Emperor of the French Napoleon I.

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France, by any Prince of the family occupying a foreign
throne, without my permission. If I am not mistaken as
to this, order the Chief Judge to send for the notary who
drew up the deed of purchase, to make him aware of the
provisions of the Statute, and to have the sale annulled.



322 NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I

I have ordered the King of Westphalia to proceed to Aix-
la-Chapelle. I am shocked that when all private citizens
are sacrificing themselves for the defence of their country,
a King, who is losing his throne, should be so tactless as to
choose such a moment to buy property, and to look as if he
were only thinking of his private interests.

I have informed the King of Westphalia that I intend the
Queen shall go and join him.



CCCCXCVII

TO M. MARET, DUG DE BASSANO, MINISTER FOR
FOREIGN AFFAIRS.

ST. CLOUD, I2th November 1813.

THINKING over the best way of pushing forward Spanish
affairs, I have thought it well to desire Comte Laforest, who
is near Tours, to start for Valengay. He will go there
incognito, with only one servant, and as unpretentious a
carriage as possible. He will take a Spanish name, and
will remain at the Castle of Valengay in the strictest in-
cognito. Comte Laforest will bring the Prince of the Asturias
the enclosed letter from me, of which you will send him a
copy; you will make him thoroughly aware of my inten-
tions.

The chief point is (ist) to find out the three Princes' state
of mind, and to make sure, directly or indirectly, whether
they have had any news. They can scarcely have failed
to hear something. (2nd) To find out in what persons they
have confidence. They must have some adviser. Comte
Laforest will let them know that General San Carlos is
coming to Paris, and will suggest Canon Escoi'quiz, or any
other person, to them.

It is of the greatest importance that no one should know
he is Comte Laforest. Even the French officer in command
of the place must not know it. Comte Laforest will bring
him a letter from the Minister of Police, under some sub-
altern title, something like Police Commissary. He will
travel under that name. Draw up his instructions instantly,
and come and submit them to me.



NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I 323

CCCCXCVIII

TO FERDINAND, PRINCE OF THE ASTURIAS.

ST. CLOUD, \2th November 1813.

COUSIN, The present policy of my Empire makes me
desire that affairs in Spain should be brought to a settle-
ment England is fomenting anarchy, Jacobinism, and the
overthrowal of the Monarchy and the Nobility, with the
object of establishing a Republic in the country. I can-
not fail to be affected by the destruction of a nation
so close to my own dominions, v and with which I have
so many naval interests in common. I therefore desire
to remove every pretext for English influence, and to
re-establish those bonds of friendship and neighbourliness,
which have so long existed between the two nations. I
send Mons. le Comte Laforest to your Royal Highness,
under an assumed name. You may rely on everything he
says to you. I desire your Royal Highness will be con-
vinced of the feelings of esteem and regard I entertain for
your Royal Highness.

CCCCXCIX

TO M. MARET, DUC DE BASSANO, MINISTER FOR
FOREIGN AFFAIRS.

ST. CLOUD, 19^ November 1813.

WHEN the Treaty is made with Prince Ferdinand, it will
be necessary to provide for a pension for King Charles and
the Queen. This pension must be about equal in amount
to that I insured to them by Treaty. You must also insure
them, and all the Spaniards in their service, the right to live
in France, or where else they choose.



TO GENERAL SAVARY, DUC DE ROVIGO,
MINISTER OF POLICE.

PARIS, 6th December 1813.

DISTURBANCE is being fomented in Belgium, where
England would be glad to see a rising. I have ordered the



324 NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I

Minister of War to send General Henry to Bruges, with a
hundred picked gendarmes. He will be supported by fifteen
hundred men of the National Guard, who are coming from
Cherbourg, and will be under his orders. He will, first of all,
force all refractory conscripts and deserters to go back to
duty. He will take all necessary steps, in all directions, for
arresting all persons suspected of being agents of the enemy.
I have also given orders that General Saunier is to proceed,
with a flying column, to the Departments of the Deux-Nethes
and the Bouches-de-L'Escaut. But these measures are not
sufficient. Some senior Police Agents, and even one official of
high rank, should proceed to Belgium, to provide for present
necessities. There are certain arrests which must be made.
There can be no doubt that a great many English agents
are in that country. The flying columns must hold courts-
martial, which will mete out swift justice on evil-disposed
persons, and on defaulters who make any resistance. Arrange
with the Ministers of War, and of the Interior, as to what
measures you should submit to me for Belgium. You will
meet at the house of the senior Minister. Hold your
meeting to-morrow, and bring me the result at our business
sitting on Wednesday.



DI

TO DUG CHARLES DE PLAISANCE, GOVERNOR OF ANTWERP.

PARIS, i6tk December 1813.

I HAVE recalled General Decaen ; he seems quite to have
lost his head. His evacuation of Willemstadt is an unheard-
of thing. The troops on board the flotilla alone, would have
been sufficient to hold the fortress, which is defended by
the floods. This General appears to have no knowledge
whatsoever of localities, and gives his orders without con-
sulting the Engineer Officers. You will send somebody to
take his place. I have given orders that he is to be brought
before a Court of Inquiry, for having evacuated a fortified
town, fully armed and provisioned, without orders on the
subject. I look on the evacuation of this fortress as the
greatest misfortune that has happened to us. As soon
as General Roguet is in a position to do so, he must try to
retake Breda, and to re-open communications with Gorcum.



NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I 325

Breda was not armed, nor looked on as a fortified place, and
I do not consider its evacuation as so guilty an act ; but
none the less, it was a shameful one. Four hundred muskets
and ;oo sick were left there. People must really have lost
their heads.

General Molitor is near Bois-le-Duc, and the Duke of
Tarento is in communication with him. I have no further
hope of our being able to re-capture Willemstadt, which is
almost impregnable, once the dykes are cut. It will serve
as the base of all the enemy's operations. You must now
think very seriously about Bergen-op-Zoom. Pour in
supplies by every channel, and get the garrison together;
troops must be coming in every moment. The General in
command there, is said to be a man of considerable merit ;
order him to defend his fortress to the last extremity. It
appears that the National Guard from the Pas-de-Calais is
proceeding to Flushing, and that more than three quarters
of it is there already. Order General Gilly to issue arms
and clothing to it. He can do as he thinks best Let him
take everything he needs, and give bills in return. Let
him get supplies for a year into Flushing, taking everything
he can find in the island, for the purpose. Hurry on the
supplies for Antwerp, but do not lose your head like General
Decaen. Antwerp is impregnable, and more than a hundred
thousand men will be on that portion of our frontier before
the 1 5th January. Have Bois-le-Duc armed and provisioned.
If you can get back into Breda, have that fort armed with
guns taken from Antwerp. As we have lost Willemstadt, it
is important for us to have Breda. Burn the first village
within your reach which puts on the Orange cockade, and
publish an Order of the Day, to the effect that the first
person found wearing such a cockade will be shot.



DII

TO KING LOUIS.

PARIS, $th or $th January 1814.

I HAVE received your two letters, and am grieved to learn
you have come to Paris without my leave. You are no
longer King of Holland, since you have resigned, and I have
joined that country to France. The territories of the Empire



326 NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I

are being invaded, and all Europe is in arms against me.
Do you desire to come as a French Prince, and Constable of
the Empire, and rally round the throne ? I will receive you,
you shall be my subject, and, as such, you will enjoy my
friendship, and do what in you lies to improve matters. In
that case, you must nourish proper feelings towards myself,
the Empress, and the King of Rome.

If, on the contrary, you persist in your notion of being a
King and a Dutchman, you must retire to a distance of
forty leagues from Paris. I will have no confusion of
positions, no third party. If you agree, write me a letter
which I can have printed.

Dili
TO KING JOSEPH.

PARIS, 1th January 1814.

I HAVE your letter. 1 It is too complex in its nature to
suit my present position. Here is the question, in a sentence :
France is invaded, all Europe has taken up arms against
France, and more especially against me. I do not need your
resignation, because I do not want Spain for myself, nor
do I want to have it at my disposal; but neither will I
concern myself with the affairs of that country, except for
the purpose of obtaining peace there, and making my army
available for use.

What do you mean to do ? Do you desire to rally to the
throne as a French Prince? You have my affection, and
your appanage, and you will be my subject, as a Prince of
the Blood. In that case, you must do as I do, speak out
clearly, write me a plain letter, which I can have printed,
receive all authority from me, and prove your zeal for me
and for the King of Rome, and your friendly feeling for
the Empress's Regency.

Is this impossible to you ? Have you not sufficient good
sense to do it? Then you must retire to some country-
house, forty leagues from Paris, and live there in obscurity.
If I live, you will dwell there in peace. If I die, you will
be killed, or arrested. You will be useless to me, to the
family, to your daughters, to France ; but you will do me no

1 Joseph, seeing France in imminent danger of invasion, had written to place
himself at the Emperor's disposal.



NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I 327

harm, and cause me no inconvenience. Choose promptly,
and make up your mind. All feelings of sentiment or enmity
are vain, and out of season. 1

DIV

TO GENERAL SAVARY, DUG DE ROVIGO,
MINISTER OF POLICE.

PARIS, \^th January 1814.

You will send, early this morning, for the architect in
charge at Stains. You will ask him for details of all work,
of every kind, which is being done there, and you will give
him orders to dismiss all the men, and have no more work,
of any sort, done there. You will send for the King of
Westphalia's man of business, who looks after Stains. You
will tell him I have ordered all work to be stopped, that
nobody is to be admitted, and the house closed, and that if
there is the slightest disobedience, the place will be laid
under sequestration, as no foreign Prince or King can acquire
property in France without my permission.

You will further inform the King's man of business (but
he should be a Frenchman, and not a foreigner) that it is
necessary for him to remain quietly at Compiegne, and not
go two leagues away from that place ; that it is a scandal, in
present circumstances, that nothing should be seen, in all
directions, but his cooks and his liveries, going hither and
thither.

You will have him told this, by some Frenchman in whom
he ha's confidence, and you will desire this Frenchman to
make him thoroughly understand that nobody transgresses
my ordtrs without paying for it.

DV

TO M. DE CAULAINCOURT, DUG DE VICENCE,
MINISTER FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS.

PARIS, igth January 1814.

MONS. LA BESNARDIERE must have informed you of my
intentions as to an armistice.

1 The Baron du Casse has published three letters from King Joseph, to
Napoleon and to King I.ouis, which serve as a commentary on, and explana-
tion of, this letter, and show the circumstances under which it was written.



328 NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I

I have your letter of the I7th. In spite of the importance
of the circumstances which might detain me in Paris, I am
about to start for Chalons. I think that if you have no letter
from M. de Metternich on the 2Oth (that is, twelve days after
the receipt of his answer, and a week after Lord Castlereagh's
arrival), there will be very little to hope for, and you will then
be at liberty to come and join me.

The Duke of Belluna's conduct has been dreadful. I am
Fending the Prince of Neufchatel there. The Duke of
Belluna might easily have remained on the Meurthe.

It seems the King of Naples has very nearly concluded
his treaty. It has been negotiated by the Austrian General,
Neipperg, assisted by an English officer, with whom the
King treated, without his showing any powers from his
Government, and even without his having recognised him as
King. These gentlemen, as occurs in such circumstances,
seeing the outburst of joy roused by their presence at
Naples, and the influence their appearance had on public
opinion, are said to have imposed very severe conditions,
against which the King was still struggling. I think the
clause which might interest Austria, in connection with the
conditions of the armistice, is that as to the cession of Palma-
nova, and Venice for she seems to intend to keep possession
of the Adige.



DVI

TO GENERAL SAVARY, DUG DE ROVIGO,
MINISTER OF POLICE,

PARIS, 2\st January 1814.

LET the Pope start to-night (2ist to 22nd), before five
o'clock in the morning, for Savona. The Bishop of Edessa
will travel in his carriage with him. The Adjutant of the
Palace will conduct him to Savona. The servants will go
in another carriage, which you will be careful to keep
sufficiently far behind, to avoid drawing attention to the
Pope's journey. The carriages will cross the Rhone at
Pont-St-Esprit, and will go to Savona by Nice, on pretext
of avoiding the mountains. The Adjutant of the Palace
will say he is taking him to Rome, having received orders to
let him burst on that place, like a clap of thunder. When



NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I 329

the Pope reaches Savona, he will be treated in the same way
as when he was there before.

Consult, in the course of the day, with the Minister of
Public Worship, and let me have a statement of the Car-
dinals' names, and whither each should be sent. I conclude
they might be sent to Provence, to the Genoese Riviera, and
into the country about Montpellier and Nismes. As soon
as I have approved the list, you will make arrangements for
them to start, during the night of the 22nd, all of them
accompanied by Gendarmerie officers, so that Fontainebleau
and the neighbourhood may be cleared of all these ecclesi-
astics. It will be as well that none of them should know
where the others are going, and that you should cause them
to travel by different roads.



DVll

TO PRINCE CAMBACERfcS, GRAND CHANCELLOR OF
THE EMPIRE.

TROVES, 6th February 1814.

I HAVE your letter of the 4th. Monges lost his head,
from the beginning to the end of his mission. He is too
hot-headed a man to be employed about any business.



DVIII

TO KING JOSEPH, THE EMPEROR'S LIEUTENANT-
GENERAL IN PARIS.

NOGENT-SUR-SEINE, 21 st February 1814.

THESE are my intentions with reference to the King of
Westphalia. I give him authority- to wear the uniform of
the Grenadiers of my Guard, which permission I extend to
all French Princes. (You will inform King Louis of this ; it
is absurd for him to go on wearing a Dutch uniform.) The
King will dismiss all his Westphalian household. The
members of it will be at liberty to return to their own
country, or to remain in France. The King will at once
submit the names of two or three aides-de-camp, one or two
equerries, and one or two chamberlains, all Frenchmen, and
of two or three French ladies, to be with the Queen, to me,



330



NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I



for my appointment. The Queen will put off appointing her
lady-in-waiting till some future time. All the Westphalian
pages will be placed in Lycees, and will wear Lycee uniform.
I shall pay their expenses. One-third of their number will
be sent to the Versailles Lycte> one-third to the Rouen Lycee,
and one-third to the Paris Lycfe.

Immediately afterwards, the King and Queen will be pre-
sented to the Empress, and I shall give the King permission
to inhabit Cardinal Fesch's house (which, it appears, belongs
to him), and to establish his household in it. The King and
Queen will continue to bear the title of King and Queen of
Westphalia ; but no Westphalian will remain in their service.

And when all this is done, the King will join my head-
quarters, whence I intend sending him to Lyons, to take
over command of the town, the Department, and the army,
provided, however, he gives me his promise always to be
with the outposts, to keep no royal state, have no luxury,
and not more than fifteen horses, to bivouac with his men,
and not allow a shot to be fired, without his being the first to
expose himself to danger.

I am writing to the Minister of War, and will have his
orders sent him. So as not to lose time, he might send off
his establishment to Lyons, viz., a light carriage for himself,
a cook's waggon, four canteen mules, and two sets of
saddle-horses, six in each ; only one cook, and one valet-de-
chambre, and two or three serving-men, Frenchmen everyone
of them. He must choose good aides-de-camp ; let them be
officers who have seen active service, who know how to
command troops, and not inexperienced fellows, like Verdun,
and Brugneres, and others of that kidney. He must be able
to lay his hand on them at once, too. And, to conclude, you
had better see the Minister of War, and consult about choos-
ing him his staff.

DIX

TO GENERAL SA VARY,. DUG DE ROVIGO,
MINISTER OF POLICE.

NOGENT-SUR-SEINE, 22,nd Febrttary 1814.

I HAVE your letter. I cannot accept your excuse. Your
language is not worthy of a Minister. When I appointed
that committee I placed it under your orders. You, there-



NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I 331

fore, are responsible. In your hands everything becomes a
difficulty, whereas, to a Minister of Police, everything should
be easy.

DX

TO THE COMTESSE DE MONTESQUIOU, GOVERNESS TO
THE KING OF ROME.

BEZU-ST. -GERMAIN, qth March 1814.

I HAVE received the letter you wrote me, I think that
under present circumstances you should not correspond with
the Queen of Naples, nor give her any news of % my son.

I have been pained to hear of the stories reported of
Mme Anatole and the Duchess of Padua ; but the only
way not to confirm them, is not to ascribe any importance to
them. Such stories are soon put about, with regard to
pretty women but their very absurdity makes them in-
credible.

The Duchess of Padua ought not to have left Paris. In
such critical times, a lady-in-waiting's duty is to be near
the Empress. Many have failed in this duty. All sense of
propriety, and of what honour demands, seems to me to have
entirely passed out of memory, in France.

DXI

TO BARON DE LA BOUILLERIE, GENERAL COMPTROLLER
TO THE CROWN.

REIMS, itfh March 1814.

YOUR answer to the King was quite right. My intention
is that you should not make any advance, without an order
from me, or, in case of urgent necessity, the signature of the
Regent, who is in sole authority during my absence, and who
alone holds my complete confidence.

DXII

TO PRINCE CAMBACRS, GRAND CHANCELLOR OF
THE EMPIRE.

REIMS, \th March 1814.

I HAVE your three letters. Nobody has been slandered
to me ; for all I know of the matter, I know through a letter



332 NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I

from Me"neVal, which was followed, six hours afterwards, by
one from the Empress. I am convinced these mad projects
would never have been confided to you beforehand, for
people would have been sure you would have disapproved of
them.

The Minister of Police wears me out with his petty passions.
I do not know a smaller-minded or more partial man. He
shares all his wife's little spites. She has a grudge against
the Duchess of Montebello, and all day long he keeps writing
to me against the Duchess ! He meddles with all sorts of
wretched things he should have nothing to do with, instead
of watching the Mayors who are misconducting themselves,
and keeping his eye on important State matters.



DXIII

TO KING JOSEPH, THE EMPEROR'S LIEUTENANT-
GENERAL IN PARIS.

FONTAINEBLEAU, 2nd April 1814.

I HAVE desired the Grand Marshal to write to you as to
the necessity of clearing Blois. Let the King of Westphalia
go to Brittany, or towards Bourges.

I think Madame would do well to go and see her daughter
at Nice, and Queen Julie, and your children, had better move
near Marseilles.

The Princess of Neufchatel, and the wives of the Marshals,
must go to their country-houses.

It will be natural that King Louis, who has always sought
to live in hot countries, should go to Montpellier.

It is necessary to have as few people as possible on the
Loire, and everybody must get settled without causing more
talk than can be avoided. There always is talk among the
inhabitants about any colony that emigrates.

The road to Provence is clear now, and it may not be so
some of these days.

In your report of the Ministers, you do not mention the
Minister of Police. Has he arrived ? I do not know if the
Minister of War has his cipher. There is none with you,
and therefore, for lack of a cipher, I cannot write to you
about important matters.

Desire every one to observe the strictest secrecy.



NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I 333

THE HUNDRED DAYS

DXIV

TO KING JOSEPH.

PARIS, 25^ March 1815.

I HAVE ordered the Master of the Horse to place forty
carriage-horses, and, if possible, a few carriages, at your dis-
posal. This will set up your Stable Department.

Speaking generally, you must organise your household on
a modest scale. In our present financial condition, I do not
expect to be able to give you more than a million for this
year. Next year, of course, your income will reach the two
millions.

There will be no objection to your spending a few months
in the Elysee Palace. But as the Tuileries are uninhabitable
in the summer, I may want it for myself. See if the
house I have bought from Talleyrand would suit you. The
Duchesse de Bourbon is in it at this moment, but you can
ask to see the plans, and that Princess is going to a country-
house on the Loire. You can also look at the house near
the Courts of Justice, which the Prince de Conde occupied.

I am told the Duchesse d'Angouleme, and the Princes,
have bought houses. If that is so, you can take your choice.
I do not know whether you have any furniture left, but I
will give you a certain amount out of the Crown stores, to
furnish your house.

There is also the Palais Royal. To sum it all up, I desire
you will not lay out anything this year on horses, furniture,
or housebuilding.

DXV

TO MARSHAL DAVOUT, PRINCE D'ECKMUHL,
MINISTER OF WAR.

PARIS, 26th March 1815.

MY intention is, that you should have the Dukes of
Ragusa, Castiglione, Reggio, and Belluna, and Comte St.
Cyr, removed from the list of Marshals. A retiring pension,
the amount of which you will submit for my approbation,



334 NEW LETTERS OF NAPOLEON I

will be granted the Dukes of Belluna and Reggio, and
Marshal St. Cyr. You, on your part, will have to see they
do not come near Paris. You will submit to me, as soon as
possible, the list of Lieutenant-Generals and Brigadier-
Generals, which must now be pretty considerable. You
will also submit a report on the Colonels-in- Chief, so that
I may restore those who have not become unworthy of it,
to their former position.

DXVI

TO COMTE DEFERMON, PRESIDENT OF THE FINANCE
SECTION OF THE COUNCIL OF STATE.

PARIS, 27/Vfc March 1815.

I REQUEST you will call the Council together, and sub-
mit the draft of a law, inflicting penalties on all persons
who, after the publication of the said law, shall continue to
wear the white cockade, to act in the King's name, or to
belong to corps of volunteers, or any others. This law must,
as present circumstances demand, be stringent and vigorous,
so as to touch the people on their tenderest point.

DXVII

TO PRINCE CAMBACRS, GRAND CHANCELLOR OF THE
EMPIRE, IN CHARGE OF THE MINISTRY OF JUSTICE.

PARIS, iyk April 1815.

APPOINT a commission of reliable magistrates, to break
the seals, and inventory the papers, found in the house of the
Prince of Benevento, and of the other persons whom the
Lyons Decree has deprived of the benefit of the amnesty. I



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