the Decree, and a letter from the Minister, should be
sufficient.

See that the Minister of Police does not interfere in any-
thing, except the matter of surveillance, and that the Minister
of War writes nothing to the King of Spain but that which
the circumstances of the war make it necessary for him to
know, so that everything may be carried out with the utmost
possible moderation.

CCCCLIV

TO PRINCE CAMBACfiRfeS, GRAND CHANCELLOR OF
THE EMPIRE.

DRESDEN, ist July 1813.

I WROTE to you, two hours ago, with regard to Spanish
affairs. I have sent you all the letters, so that you may
manage the business as circumstances may direct. The



NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I 295

question rests on two hypotheses : either the King has been
beaten, or the position of things has improved. If the King
has been beaten, he cannot remain at Pampeluna, and if there
is any fear of his returning, it will be necessary to send him
some one, from whom you will not conceal the fact that,
considering the bad spirit he has shown in Spain, I fear
his presence would sow discord, which might cause trouble
to the Regency. If the King should have won a victory,
and been able to retrieve matters, my intention would still
be unchanged. I should desire him to leave the army, which
he is quite incapable of leading, to allow the Duke of Dal-
matia to take command, and to -remain, himself, at Vittoria.



CCCCLV

TO GENERAL CLARKE, DUG DE FELTRE,
MINISTER OF WAR.

DRESDEN, istfufy 1813.

THE Duke of Dalmatia starts this day for Paris. He will
go with you to see the Grand Chancellor ; he will not remain,
altogether, more than twelve hours in Paris, and will go on
his way thence to Bayonne, to take over the command of
the armies in Spain, with the title of my Lieutenant-General.
He will, none the less, in spite of his being my Major-General,
be under your orders, and those of the Regency, and he will
report everything concerning his command to you. Write
to the King of Spain to make over the command to him, and
to put his Guards, and all his Spanish troops, under his orders.
I have complete confidence in the Duke of Dalmatia. He
will have full powers, and will be authorised to organise
everything as he sees fit.

The King will remain, according to circumstances,at Burgos,
St. Sebastian, or Bayonne, but he is not to go to Paris, under
any pretext whatsoever. If he should have already reached
Bayonne, he is to stop there ; but if, by chance, he should
have already got beyond that town, he must proceed incognito
to Morfontaine, and there live, without seeing anybody what-
soever. My intention is that you should not mention all
this to the Empress. Nothing will be put in the newspapers,
and nobody must know where he is. In a word, I desire



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