England) Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies (Lon.

The claim of antiquity, with an annotated list of books for those who know neither Latin nor Greek; online

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The Claim of



Annotated List of Books

for those who know
* neither LATIN nor GREEK

Issued by the COUNCILS of The Societies for the

Tromotion of Hellenic and Roman Studies and of the

Classical Association




The Clam 6



Annotated List of Books

for those who know
neither LATIN nor GREEK

Issued by the COUNCILS of The Societies for the

Promotion of Hellenic and Roman Studies and of the

Classical ^Association










THE modern world is busy. Ancient Greece at times seems
ages away: the world of books is too large for any one person
to master. What claim, then, has this dead people on our

The claim of Greece may be put in Shelley's words :
* Although the scheme of Athenian society was deformed
by many imperfections which the poetry existing in chivalry
and Christianity has erased from the habits and institutions
of modern Europe, yet never at any other period has so
much energy, beauty, and virtue been developed ; never
was blind strength and stubborn form so disciplined and
rendered subject to the will of man, or that will less repugnant
to the dictates of the beautiful and true, as during the
century which preceded the death of Socrates ; of no other
epoch in the history of our period have we records and
fragments stamped so visibly with the image of the divinity
in man.' This is the judgement of a great poet, and one not
inclined to accept received opinions. Is it not natural that
any one interested in what humanity has achieved should
wish to know something of a people of which such words
can be spoken by such a judge? Or take another writer,
John Stuart Mill. He writes : ' The Greeks are the most
remarkable people who have yet existed. . . . They were
the beginners of nearly everything, Christianity excepted,
of which the modern world makes its boast. . . . They were
the founders of mathematics, of physics, of the inductive
study of politics, of the philosophy of human nature and



Again,. 15. any. ,o.ne. interested in humanity content
nainr irlGf ant -*o"f; $uch. % a\p.eople? A man who knows


to remain ignorant ; o"f; $Un/a\ people ?

nothing of Greece goes to his grave knowing nothing

of one of the greatest literatures of the West, and of the

nation which created not only almost every literary form

that we use, from drama to history, from the sermon to the

novel, but also the scientific study of nature and man : he

misses some of the profoundest thought about human nature

and the problems of social and political life.

How can the adult best study the classics ? First he
must decide whether he will study them in the original or
through a translation. If in the original, his main object
will be to learn as quickly as possible to read with fluency.
This will make his methods of study rather different from
those used in schools. He will content himself, for instance,
with a minimum of grammar.

Most adult students, however, will approach the classics
through translations. Translations are in many ways
unsatisfactory, especially in poetry and in proportion as the
work translated is one of real literary power. But they
are better than nothing ; they have been used with success,
and they can be so used again. Their value is immensely
enhanced if the reader knows a little of the language.

What are the first Greek works to read ? Students of
literature will turn first to Homer and to the Greek Drama.
Historians will go to Thucydides and Herodotus, those
interested in philosophy or in social and political theory to
Plato and Aristotle.

How are the books to be read ? It is essential to read
the authors themselves, and not merely books about them.
There are excellent books about the Greeks, but they are
only reflections from that central sun which gives them life.
On the other hand, plunging straight into a Greek book may

The fyaim of Qreece

lead to puzzlement or even disappointment. The geography,
the names, the religion, the social organizations are strange,
and there is a background of unfamiliar history. Further,
the Greek way of writing is very different from our own, and
its restraint and austerity are apt to seem cold on first
acquaintance, if we come to it unprepared.

First then we must grasp the historical background.
Then, having got the background, we must read the books.
Here a guide to each author is, if not a necessity, a great help.
Much will be missed by a reader who plunges into Plato
and Aristotle even into Homer or Euripides without
some work of literary criticism to assist his appreciation.
Where such works exist in English they have been indicated


All comments in this list/0//0w the titles of the books to which they

In the compilation of this list the cost of the books included has
throughout been considered ; the more expensive works it will often be
possible to consult in, or borrow from, public libraries. Nearly all the
books costing more than yj. 6d. mentioned in this list will be found in the
library of the Societies for Hellenic and Roman Studies, see below p. 30.
Students in many cases may be able to procure second-hand copies from
local booksellers, or from such firms as Messrs. Blackwell or Parker of
Oxford, HefFer or Bowes & Bowes of Cambridge, or Francis Edwards
of Marylebone High Street, W.C.

Help and advice can frequently be obtained from members of the
Classical Association, which has branches in most districts : students
should communicate either with the local Secretary of the branch in
their neighbourhood, or with the Assistant Secretary of the Classical
Association: Triangle Secretarial Offices, 6 1 Southampton Street, W. i.
For particulars of the Societies for the Promotion of Hellenic and Roman
Studies, and of the Classical Association, see below, p. 30.



I. General Works 6

II. Literature. General -Homer Age of Transition The
Great Age : (i) Greek Drama ; (ii) Historians ;

(iii) Philosophers ; (iv) Orators. Later Writers . 7

III. Philosophy and Religion 13

IV. History . . . . . . . . .14

V. Geography . . . . . . . 15

VI. Science 15

VII. Art and Archaeology 15

VIII. Social Life . . . 17


(a) General Works to serve as an Introduction to the
Study of Greek Civilization.

J. H. Breasted, Ancient Times. (Ginn & Co. 8.r. 6d.)

The best one-volume sketch of the general history of the
ancient world.

* G. L. Dickinson, The Greek View of Life. (Methuen. 5^.)
H. R. James, Our Hellenic Heritage. Part I. (Macmillan. 6,r.)

This part forms a" useful introduction to Homer and Herodotus ;
the second part is in preparation.

A. E. Zimmern, The Greek Commonwealth. (Oxford University Press.
3rd edition. i6j.)

An admirable study of life in the city state of Athens down to
the Peloponnesian War (431 B.C.).

* R. W. Livingstone (editor), The Legacy of Greece. (Oxford Univer-
sity Press. 7j. 6d.)

Essays by leading authorities on the achievements of Greece in
all fields; the chapters on Greek science form the best short
account of the subject.
' John A. Symonds, Studies of the Greek Poets. (Black. 2$s.)

R. W. Livingstone, The Greek Genius and its Meaning to Us. (Oxford

University Press. 7-r. 6d.}

S. H. Butcher, Some Aspects of the Greek Genius. (Macmillan. Js. 6d.}
Walter Pater, Greek Studies. A Series of Essays. (Macmillan. ys.6d.)
S. Casson, Ancient Greece. (Oxford University Press. 2s. 6d.)

(general Works

(b) Books of Reference.

Every student should procure an Atlas of the ancient world. The
best atlas is undoubtedly Murray's Small Classical Atlas edited by
G. B. Grundy (Murray. 9^.). The Atlas of Ancient Geography in the
Everyman Library (Dent, 2s.) is less satisfactory.

Amongst general books of reference for the student of Greek
civilization the most useful are William Smith's Classical Dictionary of
Greek and Roman Biography^ Mythology, and Geography, last edition by
G. E. Marindin (Murray. 2U.), and the Companion to Greek Studies
edited by Leonard Whibley (Cambridge University Press. [3rd edn.]
25^.). There is also a small Dictionary of Mythology in the Everyman
Library (Dent. 2s.).

Students will also find many excellent articles in the Encyclopaedia
Brltannlca (nth edition). At the end of these articles admirable lists
of books on the subject are given.



Gilbert Murray, History of Ancient Greek Literature. (Heinemann. 6j.)
The best short history of Greek literature. Every student
would be well advised to read this book.
R. C. Jebb, Primer of Greek Literature. (Macmillan. is. $d.)

The Oxford University Press hopes to publish shortly a book of
translations from the great Greek writers (edited by R. W. Livingstone)
designed to give a summary view of Greek literature.

Note. The following are the chief series in which translations of the

classics are published :

, The Loeb Classical Library. Original text and English translation.

(Heinemann, London. IDS. a vol.)

Oxford Library of Translations. (Oxford University Press. 6s. a vol.)
Everyman Library. (J. M. Dent & Sons,, Bedford Street, London.

2s. a vol.)

World's Classics. (Oxford University Press. 2s. a vol.)

Bohn Library. (Bell & Sons, London. 6s. a vol.)

Translations of Christian Literature. Series /. Greek Texts (Society

for Promoting Christian Knowledge, London), for the early Christian

Classics. (Various prices.)



Prose Translations

Lang, Leaf, and Myers, The Iliad of Homer. (Macmillan. 6,r.)
Butcher and Lang, The Odyssey of Homer. (Macmillan. 4^.)

The poems are perhaps best read in these excellent prose

Verse Translations
Pope's Iliad in the World's Classics. (Oxford University Press. 2s.)

A brilliant translation, if remote from the Hellenic spirit.
William Morris, The Odyssey , in his Collected Works. (Longmans.)
J. W. Mackail, The Odyssey. (Murray. 3 vols. 6s. each.)
Francis Caulfield, The Odyssey. (Bell. 7*. 6J.)

With Homer should be read for literary appreciation
Matthew Arnold, On Translating Homer. (Murray. 3 J. 6 d.)
L. Abercrombie, Epic (M. Seeker, is.) is a suggestive essay.
H.Browne, A Handbook of Homeric Study. (Longmans. 6,r.)

A useful summary of the Homeric question, and an illustrated
account of recent archaeological research in its bearing upon the
Homeric Age.


A. W. Mair, Hesiod. Oxford Translations. (Oxford University
Press. 6s.)

The Works and Days of Hesiod gives a picture of a Greek
farmer's life about the eighth century B. c.

W. Headlam, Book of Greek Verse. (Cambridge University Press.
8*. 6.V.)

This includes translations from Greek lyric poetry.

(i) Greek Drama.

J. T. Sheppard, Greek Tragedy. Cambridge Primers. (Cambridge

University Press, vs. 6d.)
Gilbert Norwood, Greek Tragedy. (Methuen. 12s. 6d.)

Good introductions to the study of the Greek drama. ^
A. E. Haigh, The Tragic Drama of the Greeks. (Oxford University

Press. 14-f.)

Roy C. Flickinger, The Greek Theater and its Drama. (University of
Chicago Press. $3.00.)

This may be consulted on the influences affecting Greek drama.



Prose Translation

W. Headlam. Bohn Library. (Bell. 6s. ; separate plays u. $d.

Verse Translations

E. D. A. Morshead, The House of Atreus. (Agamemnon, Libation-
Bearers and Furies), and

E. D. A. Morshead, The Suppliant Maidens, The Persians, The Seven
against Thebes, The Prometheus Bound. (Macmillan. 2 vols.
3-r. 6d. each.)

Of complete verse translations this is perhaps the best.

G. M. Cookson, Four Plays of Aeschylus. (Blackvvell. Oxford. 6s.)
( = The Suppliant Maidens, The Persians, The Seven against
Thebes, Prometheus Bound.)

Gilbert Murray, Agamemnon. (Allen & Upward, is. 6^/.)

R. C. Trevelyan, The Oresteia of Aeschylus, Agamemnon, Choephori,
Eumenides (Bowes & Bowes. Cambridge. $s.) is an abbreviated
acting version arranged for the recent performance at Cambridge
(with Greek text).


Prose Translation
R. C. Jebb. (Cambridge University Press. 7^. 6^7.)

Verse Translations

L. Campbell in World's Classics. (Oxford University Press. 2s.)

Perhaps the best verse translation.
Gilbert Murray, Oedipus, King of Thebes. (Allen Unwin. is. 6</.)

The student might also consult
L. Campbell, Sophocles. (Macmillan. is. 90*.)


Verse Translations

A. S. Way, The Tragedies of Euripides in English Verse. 3 vols.
(Macmillan. Only vol. i is now in print. IO.T.)

This translation includes all the plays, and can also be obtained
(complete) in the Loeb Library. (Heinemann, 4 vols. los. each.)

2614 A 3


Gilbert Murray has translated the following plays : Alcestis, Bacchae,
Electra, Hippolytus, Iphigenia in Tauris, Medea, Rhesus, Trojan
Women. (Allen & Unwin. 2s. 6d. or Is. 6d. each ; or in two
volumes, 6s. each.)

The translations of the Hippolytus and the Bacchae, together
with a translation of the Frogs of Aristophanes with an Intro-
duction The Athenian Drama, vol. iii. (Allen & Unwin. 8s. 6d.)
These translations are the work of a scholar and a poet and will
be found the most attractive to the general reader.

In the Everyman Library there are two volumes (Dent. 2s.
each) of translations by various writers, including Shelley.
The student might also consult

G. Murray, Euripides and his Age, in the Home University Library.
(Williams & Norgate. 2s. 6d.)


Verse Translations

B. B. Rogers. The plays are being published separately at 2s. each.

J. H. Frere, selected plays in the World's Classics (Oxford University

Press. 2J.) and in the Everyman Library (Dent. 2s.).
Gilbert Murray, The Frogs. (Allen Unwin. is. 6d.) With notes.

Also included for its criticism of Euripides in The Athenian Drama,

vol. iii Euripides. (Allen & Unwin. Ss. 6d.)

(ii) Historians.


G. Rawlinson, in Everyman Library. 2 vols. (Dent. 2s. each).


R. Crawley, in Everyman's Library. (Dent. 2s.)
B. Jowett, 2 vols. (Oxford University Press. 15^.)


H. G. Dakyns. The March of the Ten Thousand. (Macmillan. 4> r.)
Three Essays. [On Horsemanship, Hunting t/ &c.]

(Macmillan. 6,r.)
J. B. Bury, Ancient Greek Historians. (Macmillan. 1 5^-.)

Contains interesting essays on Herodotus, Thucydides, and

Literature 1 1

(iii) The Philosophers.

The Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, and Phaedo. These four
dialogues can be read in Benjamin Jowett' s translation in The
Four Socratic Dialogues of Plato (Oxford University Press.
4J-. 6d.\ or in that of F. J. Church in The Trial and Death of
Socrates (Macmillan. 3r. 6d.)

Phaedrus, Lysis, and Protagoras. Translated by J. Wright. (Mac-
millan. 3r. 6d.)
The Republic. Translated by J. LI. Davies and D. J. Vaughan.

(Macmillan. 3^. 6d)

Five Dialogues of Plato bearing on Poetic Inspiration. Everyman
Library. (Dent. 2s.)

Contains Shelley's translation of the Symposion.

Socratic Discourses by Plato and Xenophon. Everyman Library. (Dent. 2 s.)
Contains a translation of Xenophon's Memorabilia.
Students should also consult the admirable Lectures on the Repub-
lic of Plato by R. L. Nettleship. (Macmillan. lOs. 6d.)

The complete translation of the Dialogues of Plato by Benjamin
Jowett (Oxford University Press. 105^.) is excellent, but is
unfortunately out of print. (A few copies of older editions remain.)
A. E. Taylor, Plato. (Constable, is. 6d.)

A good short introduction.

Ernest Barker, Greek Political Theory. Plato and his Predecessors.
(Methuen. 14^.)

A good introduction to Greek political thought.


Ethics. J. E. C. Welldon, The Nicomachaean Ethics. (Macmillan.

Ss. 6d.)
F. H. Peters, The Nicomachean Ethics of Aristotk. (Kegan

Paul. 6s. 6d.)
J. H. Muirhead, Chapters from Aristotle's Ethics. (Murray.

9^.) Has full selections and excellent discussions.
Politics. Translated by Benjamin Jowett. (Oxford University Press.

4-r. 6d.)

Translated by J. E. C. Welldon. (Macmillan. i2s. 6d.)
Poetics. I. Bywater, On the Art of Poetry. (Oxford University Press.
2s. 6d.)

A translation with a preface by G. Murray.


S. H. Butcher, Theory of Poetry and Fine Art. (Macmillan.

I os. 6d.) Contains a translation and interesting essays.
A. E. Taylor, Aristotle. In People's Books Series. (T. C. Jack,
T. Nelson & Sons. is. $d.) Is a useful short introduction.

(iv) The Orators.

These are difficult to appreciate in an English version, and it will be
sufficient here to refer to the translation of the speeches of Demosthenes
by C. Rann Kennedy. Bohn Library. (Bell. 5 vols. 6s. each.)
The Crown, the Philippics, and ten other Orations of Demosthenes.
Everyman Library. (Dent. 2s.)

A selection from Kennedy's translation.

For most students the best translation will probably prove to be that of
A. W. Pickard- Cambridge, Demosthenes' Public Orations. Oxford
Translations. (Oxford University Press. 2 vols, los.)

The first volume contains a useful introduction.
S. H. Butcher, Demosthenes. (Macmillan. is. yd.)
An admirable biographical sketch. '

Later Writers.

Pastoral Poetry and Idylls : Andrew Lang, Theocritus, Bion and

Moschus. (Macmillan. 3^. 6d.)
A prose translation.
C. S. Calverley, in the Bohn Library. (Bell. 6s.)

A verse translation of Theocritus.

A. S. Way, Theocritus, Bion and Moschus. (Cambridge Univer-
sity Press. $s.)
A verse translation.
Greek Anthology : Selections in prose translation by J. W. Mackail.

(Longmans. $s. 6d.)
Graham R. Tomson, Selections from the Greek Anthology. (Walter

Scott. 2s.)
An excellent selection.
Satire: Lucian. Translation by H. W. Fowler and F. G. Fowler.

(Oxford University Press. 4 vols. 2is.)
Lucian was a satirist of life and thought in the Roman Empire
of the second century A. D. ; interesting and entertaining reading.
biography. Plutarch's Lives : in Everyman Library. 3 vols. (Dent.
2s. each.) Translation by A. M. Clough.

Or in Bohn Library. 4 vols. (Bell. 6s. each.) Translation
by Stewart and Long.

Literature 1 3

Later Moralists.

(a) Stoics. Epictetus : Oxford Translations. (Oxford University

Press. 2 vols. icu.) Translation by P. E. Matheson.
Or in Everyman Library. (Dent. 2s.)
Marcus Aurelius, in the World's Classics. (Oxford Univer-
sity Press. 2j.)

(b) Plutarch : Moralia, in Everyman Library. (Dent. 2s.)


(a) Philosophy.

W. T. Stace, Critical History of Greek Philosophy. (Macmillan.
7-r. 6d.)

A good general sketch.

R. Adamson, The Development of Greek Philosophy. (Black wood.
los. 6d.}

Incomplete, but excellent.
J. Burnet, Greek Philosophy. Part I. Thales to Plato. (Macmillan.


E. R. Bevan, Stoics and Sceptics. (Oxford University Press, 6s.)
W. W. Tarn, Antigonos Gonatas, chap. viii. (Oxford University Press.
I 4 J.)

For Bion and the philosopher as missionary.
C. Bigg, Neoplatonism. (Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge.


The standard work uniting learning with an appeal to the
general reader is that of Gomperz : The Greek Thinkers. 4 vols.
(Murray. 2 is. each.)
See also the Philosophers in II.

(b) Religion.

J. Adam, The Religious Teachers of Greece. (T. & T. Clark. 12s.)
C. H. Moore, The Religious Thought of the Greeks : from Homer to the

Triumph of Christianity. (Oxford University Press. los. 6d.)

Perhaps the best short survey of the whole subject.
J. E. Harrison, Ancient Art and Ritual. Home University Library.

(Williams & Norgate. 2s. 6d.}



(a) General.

C. H. Hawes and H. B. Hawes, Crete the Forerunner of Greece, in

Harper s Library of Living Thought. (Harper. 3^.)

The best short sketch of the pre-Hellenic Aegean civilization.
H. R. Hall, The Ancient History of the Near East, chap. ii. The

Older Civilization of Greece. (Methuen. 2U-.)
H. R. Hall, Aegean Archaeology. (Lee Warner. 1 2s. 6d.)
J. L. Myres, The Dawn of History, in Home University Library.

(Williams & Norgate. 2s. 6d.) Brilliant and stimulating.
C. A. FyfFe, Greece. History Primers. (Macmillan. is. 9^.)

Good sketch published in 1892 : hence does not include any

account of the early civilization of Crete.
C. D. Edmonds, Greek History for Schools. (Cambridge University

Press. 6s. 6d.)
H. B. Cotterill, Ancient Greece -, in c Great Nations ' Series. (Harrap.

Well illustrated.
J. B. Bury, History of Greece. (Macmillan. 2nd edn. 1OJ.)
The standard one-volume history.

George Grote's History of Greece is a classic ; although the early
part of the work is now antiquated, this famous history should not be
neglected. It is most easily accessible in the Everyman Library. . 1 2
vols. (Dent. 2s. each vol.)

For shorter edition see below (b).

See also Encyclopaedia Britannica (nth edn.) articles on Aegean
Civilization, Crete (both well illustrated) and Greece 2. History.

(b) Special Periods.

P. N. Ure, The Greek Renascence. (Methuen. 6,r.)

A popular account of the civilization of early Ionia.
J. A. K. Thomson, Greeks and Barbarians. (Methuen. 8s. 6d.)

A readable collection of essays : valuable for the period of

G. Grote, History of Greece, Solon to 40$ B. C. Condensed and edited
by J. M. Mitchell and M. O. B. Caspari. (Routledge. 5-r.)

Reproduces the most valuable parts of Grote's history.
L. W. Hopkinson, Greek Leaders. (Constable. 5^.)

Excellent biographical sketches of Greek generals and statesmen.

History 1 5

D. G. Hogarth, The Ancient East, in the Home University Library.
(Williams & Norgate. 2s. 6d.)

For the contact between Greece and the East.

J. P. MahafFy, Alexander s Empire, in the Stones of the Nations series.
(Fisher Unwin. 7-r. 6d.)

A continuous history of Greece for the period after the death
of Alexander.

The Silver Age of the Greek World. (University Press, Chicago

[1906]. Pubd. at $3.00.)
W. S. Ferguson, Greek Imperialism. (Constable. 8s. 6d.)

The best general account of the Hellenistic kingdoms.


H. F. Tozer, Classical Geography. (Macmillan. is. gd.)

J. L. Myres, Greek Lands and the Greek People. (Oxford University
Press, is. 6d.)

J. G. Frazer, Studies in Greek Scenery, Legend and History. (Mac-
millan. 5 J> ')

A. E. Zimmern, The Greek Commonwealth. Part I. (Oxford
University Press. 3rd edition. i6,r.)


Essays on Greek Science will be found in The Legacy of Greece

(Oxford University Press. Js. 6d.).

Charles Singer, Greek Biology and Greek Medicine. (Oxford Univer-
sity Press. 2s. 6d.)

J. L. Heiberg, Mathematics and Physical Science In Classical Antiquity.
(Oxford University Press. 2s. 6d.)

Sir Thomas Heath, The Copernicus of Antiquity (Arlstarchus of Samos)
in the series Pioneers oj Progress.

(Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, is. $d. or 2s.)

Archimedes. (Same publishers and prices.)


(a) General.

A. Michaelis, A Century of Archaeological Discovery. (Murray. l8j.)
The best account of modern discoveries.


G. M. A. Richter, Metropolitan Museum of New Tork. Handbook to
the Classical Collection. (2nd edn. 50 c.)

Perhaps the best brief popular introduction to the study of Greek
Art in the language.

H. N. Fowler and J. R. Wheeler, A Handbook of Greek Archaeology.
(American Book Co., Chicago [1909]. $2.00.)

A concise and scholarly account of the various branches of
Greek Art.
H. B. Walters, The Art of the Greeks. (Methuen. 15*.)

Well illustrated.
P. Gardner, Principles of Greek Art. (Macmillan. iyj.)

(b) Architecture.

E. Bell, Hellenic Architecture. (Bell. 7*. 6d.)

A well illustrated introduction.
Anderson and Spiers, The Architecture of Greece and Rome. (Batsford.)

A new edition is in preparation.

(c) Sculpture.

E. A. Gardner, Handbook of Greek Sculpture. (Macmillan. 12s. 6d.)

The best general introduction to the subject.
G. F. Hill, A Hundred Masterpieces of Sculpture. (Methuen. IOJ. 6d.)

These are admirably selected, described, and illustrated.
Guy Dickins, Hellenistic Sculpture. (Oxford University Press. i6.r.)

A good work on later Greek sculpture.

(d) Vase-Painiing.

E. Buschor, Greek Vase- Painting. Translated by G. Richards.
(Chatto & Windus. 2$s.)

A first- rate treatise.
E. Pottier, Douris andthe Painters of Greek Vases. (Murray. IOJ. 6d.)

1 3

Online LibraryEngland) Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies (LonThe claim of antiquity, with an annotated list of books for those who know neither Latin nor Greek; → online text (page 1 of 3)