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'•ta^^crCi jiOa^^Ajt, U L^ 4^1^a^ Z^cv-'Z.^^


Royal House of Guelph.

(U (Mj^rrUUr ^8(lU<k4^: ^^^7)

The New Gallery,

Regent Street.



arrangement of tbe iBybibttion, (^g


The Royal Room.


Statesmen and Commanders.


Arts, Letters, and Science.


Historical Collection of China, &c.


Pictures, Drawings, and Manuscripts.

' (from Rtgent St. I





Ube General Committee*

President :


Secretary for Scotland.

Vice-President :

The Earl of Albemarle, F.S.A.,

W. R. Baker, Esq.
General The Viscount Bridport,

Duke of Bronte, K.C.B.
E. A. Bond, Esq., C.B., LL.D., F.S.A.
Sir Algernon Borthwick, Bart., M.P.
The Earl Brownlow.
The Duke of Buccleuch, K.T.
The Duchess of Buckingham and

Sir Frederick W. Burton, Knt., R.H.A.,

F.S.A., Director of the National Gallery.
Charles Butler, Esq., F.R.G.S.
The Lord Carlingford, K.P.
The Earl of Carlisle.
*J. Comyns Carr, Esq.
The Earl of Chichester.
J. W. Clark, Esq., F.S.A.
Sidney Colvin, Esq.
W. M. Conway, Esq., F.S.A.
The Baroness Burdett-Coutts.
The Earl of Crawford, LL.D., F.R.S..

The Viscount Cross, G.C.B., F.R.S.,

Secretary of State for India.
*G. Milner-Gibson-Cullum, Esq., F.S.A.
*LlONEL Cust, Esq., F.S.A.

The Lord de Lisle and Dudley.

The Duke of Devonshire, K.G., LL.D.,

*The Hon. Harold Dillon, Secretary

Society of Antiquaries.
Lieut.-Gen. Sir Martin Dillon, K.C.B.,

Henry Austin Dobson, Esq.
The Lord Donington.
Henry E. Doyle, Esq., C.B., R.H.A.,

Director of the National Gallery of

The Lady Louisa Egerton.
*JOHN Evans, Esq., D.C.L., Treas. R.S.,

President of the Society of Antiquaries.
The Hon. Sir Spencer Ponsonby Fane,

The Duke of Fife, K.T.
Basil Fitzherbert, Esq.
C. Drury Fortnum, Esq., D.C.L., F.S.A.
A. W. Franks, Esq., C.B., F.R.S.,Litt.D.,

V.P. Society of Antiquaries.
Edmund Gosse, Esq.
Lord Ronald Gower.
Vice-Admiral Sir William Graham,

K.C.B., President of Royal Naval

College, Greenwich.
The Marquess of Granby, M.P.


J. M. Gray, Esq., F.S.A. Scotland, Curator
of the Scottish National Portrait Gallery.
♦EvERARD Green, Esq., F.S.A.

Right Hon. Sir William Gregory,
K.C.M.G., F.R.S.

Arthur E. Griffiths, Esq., M.A.
♦H. A. Grueber, Esq., F.S.A.
*C. E. Hall6, Esq.

The Duke of Hamilton, K.T.

Right Hon. Lord George Hamilton,
M.P., First Lord of the Admiralty.

The Viscount Hardinge, F.S.A.

The Marquess of Hartington, M.P.

The Hon. Claude G. Hay.

Birkbeck Hill, Esq.
*R. R. Holmes, Esq., F.S.A., Librarian,
Windsor Castle.

The Viscount Hood.
*W. H. St. John Hope, Esq., Assistant
Secretary of the Society of Antiquaries.

J. M. Howden, Esq., F.S.A., Scotland.

General The Earl Howe, C.B.

The Earl of Ilchester

Henry Irving, Esq.
*Henry Jenner, Esq., F.S.A.

E. Burne-Jones, Esq.,A.R.A.
Felix Joseph, Esq.

W. E. Hartpole Lecky, Esq.

Sir Frederick Leighton, Bart., Presi-
dent of the Royal Academy.

The Earl of Lichfield.

The Hon. Schomberg K. McDonnell.

Major G. E. W. Malet.

Colonel H. E. Malet.

H. C. Maxwell Lyte, Esq., C.B., F.S.A.,
Deputy Keeper of the Public Records.

C. Trice Martin, Esq., F.S.A.

Sir John E. Millais, Bart., R.A., D.C.L.

Lady Millais.

F. D. Millet, Esq.

Alfred Morrison, Esq., F.R.G.S.
H. Montagu, Esq., F.S.A.

The Duke of Norfolk, K.G., Earl-

The Lord North.

The Duke of Northumberland, K.G.,
LL.D., D.C.L.
*F. M. O'Donoghue, Esq., F.S.A.

The Earl of Orford.

R. W, Cochran Patrick, Esq., LL.D.,
F.S.A., Under-Secretary for Scotland ;
Hon. Sec. Soc. of Antiquaries, Scotland.

The Hon. William A. Ponsonby.

The Duke of Portland.

Edward J. Poynter, Esq., R.A.

J. L. Propert, Esq., M.D.

C H. Read, Esq., F.S.A.

The Lord Reay, LL.D., G.C.I.E.

Sir J. C. Robinson, F.S.A., H.M. Surveyor
of Pictures.

The Earl of Rosebery, LL.D., F.R.S..

The Lord Rothschild.

Alfred de Rothschild, Esq.

The Lord Sackville.

The Marquess of Salisbury, K.G.,
D.C.L., LL.D.

The Earl of Sandwich.
*George Scharf, Esq., C.B., F.S.A., Direc-
tor and Secretary of the National Por-
trait Gallerj^

The Hon. Mrs. Maxwell-Scott.

W. Barclay Squire, Esq., F.S.A.
*IsiDORE Spielmann, Esq., F.S.A.

J. AsHBY Sterry, Esq.

L. Alma-Tadema, Esq., R.A., F.S.A.

The Earl Temple.

E. Maunde Thompson, Esq., D.C.L.,
F.S.A., Principal Librarian of the
British Museum.

H. D. Traill, Esq.

T. Humphrey Ward, Esq.

The Duke of Wellington.

The Duke of Westminster, K.G.

The 7iames tvith a?! asterisk form the Executive Committee.


The President and Members of the Committee of the Guelph Exhibition
take this opportunity to offer their most grateful thanks to all those who
have so kindly responded to their call, and have rendered the Exhibition
possible by intrusting their valuable possessions to their care. It is im-
possible to exaggerate the debt of gratitude which the Committee owe to
the Lenders of the objects of which this is the Catalogue.

The Committee have also to express their gratitude to Mr. G. Scharf,
C.B., for the ready assistance he has afforded them in tracing the principal
portraits of the period ; to Mr. H. Jenner, who has supplied the notes on the
manuscripts and autographs, together with the historical notice of the House
of Guelph ; and especially to Mr. H. A. Grueber, who, apart from the constant
help he has rendered in the organization of the Exhibition, has made himself
responsible for the compilation of the Catalogue and for the biographical
notices of the historical personages whose portraits are represented on the

vi Prefatory Note.

walls. For valuable assistance in the arrangement of the collection they have
also to offer their thanks to Mr. I. Spielmann, Mrs. Grueber, the Hon. Harold
Dillon, Mr. Lionel Cust, Mrs. H. Jenner, Mr. F. M. O'Donoghue : to the
Directors of the Gallery and their Secretary : and to Mr. Leonard C. Lindsay,
the Secretary of the Guelph Exhibition, for his continued and valuable services
in the organization and control of every department.

The Exhibition will remain open to the public till the 4th April,
from 10 to 6 daily.

The Directors of the New Gallery hope this extremely interesting series
of Historical Exhibitions may be continued in the winter of next year,
when it is proposed to illustrate the Reign of her Majesty the Queen.


The House of Guelph became extinct in the male line in 1047. Its
line may be traced in a shadowy manner from the Dukes of Alsace or
earlier from certain of the Frankish Mayors of the Palace down to a more
certain Warinus, Lord of Altdorf in Suabia, who lived about the year 750,
and was one of the Counts of the Court of Carloman. His son Isenbart
married Irmentrude, daughter of Childbrand, Duke of Suabia, and sister
of Hildegarde, wife of Charles the Great. To her is attributed the legendary
origin of the name of the House. It is said that, seeing a woman nursing
twins, she expressed a doubt as to the possibility of twins by the same
father. For her strange physiological theory she was punished by herself
having twelve children at a birth. Being naturally annoyed at this, she
directed the nurse to destroy eleven of them ; Isenbart, meeting her on
her way to obey the command, asked her what she was carrying, to which
she replied, "Whelps for drowning." Isenbart, however, discovered what
they were and saved their lives, and from them descend many of the
great German Houses. The eldest was called Welf or Guelph, to com-
memorate the incident, and with him, who died in 820, the House of
Guelph eo nomine begins. By grants, inheritance, and marriage, the Guelphs
acquired very large dominions in Bavaria, and after two centuries more
the main line ended in an heiress, Cunigunda, daughter of Guelph III.,
who married in 1040, Azo d'Este, Marquis of Este, Milan, &c., whose
descendants by her adopted the surname of Guelph. Thus it is that the
Royal House of Hanover is in the male line the House of Este, and
undoubtedly its proper name is " Guelph d'Este."

viii The House of Guelph.

The House of Este claims very high antiquity. It professes to descend
from Actius (hence the name Azd) in the reign of the elder Tarquin. The
pedigree, however, remains vague and improbable for the first thousand
years or more, and the earliest certain ancestor of the House seems to
be Albert of Este, who died in 938. He was Count of Este (a place
some twenty miles to the south-west of Padua) and also Marquis of Tuscany.
It was his great-grandson who married the heiress of the Guelphs.

Azo Guelph d'Este married a second time Garsenda or Ermengarda,
daughter of Hugh or Herbert, Count of Maine, and from Fulk, the son of this
marriage, descended that line of Este, Dukes of Modena and Ferrara, to
which the wife of King James II. belonged, which became extinct in the
male line at the death in 1803 of Ercole Rinaldo, whose representative in
the female line, curiously enough, represents also the Royal House of Stuart.
Guelph, the son of the first marriage, was the ancestor of the House of
Brunswick, which is therefore the elder branch of the House of Este.

More and more did the House of Guelph acquire power and sovereignty.
Through the marriage of Henry, son of Guelph, with Wolfhilda, daughter
of Magnus, Duke of Old Saxony, and of his son, Henry the Proud, with
Gertrude, heiress of Brunswick, they added the great dominions of the
Houses of Witekind and Billung in North Germany to their Bavarian
lands, until the next of the line, Henry the Lion, could say : —

" Heinrich der Lowe bin ich genannt,
In aller Welt und Wait bekannt ;
Von der Elbe bis an den Rhein,
Vom Harz bis an die See war mein."

Henry the Lion, however, for opposing the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa
was deprived of his Bavarian and Saxon dominions and driven into exile
at the Court of Henry II, of England, whose daughter Matilda he had
married. His son Otto became Emperor in 1 198, but was deposed in 1212.
It is curious that though a Guelph by family he seems to have sided with
the Ghibelline faction against the Pope as soon as he became Emperor. His
abdication was caused by his defeat by Philip Augustus of France at the

The House of Guelph. ix

Battle of Bouvihes, where the help of John of England was of no avail
to him. William of Winchester, called Longsword, the brother of Otto, con-
tinued the line, through his grandson Albert, who became Duke of Brunswick,
and died in 1279. The custom of subdivision of territory seems to have
become systematic in his time, though several separated lines subsequently
became extinct and their territories were reunited. Two sons of Albert,
Henry and Albert, founded the two branches of Grubenhagen and
Hanover, the first becoming extinct in 1596, and the second receiving the
dominions of Wolfenbiittel on the death of a third brother William.
The line of the second, Albert, continued, and Magnus Torquatus, his
grandson, at his death in 1373, gave Wolfenbiittel to his son Henry and
Luneburg to his son Bernard. The line of Henry became extinct in 1634.
and Wolfenbiittel reverted to Augustus, son of Henry, eldest son of Ernest
of Brunswick-Luneburg, the descendant of the above-mentioned Bernard,
while the possessions of Luneburg were held by the descendants of Ernest's
second son, W^illiam. From this time the two Houses of Brunswick-
Luneburg and Brunswick-Wolfenbiittel remained distinct, until by the
death of the last Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbiittel, in 1884, the heirship
of his dominions reverted to Ernest, King of Hanover, and Duke of
Cumberland, the head of the House of Brunswick-Luneburg. William, the
son of Ernest of Brunswick-Luneburg, was the father of George, Duke of
Brunswick-Luneburg, whose son Ernest was created Elector of Hanover in
1692 and married Sophia, youngest child of Frederick, Elector Palatine and
King of Bohemia, and Elizabeth, daughter of King James L of Great
Britain and Ireland. As all the senior descendants of James L were Roman
Catholics, the Act of Settlement excluded them, and entailed the Crown of
Great Britain and Ireland on the descendants of the Electress Sophia. The
excluded lines were those of James II., of Henrietta of Orleans, daughter of
Charles I., and of the elder children of Elizabeth of Bohemia. The Electress
Sophia died on the 8th of June, 17 14, losing by not quite two months the
succession to the Crown of England. Her son, George I., succeeded on
the first of August, 17 14. In 1816 the title of Elector of Hanover was
changed to that of King, and in 1837, in consequence of the Salic form of

The House of Guelph.

succession in Hanover, the Crown of that country was separated from that of
England, and given to Ernest, Duke of Cumberland, whose son, George V.,
was deprived of his kingdom by the Prussians in 1867, and the possessions of
the House of Brunswick- Luneburg were incorporated in those of the House of
Hohenzollern. In i860 the head, in the female Hne, of the younger branch of
the House of Este, Francis V., Duke of Modena, was deprived of his Italian
possessions, so that now this great House, the possessor of one of the most
magnificent pedigrees in Europe, has lost absolutely all of its hereditary

Note on the Guelphs and Ghibellines. — The origin of these
party names is somewhat curious. In Suabia the rival to the House of
Guelph was that of Weiblingen, which, according to some, was a branch
of the same family. The rivalry had nothing to do with Italian parties, but
when Frederick (Barbarossa) of Hohenstauffen, the descendant of Frederick,
Freiherr of Weiblingen and Hohenstauffen, became Emperor in 1152, and
Henry the Lion, his hereditary enemy, took the Pope's side against him,
the names of the two families noted for their hostility in their own country
were adopted in Italy — Guelph for the Papal party, and Weiblingen, Italianized
into Ghibelline, for the Imperial. These names continued long after the fall of
the House of Suabia had taken the Weiblingen family away from the con-
tests, and it was not until the rise of the House of Visconti at the end of the
fourteenth century united Italy against a common enemy that the parties
and their names ceased to exist.

FROM 1714— 1837.

GEORGE I, {1714-1727).

1 7 14. Townshend Prime Minister.

1715. Jacobite Rising. The Chevalier in Scot-


1 71 7. Stanhope Prime Minister.

1718. The Spanish fleet defeated at Cape Passaro

by Byng.

1720. The South Sea Bubble.

1721. Death of Stanhope. Walpole Prime

1727. Death of the King.

GEORGE II. (1727-1760).

1739. War declared against Spain.

,, Capture of Porto Bello.

,, Anson begins his voyage round the world.

1741. Retirement of Walpole. Lord Wilmington

Prime Minister.

1743, Battle of Dettingen.

„ Pelham Prime Minister.

1745. Battle of Fontenoy.
,, Rising in Scotland.

1746. Battle of CuUoden.

1751. Death of Frederick, Prince of Wales.

1754. Death of Pelham. Duke of Newcastle

Prime Minister.

1756. Minorca captured by the French.

1757' Execution of Admiral Byng.

,, Pitt's first Administration.

1759- Hawke's victory at Quiberon.

,, Quebec taken. Death of Wolfe.

1760. Canada conquered. Death of George 11.

GEORGE III. (1760-1820).

1761. Resignation of Pitt.

1762. Lord Bute Prime Minister.

1763. Resignation of Lord Bute. George Gren-

ville Prime Minister.
,, Arrest of Wilkes on " a general warrant."

1765. Resignation of Grenville. Marquess of

Rockingham Prime Minister.

1 766. Resignation of Rockingham. Pitt created

Earl of Chatham, His second Ministry.

Duke of Grafton Prime Minister.
1768. Resignation of Pitt.
1770. Resignation of the Duke of Grafton. Lord

North Prime Minister.
1775. Commencement of the American War of


1778. Death of Chatham.

1779. War with Spain.

1780. Rodney's Victory off Cape St. Vincent.

1782. Resignation of Lord North. Marquess of

Rockingham's second Administration.
,, Rodney's Victory over De Grasse in the

West Indies.
,, Relief of Gibraltar by Lord Howe.

1783. Resignation of Shelburne.
,, Coalition Ministry.

,, Pitt Prime Minister.
1786. Impeachment of Warren Hastings.

1797. Victory of Jervis off Cape St. Vincent.
,, Victory of Duncan off Camperdown.

1798. French Expedition to Egypt.
,, Nelson's Victory at the Nile.

1801. Resignation of Pitt. Addington Prime


Chronology of Remarkable Events.

1 80 1. Battle of Copeijhagen.
,, Battle of Alexandria.

1804. Pitt's Second Administration.

1805. Battle of Trafalgar, and death of Nelson.

1806. Death of Pitt.

,, Lord Grenville Prime Minister.
,, Death of Fox.

1807. Duke of Portland Prime Minister.
,, Bombardment of Copenhagen.

1808. Battle of Vimiera, and occupation of

Lisbon by the British troops.

1809. Battle of Corunna, and death of Sir John

,, Battle of Talavera.

1809. Perceval Prime Minister.

1 8 10. Battle of Busaco. Lines of Torres Vedras


181 1. The Regency.

,, Battle of Fuentes d'Onoro and Albuera.

181 2. Assassination of Perceval. Lord Liver-

pool Prime Minister.
,, Capture of Ciudad Rodiigo and Badajoz.
,, Battle of Salamanca.

1813. Battles of Vittoria and the Pyrenees.

,, Capture of St. Sebastian. Wellington
enters France.

1814. Battle of Toulouse.

,, Abdication of Napoleon.



Battle of Waterloo.
Peace of Paris.
Bombardment of Algiers.
Death of Princess Charlotte.
Death of George IIL

GEORGE IV. (1820-1830).

1820, Trial of Queen Caroline.

1821. Death of Queen Caroline.

1827. Canning Prime Minister, his death. Lord

Goderich Prime Minister.

1828. Duke of Wellington Prime Minister.
1830. Death of George IV.

WILLIAM IV. (1830-1837).

1831. Resignation of the Duke of Wellington.

Earl Grey Prime Minister.

1832. Reform Bill passed.

1833. Abolition of Slavery.

1834. Lord Melbourne Prime Minister.
,, Sir Robert Peel Prime Minister.

1835. Lord Melbourne's Second Administration.
1837. Death of William IV.


TJie Numbers commence in the West Gallery, a?id continue from left to right.

*** Throughout the Catalogue, in describing the pictures and medals, the
RIGHT and the LEFT mean those of the spectator facing the portrait.
His or her apply strictly to the persons represeitted.

The works are catalogued binder the names given to them by the Contributors.
The Committee can accept no responsibility as to their authenticity.



1. Sophia Dorothea, wife of George I. (1666-1726).

Daughter of George William, Duke of Zelle ; born September 15, 1666 ; married
November 21, 1682, George Lewis, hereditary Prince of Brunswick-Luneberg, afterwards
Elector, and King of England. Being accused of adultery with the Count of Koningsmark,
she was separated from her husband in 1694, and compelled to reside at the Schloss of
Ahlden on the Liineberger Heide, where she died, November 13, 1726,

Three-quarter length, life-size, seated facing, head to left, in^ pale pink dress and
blue mantle lined with ermine ; her hair is arranged in large curls over the temples ;
landscape in background. Canvas 54 x 47 in.

By H. H. Quitter. Lent by The Duke of Marlborough.


Exhibition ofmthe Royal House of Guelph.

2. Henry St. John, Viscount Bolingbroke (1678-175 i).

Statesman, diplomatist, &c. Son of Henry, Viscount St. John, educated at Eton and
Christ Church, Oxford ; entered Parliament for Wootton Basset, and, attaching himself
to Robert Harley, became Secretary for War during the period of Marlborough's most
brilliant victories, 1704- 1707. When Harley was again at the head of affairs in 17 10, St.
John became Secretary of State, took a prominent part in settling the peace of Utrecht,
and in I7i2was raised to the peerage as Viscount Bolingbroke. On the accession of George
I. he was deprived of office, impeached and attainted, and retiring to the Continent,
openly served the Chevalier. Being restored in blood in 1723 he returned to England,
bitterly opposed Walpole, and espoused the cause of Frederick Prince of Wales. He was
an intimate friend of Pope and Dean Swift. To Bolingbroke Pope dedicated his Essay on

Three-quarter length, life-size, to right, head facing, in peer's robes, lace cravat and
wig; left hand resting on table on which is coronet, left on his hip ; architectural back-
ground. Canvas 50 x 40 in.

By PoMPEO Battoni. Lent by The Lord Bagot.

3. Charles Mordaunt, 3RD Earl of Peterborough, K.G.


Son of John, Lord Mordaunt, whom he succeeded in 1675 ! entered the navy and
distinguished himself against the Aloors in Tangier, 1680. He accompanied the Prince of
Orange to England ; was created Earl of Monmouth in 1689, and succeeded to the
earldom of Peterborough on the death of his uncle in 1697. He was appointed in 1705
Commander-in-Chief of the English forces in Spain ; took Barcelona, and afterwards
successfully defended that city. For these services he received the thanks of Parliament,
and in 171 3 was created a K.G. During the reign of George I. he was made General
of the Marines. He died on his passage to Lisbon.

Three-quarter length, life-size, nearly full-face, in Garter robes, collar, &c., and wig ;
thumb of right hand thrust into his belt, left arm rests on table on which is placed his
plumed hat. Canvas 48 X 38 in.
By M. Dahl. Lent by The Earl of Carlisle.

4. Sarah Jennings, Duchess of Marlborough, and Lady Fitz-


The Duchess was the second daughter of Richard Jennings of Sandridge, Hertford.
At twelve years old she was received with her sister into the household of Mary, Duchess
of York, and became attendant to Princess Anne. Married in 1678 Col. John Churchill,
afterwards Duke of Marlborough ; appointed Lady of the Bedchamber to the Princess and
accompanied her in her flight on the landing of the Prince of Orange. A correspondence
was carried on by the Princess and her under the names of Mrs. Morley and Mrs.
Freeman. On the accession of Queen Anne she interfered much in political matters :
was supplanted by her cousin Mrs. Masham, and finally left the Court in 1710. Wrote
memoirs of her Court life: and died October, 1744.

WEST GALLERY,] Portraits.

Lady Fitzharding, daughter of Sir Edward Villiers, was governess to William, Duke of
Gloucester, and assisted the Princess Anne in making her escape in 1688. She married
John, Viscount Fitzharding, and died in 1708, in her 52nd year.

Three-quarter length, life-size figures ; the Duchess and Lady Fitzharding playing at
cards ; the latter holds the nine of diamonds conspicuously to the spectator ; the former
is seated on a parapet, on which she rests her left hand. Inscribed G. K7iellcr ft, 1691.
Canvas 58 x 43 in.

The Duchess, in her "Account of her Conduct," admits her partiality tocards, and says
of Lady Fitzharding that she was more than anybody in Queen Mary's favour, and
one " for whom it was well known I had a singular affection."

By Sir G. Kneller. Lent by The Duke of Marlborough.

5. Admiral John Byng (1704-175 7).

Son of George, Viscount Torrington, entered the Navy under his 'father's auspices,
rose to be Admiral, prevented supplies coming from France to Scotland in 1745, and
rendered other services. His attempts to relieve Fort St. Philip in Minorca in 1756,
when blockaded by the French fleet, proved abortive, and his hesitation in engaging the
enemy, when a bold attack might perhaps have led to victory, drew the clamours of the
nation against him. He was tried by court-martial, condemned and shot at Portsmouth,
March 14, 1757, meeting death with calm resignation.

Three-quarter length, life-size, to right, head facing ; in naval uniform and wig ; his
right arm rests on a gun, the hand holding a baton ; under his left arm, his hat ;
in the background, naval engagement. Canvas 50 X 40 in.

Lent by The Earl of Strafford.

6. George I. (1660-1727).

Son of Ernest Augustus, Elector of Hanover, and Sophia, daughter of Frederick, Elector
Palatine, and granddaughter of James L of England ; born at Osnaburg, May 28, 1660,
succeeded to the electorate on the death of his father in 1698, and ascended the throne of

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