Emperor of the French Napoleon I.

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that he may be able to send circumstantial reports to the
Minister for Foreign Affairs.

I suppose his Army will have reached Ciudad-Rodrigo
some time between ist and I5th November. He must,
therefore, be able to march for Lisbon between the 2Oth and
30th, and whatever the Prince Regent does, whether he
declares war with England or not, my troops must go to

I have given my instructions to my Ambassadors at
Madrid, to whom he will report himself. General Junot is
to listen to every proposal, but he is to sign nothing, having
no authority to do so from the Department of Foreign
Affairs. He must refer everything to my Ambassador at
Madrid, and must keep you exactly informed of all overtures
made to him.

I desire my troops shall arrive at Lisbon as soon as
possible, to seize all English merchandise. I desire they
shall, if possible, go there as friends, in order to take pos-
session of the Portuguese fleet. I am ordering the Minister
for Naval Affairs to send a certain number of naval officers


to General Junot. They will be useful to him for keeping
order in the port of Lisbon.

The Portuguese Government will take one of these two

Either (i) on seeing the French Army approach, it will
march forward its own troops, and stand on the defensive.
Then everything falls into the military province. Three
thousand Spanish cavalry and 8000 infantry will join
General Junot's troops, which will reach an effective strength
of 35,000 men, with 30,000 actually under arms. Two
Spanish divisions, one of 10,000, and the other of 6000 men,
are to march on Oporto and the Algarves. General Junot
is to march straight on Lisbon. He will keep up frequent
correspondence with the Commandant of the 2nd Corps of
the Gironde, which, you may inform him, will be massed at
Bayonne, by the end of November, to the number of 25,000.

Or (2) the Portuguese Government will make up its mind
to submit, will declare war with England, and will send
messengers to meet the Army, and negotiate. In this case,
General Junot must speak in the following terms :

* My sovereign's orders are that I am not to delay one day
in marching upon Lisbon. My mission is to close that great
port to the English. I ought to use force against you, but
as the shedding of blood is repugnant to the noble heart of
the Emperor Napoleon, and to the character of the French
people, I have orders, if you agree not to keep your troops
massed together, if you place them in positions where they
cannot cause any anxiety, and if you will receive us as
auxiliaries, until the negotiations begun at Paris are con-
cluded, to consent to that arrangement'

By these means, General Junot may contrive to get to
Lisbon as an auxiliary. The date of his arrival will be cal-
culated here to a couple of days, and, twenty-four hours later,
a courier will be sent to inform him that the Portuguese
proposals have not been accepted, and that he is to treat the
country as that of an enemy. Eight or ten ships of war, and
those dockyards, would be an immense advantage to us.
All General Junot's discourse, then, must be directed to the
execution of this great plan. There is reason to think he will
succeed, because it is not likely that Portugal will dare to
resist, and still less likely that the Prince will want to go to


The secret convention concluded with Spain, which the
first courier will carry to General Junot, will make him
aware that it is agreed that the Spanish troops which are to
form part of his force shall be under his own command ; that
if the King of Spain or the Prince of Peace joined the Army,
they would have the command ; but it has been settled that
they are not to come. If they were to come for a parade,
General Junot should show them all the respect due to
Generals-in-Chief. But if they came to stay, he must adhere
strictly to his instructions to keep his troops together, not to
detach any whatever, and to march straight on Lisbon.

My intention is that General Junot shall in no wise diverge
from the direct path ; he will neither go to Madrid nor else-
where, and the moment his leading body of troops reaches
Ciudad-Rodrigo, he will proceed there personally.

General Junot's operation will be a real success, if by dint
of prudence, and wise use of his tongue, he makes himself
master of the Portuguese Fleet. He must make use of his
nomination to convey the impression that he has been sent
to smooth down everything.

He may say anything he pleases, so long as he gets hold
of the Portuguese Fleet. In no case is he to sign any con-
vention with the Portuguese.



FONTAINEBLEAU, tyh November 1807.

THE British Correspondence goes through Holland. Take
measures to have all the Dutch mails stopped in France,
and all letters from England seized and burnt, after they
have been read, and extracts made "from the more important

I cannot but express my dissatisfaction at the small
amount of activity you show about stopping this corre-
spondence. You seem quite indifferent about it. Let me
hear what has been seized since my Decree. A great deal
has reached Paris. Of all the measures taken against
England, this is the most distressing to her.



FONTAINEBLEAU, tyh November 1807.

YOU will receive a Decree by which I authorise the lend-
ing of 1,800,000 francs out of the Sinking Fund to the
King of Westphalia. You will notify this Decree to Prince
Jerome's comptroller ; you will see that the [receipts] are
signed by Prince Jerome, and that the repayments .are
punctually made.

You will also inform him that I have authorised the Public
Treasury to advance him his income as a French Prince for
November and December : which will about make up the
two millions owed by the Prince. But, in consideration of
these advances, I will not permit the Prince to have a single
debt in Paris.

From the ist of January, I assign his appanage as a
French Prince to Madame.



FONTAINEBLEAU, i$th November 1807.

THAT villain Hainguerlot is still in communication with
you. I do not intend you to keep up any intercourse, direct
or' indirect, with that schemer. And if you do not conform
to this order, you will, in the first place, be the cause of my
having him arrested and confined in a fortress, and in the
next, you will do a thing which will cost you my esteem.



FONTAINEBLEAU, \yh November 1807.

IT is a matter of public notoriety that all the vessels
which are supposed to reach Antwerp and Bordeaux from
America really come from England. I intend you shall
give M. Collin orders to make a raid on the ships still in
port, to make an unexpected seizure of the captains' papers,


to arrest some of the crews, to cross- question them, get
proof that they come from England, and that their cargoes
are English, and make a report to me, on which I shall order
their confiscation.

I have signed the Decree for applying that of 6th August
to merchandise brought to the mouth of the Weser. I
should like to know if the same legislation exists for Ant-
werp and Bordeaux, and whether vessels coming from
England, which have touched at Antwerp and Bordeaux,
are confiscated.



FONTAINEBLEAU, itfh November 1807.

I HAVE your undated letter. The measures you have
taken do not suffice. You have only stopped 12,000 letters ;
that is a very trifling matter. If you had had them inter-
cepted at Bayonne, Bordeaux, etc., you would have had a
great many more. Whenever a ship from England reaches
these coasts, take care to have all the letters seized and sent
to you. Take further steps, and let me hear you have a great
quantity of letters.


FONTAINEBLEAU, i^th December 1807.

A CERTAIN Perrier, a dissident priest, in the Department
of the Deux-Sevres, who is mentioned in your report of 9th
December, must be sent under surveillance to Fenestrella.

It will be a good thing to collect, and print in pamphlet
form, all of St-Hilaire's papers which tend to show up those
small London schemers. You will submit them to me
before they are published. I will read them, and will see
whether it would be well to have a good number of copies
struck off, to be disseminated in England. This would
unmask, and cast ridicule on, the inferior class of rogues who
dabble in petty intrigues in London.

I also wish you to watch the Perlet business, which I con-
sider important, and the documents in which I propose to


have printed. Past experience proves that such questions
are ended in this way. The good done by the publication
of the Drake, Taylor, and Spencer Smith correspondences is
incalculable. That of Perlet will have the same effect It
must not be circulated in France, but it must be distributed
over Hamburg and London.

I think I have signed the first List of Emigre's. I con-
clude you have sent it to the Chief Judge, for communication
to the different Courts, so that they may be acquainted with
the names of all those persons who are beyond the pale of
the civil code. A second list must be draw n up.

Find out what that agent of Sainte-Foix is doing at
Rastadt ; and if any certain knowledge can be had as to the
object of his journey, he must be arrested.

You will make arrangements with M. Portalis to break
up every congregation of the Peres de la Foi. You will
endeavour to find the gentlest, and at the same time the
most thorough, means of doing this. You will extend this
measure to the whole Empire. You will take care that
these people have no meeting-place, and I hold you respon-
sible for every religious society of this order. Can it be that
we are in one of those periods of weakness and inertia, during
which the will of the Government cannot be carried out?
The first diocese on which you will begin is the Archbishopric
of Lyons ; but in the case of this Prelate, as with all others,
you must only mention the proofs in your hands, and you
must not enter into any theological discussion. I do not
choose to have any Peres de la Foi, more especially as they
interfere with public education, and poison the youth of the
country, with their absurd ultramontane principles. You
will be able to procure the information you need as to these
Fathers from their Superior, Father Varin, who seems to be
an adventurer.

I see by your report of 2/th November, that a certain
actor, named Fay, is mentioned by the Prefect of Maine-et-
Loire as being an intriguer, a disturber of the peace, and a
dangerous character. If these qualities are connected with
his political opinions, have him arrested and flogged, as such
riff-raff deserves to be, when it meddles with matters of
importance. I wish for a short report on this subject, which
may appear of little moment, but to which the attention of
the Police should be given.




MILAN, 19^ December 1807.

WHO is a Chef dEscadron Chipault, of whom \&t Journal
de r Empire of the I4th speaks, as being presented to the
Empress on the score of his having received fifty-two wounds
in one battle ? I beg you to let it be understood that this is
nonsense, and that nothing of the sort should be inserted
without advice.


MILAN, 2Oth December 1807.

I HAVE your letter of December 1 5th from Nice. How can
you think of coming to Turin by the bad roads you would
have to travel over? Stay all this season at Nice, and get
well, so as to be able to come to Paris in the spring.


MILAN, 20th December 1807.

I SAW Lucien at Mantua. I had several hours' conversa-
tion with him. He will doubtless have acquainted you with
his feelings when he started. His thoughts and speech
are both so far removed from mine, that I can hardly under-
stand what he wanted. I have an idea he told me he
wished to send his eldest daughter to Paris, to her grand-
mother. If he is still disposed to do this, I wish to be
instantly informed of it, for the young girl must be in Paris
in the course of January, whether Lucien accompanies her
himself, or sends a governess to take her to Madame.
Lucien appeared to me swayed hither and thither by con-
flicting feelings, and not to have sufficient strength of mind
to make any decision.

1 Part of this letter was published in the Correspondence, No. 13,402, but the
most important portion was suppressed. It is given in full in Baron du Casse's
Supplement to the Correspondence.


I must tell you, however, that I am prepared to restore
his rights as a French prince, and recognise all his daughters
as my nieces. Only he must begin by annulling his mar-
riage with Mme Jouberthon ; either by divorcing her, or in
any other way.

This being done, all his children will be provided for. If
Mme Jouberthon really is in an interesting condition at
this present time, and bears a daughter, I see no objection to
the adoption of the child. If it is a boy, it may be con-
sidered as Lucien's son, but not born in open wedlock.
And I am willing to enable this child to inherit the
sovereignty I may confer on his father, independently of
the rank to which his father may be raised by the general
policy of the Empire, but not to allow this son any
pretension to succeed his father in his own real rank, nor to
be called to the succession of the French Empire.

You will see that I have exhausted every means in my
power to recall Lucien, who is still in his first youth, to the
employment of his talents, in my service, and that of his
country. I do not see what he can now allege against this

His children's interest is protected ; thus I have provided
for everything.

Once Lucien has divorced Mme Jouberthon, and has been
raised to a great position at Naples or elsewhere, if he
chooses to recall her and live with her, not as with a Princess
who is his wife, but in any intimacy he chooses, I shall
make no difficulty, for the political aspect is all I care for.
Apart from that, I have no desire to run counter to his tastes
and passions.

These are my proposals. If he means to send me his
daughter, she must start without delay, and he must reply
by sending me a formal declaration that his daughter is
starting for Paris, and that he places her entirely at my
disposal ; but there is not a moment to be lost, events are
hurrying on, and destiny must be accomplished. If he has
changed his mind, I must know that too, instantly, for I will
provide for such an event in another way, however painful
that may be for me. For why should I disown these two
young nieces, who have no active share in the intrigue of
which they may be made the victims ?

Tell Lucien that his grief, and the nature of the feeling he


expressed for me, have touched me, and make me regret
all the more that he will not be reasonable and contribute to
his peace and mine. I hope you will have this letter on
the 22nd.

My last news from Lisbon is dated i/th November. The
Prince Regent had taken ship for Brazil ; he was still in the
port of Lisbon. My troops were only a few leagues from
the forts which close the entrance of the roadstead. I have
no news from Spain, except the letter you have read.

I impatiently await a clear and frank answer, especially
concerning Lolotte.

Postscript. My troops entered Lisbon on 3Oth November.
The Prince Royal has sailed on board a man-of-war. Every-
thing was going on well at Lisbon on 3rd of December. On
6th December, the English declared war against Russia.
Have this news sent to Corfu. The Queen of Tuscany 1
is here. She wants to go to Madrid.



PARIS, ^th Jamiary 1808.

I HAVE received your letter with regard to the speech you
addressed to your Council of State. I think the speech
absurd. No Frenchman, excepting those to whom I may give
permission to enter your service, will take the oath you ask
for. My Councillors of State cannot take this oath, and not
even my officers. If Beugnot and Simeon desire to stay
with you, they are free to do as they choose. If they have
taken the oath you demanded of them, I shall remove them
from the list of my Councillors of State. You might very
well have dispensed with making that speech.

I have to nominate a Commissary, to put you in possession
of half the domains which fall to you ; I have appointed M.
Jollivet to this position. As I believe my Councillors of
State to be overwhelmed with ill-treatment at your Court, I
desire they may return as soon as possible.

I am anxiously expecting you to send me a statement of
the Frenchmen whom you keep in your service. I will
allow them the following advantages :

1 Marie Louise of Spain, Queen of Etruria.


Those who remain in your service can swear any allegiance
to you they please : when they leave your service I will give
them back the grade they held when they left mine, without
taking the services they may have rendered you into con-
sideration : this is how I acted with regard to the King of
Naples, and the King of Holland. It is very necessary to
make the list in question ; without it there would be a great
deal of confusion. In general, if you desire to please me,
you will show no indulgence to any Frenchman without my
advice. I ask you this, with reference to those who are per-
manently attached to your service, as a matter of courtesy
to me. I demand it imperatively, as to those whom I may
authorise to take service with you, and who hold to the
intention of returning. As for the Westphalians, I do not
concern myself about them. You must be prepared for the
fact that there are certain Frenchmen to whom I shall not
grant permission to remain in your service.

As to H , I can only be astounded at your weakness.

The man has been prosecuted for forgery, and for criminal
acts which have made him a horror to France. Can you
possibly have carried your want of confidence in me to
such a point? Ask Simeon, Beugnot, and Jollivet what
they know of him. He is a very clever man, but a gallows-
bird, and his natural home is in the galleys. You do not
know men yourself, and you try to teach me to know them.
I repeat that this proceeding on your part shows very little
mature consideration.

Send me, when my courier returns, the statement of the
Frenchmen in your service, carefully distinguishing those
who are in command of my army from those who have
become your subjects.



PARIS, ^th January 1808.

I HAVE your letter of December 1 5th with regard to General
Lagrange. I disapprove of your conduct. General Lagrange
is not your subject; he is not accountable to you for what he
has done in his administration, and you therefore had no
right to disgrace him. He has served me in Egypt; he


has fought several campaigns under me in Italy ; he might
have rendered me services of such a nature that I alone
could judge what ought to be done. And, besides, General
Lagrange was authorised to take the Elector's horses ; he
had a right to do it. You committed an injustice when you
had them brought back to your stables. You should have
contented yourself with taking information as to the money
he had received, and reporting to me. What pleasure can
the dishonouring of the military uniform be to you ? It was
that garb which conquered your kingdom, and gave me the
throne on which I sit. Your conduct shows very little con-
sideration, and that is what distresses me most.

But you must imbue yourself with the conviction that you
have no jurisdiction whatever over the Frenchmen I send to
you, and that you are only to inform me as to what they
-may do. I reserve myself the right of taking whatever step
with regard to them conduces to my interest, and agrees with
my experience. If this course of conduct does not suit you,
send me back the Frenchmen who are with you, and govern
with Germans.



PARIS, ^th January 1808.

I HAVE your letter of the 28th December, by which I see
you propose to give the property of Fiirstenstein, and 40,000
francs a year, to M. Lecamus. I know nothing more mad
than this proceeding, which is at one and the same time
contrary to your interests, harmful to the State, and, above all
things, harmful to yourself. What has this Lecamus done ?
He has done no service to his country ; he has rendered
some personal service to you. Is this reward in proportion
to the service he has given you ? I have not planned such
an arbitrary proceeding during the whole of my reign. I
have more than ten men, each of whom has saved my life,
to whom I only give a pension of 600 francs. I have
Marshals who have won ten battles, who are covered with
wounds, and who have not the reward you give this Lecamus.
Services rendered to your individual person are not services
done to the King, nor to the Kingdom of Westphalia. It is
therefore indispensably necessary that you should revoke


this measure ; and I presume that you have not closed so
important a matter so very precipitately. If you have con-
cluded it, you must revoke it, or Mons. Lecamus must
renounce his French Citizenship, and then he will lose all
his hereditary rights in France. If Lecamus has 40,000
francs a year, what is to be given to Marshals Berthier,
Lannes, Bernadotte, and over a score of persons who have paid
for the throne on which you sit, with wounds of every kind ?
What ought you to have done with that property of Fiirsten-
stein ? You should have taken it for the Crown, (you are
rather poor, as you do not enjoy the benefit of half your
domains), or you should have kept it in reserve for ten years.
\ou might then have had a Minister who had served you
well enough to deserve such a reward. I have Ministers
who might have made ten millions, who have not a halfpenny,
and who never dream of claiming such rewards. I have
already told you, with reference to General Lagrange what
distresses me about all this is your lack of consideration.

[ l I have your letter of 24th December, as to the condition
of your finances. What sort of finances can you expect to
have, when you behave as you do? You have squandered
three millions in Paris in two months ; you will squander thirty
without rhyme or reason, in a shorter time.]

But you must not imagine, all the same, that the King-
dom of Westphalia is a landed property. I shall have to
make war to support you, and I foresee that, instead of your
weighing advantageously in the balance, I shall find a deficit
in my strength.



PARIS, 1th January 1808.

I HAVE your letter of 2ist December. I am distressed to
observe that from 1st December the day of your entry into
Lisbon until the i8th when the first symptoms of insur-
rection began to show themselves, you did nothing at all.
Yet I never ceased writing to you : ' Disarm the inhabitants ;
send away all the Portuguese troops; make severe examples ;

1 The passage in parenthesis was struck out of the draft.


keep up an appearance of severity, which will cause you to
be feared.' But your head, it appears, is full of fancies, and
you have no knowledge of the Portuguese spirit, nor of the
position in which you are placed. I do not recognise this as
the action of a man who has been brought up in my school.
I do not doubt that in consequence of this insurrection, you
have disarmed the town of Lisbon, caused some sixty people
to be shot, and taken proper steps. All my letters have
foretold what is now beginning, and what will shortly happen
to you. You will be shamefully hunted out of Lisbon, as soon
as the English have effected a landing, if you continue to
behave with such weakness. You have lost precious time,
but you have time yet. I hope my letters, which you have
received in succession, will have decided you as to the course
you should take, and that you have adopted strong and
vigorous measures, without feeding yourself on fancies and

Online LibraryEmperor of the French Napoleon INew letters of Napoleon I, omitted from the edition published under the auspices of Napoleon III → online text (page 6 of 34)