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teis;'!?!'?:; :- -'^ ■-,






THE JOURNAL



OF



HELLENIC STUDIES



THE SOCIETY Fol? THE PllOMOTlON OF HELLENIC STUDIES



THE JOURNAL



OF



HELLENIC STUDIES



VOLUME XXIII. (1903)



KRAUS REPRINT

Nendeln/Liechtenstein
1972



Reprinted by permission of
THE SOCIETY FOR THE PROMOTION OF HELLENIC STUDIES

KRAUS REPRINT

A Division of

KRAUS-THOMSON ORGANIZATION LIMITED

Nendcln/Liechtenstein

1972

Printed in Germany
Lessingdruckerei Wiesbaden



CONTENTS.



Kules of the Society

List of Officers and Members

Proceedings of the Society, 1901-1902

Additions to the Library

Notice to Contributors



Dawkins (R. M.)...
Dent (E. J.)
Dick INS (G.)

Frost (K.T.)
Gardiner (E. N.)

>> j> • • •

Gardner (I*]. A.) ...

Gardner (P.)
Goodspeed (E. J.)
Harrison (J. E.)...
Hasluck (F. \V.)
Hirst (G. M.) ..
lorimer (h. l.) ...
Macdonalu (G.) ...
Mackenzie (D.) ...
Strong (E.)
Wack(A. J.B.) ...
Williams (T. H.)

Notices of Books

Index of Subjects

Greek Index

List of Books Noticed



IX
XV

xxxvii

liii
Iv
248
71

325

217

54

261



Pottery from Zakro

Mr. Headlam's Theory of Greek Lyric Metre

Some Points with regard to the Homeric
House

The Statues from Cerigotto [Plates VIII., IX.]

The Method of Deciding the Pentathlon

Notes on the Greek Foot Race

The BroDze Statue from Cerigotto [Plates

VIII., IX.] 152

Two Heads of Apollo [Plate III. ] 117

Alexandrian Hexameter Fragments [Plate X.] 237

... 292

75

... 24

... 132

92

... 157

... 356

... 335

1

206, 360

... 369

... 374

... 376



Mystica Vannus lacchi

Inscriptions from Cyzicus

The Cults of Olbia (Part II.)

The Country Cart of Ancient Greece
Eaily Seleucid Portraits [Plates I., IL]
The Pottery of Knossos [Plates IV.-VII.]
Three Sculptured Stelai [Plates XI.-XIIL]
Recent ExcavatioDS in Asia Minor
Theosrnis and his Poems ...



VI



CONTENTS.



LIST OF PLATES.

J,, II. Early Seleucid Portraits.

III. The Oldfield Head of Apollo.

IV. Neolithic Ware from Knossos.
V. Minoan Cups from Knossos.

VI., VII. Minoan Pottery from Knossos.

VIII. Head of Bronze fiom Cerigotto.

IX. Bronze Statue from Cerigotto.

X. Alexandrian Hexameter Fragment.

XI. Stele of Melislo and Epigenes.

XII. Stele of Arkesis.

XIII. Stele of an Actor.



CONTENTS. vii

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN THL TEXT.

\■^<■^Z

lliunze Coins of Olbia in the Biitibh 3Iuseum oo, o4

,, ,, ,, ,, Berlin Museum 42, 51

Inscriptions from < 'yzicus 7H

Kelief of Timolaus and Diouysius from Cyzicus 79

„ Asclepins ,, ,, ^1

,, Aur. Apollodorus ,, ,, '"^-t

Stele of Apollo from Cyzicus ^8

The Pourtales Head of Apollo 118

The Oldfield Head of Apollo 119

Head from the Mausoleum 122

The same with Shoulder 125

Statue of Agias from Delphi 129

The Lansdowne Heracles 129

Pyxis at Athens (Wedding Scenes) 133

Relief in Villa Albani (Silenus and Priapus on Carl) 134

Scene from a Cabeiric Vase (Wedding Procession) 137

„ (Wine-cart) 13H

Corinthian Pinax at Berlin (Chariot) 139

From a Chalcidian Vase in Brit. Mus. (Farm cart) ..., 139

Terracotta from Cyprus at Athens (Country-cart) 140

From R.F. Amphora at Munich (Travelling-cart) 142

Wooden Wheels from Mercurago 14(3

Pottery of Knossos 167, 175-178, 180, 186, 189, 191-193, 195-198, 204

Polycleitan Statuette from Cerigotto 222

Statuette of Hermes ,, ,, 22G

Marble Figure ,, ,, 231

Portrait of a Philosopher ,, ,, ... 233

Pottery from Zikro 249—259

Creek Foot Bace : R.F. Amphora in the Louvre 270

,, It. F. Kylix formerly at Naples 271

,, ,, „ Pelike belonging to Dr. Hau.ser

,, ., „ II. F. Kylix, Munich

„ .. ,,. „ „ inB.M. (EG) 273

Berlin 277

,, ,, ,, Euphronius Kylix, Paris 278

,, „ ., B.F. Kylix, formerly at Berlin 278

„ „ ,, Reconstruction of the Armed Race 279

,, ., ,, Bourguignon Skyphos 283

K.E. Kylix, Munich 2S4

inB.M. (E 818) 285



272



CONTENTS.



lAOF,



Greek Foot Race : R.F. Kylix, ia B.M. (E 78) 285

„ „ M „ u Cambridge 286

„ in B.M. (E 22) 288

Hermes in the Liknon (R.F. Kylix) 294

Coins of Nicaea and Hadriani in the B3I 205

Child in Liknon (Terracotta plaque in B.M.) 295

„ ,, (Pashley Sarcophagu.*^) 206

Liknon with First fruits (Relief in Louvre) 297

,, erected (Helief in Munich) 208

Modern Winnowing ' Fan ' from France 299

Winnowing ' Fan ' in use 300

Cietan ^I'/DvciAci 303

Winnowing Implements in use in Finland 309

Brass of Sir Robert de Setvans (Chartham) 312

The Liknon in use in Eleusinian Mysteries (Urn at Romi-) 313

Carrying of Likna at Marriage Procession (B.F. Vase in B.M., B 174) ... 315

Liknon and Dionysiac Mask (Verona) 318

Disk in Fitzwilliam Museum 319

Stucco Relief (Museo delle Terme) 321

Blue glass amphora (Florence) 322

Plan of the Homeric House 326

The Palace at Tiryns 326

Plans of Houses at Cnossus 327

„ ,, ,, Phylakopi 327

„ Palace at Mycenae 327

Pergamum : Plan of Excavations 337

,, Entrance to Second Gymnasium Terrace 339

Ephesus : Plan 340

„ Restoration of Hellenistic Gate 342

„ ,, Roman Entrance 343

,, Plan of Western End of Lysimachean Wall 344

„ Restoration of Round Monument 345

„ Bronze athlete 346

,, Bronze lampstand 347

„ Marble female head 348

„ Male portrait head as Hermes 348

„ Boy with duck 348

„ Head of goddess with diadem 348

„ Portrait bust of priest 349

,, Panels of frieze of Hunting Erotes 349,350

,, Amazon relief 350

Miletus: Plan 351

,, West End of Stage Building 353

„ Southern Gate 354



THEOGNIS AND HIS POEMS.



Tkeognis, Theagenes, and Megara.

The collection of elegiac poems which bears the name of Theognis offers
one of the most interesting problems in the literary history of Greece, and, in
spite of many tentative solutions, it must be admitted that the origin and
composition of this anthology still remain a mystery. We know that the
Theognidea include poems composed by Tyrtaeus, Mimnermus, and Solon, and
it is therefore by no means unlikely that they also include a great number of
other elegies that can no longer be traced to their proper sources. As the
object of the following article is to discuss a few points connected with the
poet's life and political surroundings, we must first of all discover some test
which will enable us to distinguish the genuine poems of Theognis from those
of other poets represented in the collection. We can safely assume that
Theognis is the author of all the elegies in Book I. which contain the name
of Cyrnus, the young noble to vfhom the poet addressed so many of his
didactic and political poems. For the name of Cyrnus is the a(f>pr)yi<: ^
referred to by the poet in elegy 19-26, as something which will lead to the
detection of the theft, if the poems are stolen. The (T<f>prjyi<; cannot, as some
suppose, be the name of the poet himself: the mere insertion of the name
of Theognis at the beginning or end of a collection of disconnected poems
would afford no protection against plagiarism. What was wanted was a mark
attached to each poem, and it is to serve this purpose that the vocative
Kvpve is so frequently introduced.^



1 19 Kvpvt, ffo4>tCoiJ^iyv M*'' ^Moi (r(ppriy^t t*i- rov Mtyapiot' wivras 8e Kar' avOpdnoxit

Kf'ia0<i) ipofuurrds.'

ToiffS' tirtffiv, Kij<Tti 8' oSirort kX'tttS- arroHviv 8' oHiru wavif kittv ivrafuw

ovii Tii iX\e({«t KiKiov ravaBKov Trap- Ztb$

t6vrof oM* tup wivTiffa' hfiivti oCt' ipixoif
S,it it iras T£i ip«h '9*vyni6s iffriv * It occurs over 75 tiin*«.

H.8.— VOL. XXI II. B



2 T. HUDSON WILLIAMS

Sitzlor in his edition of Theognis certainly goes too far when he rejects
almost every poem that does not bear this 'seal ' : for an elegy may often be
a mere fragment, and we need not suppose that Theognis affixed the ' seal *
to all the poems he ever composed. But as material to illustrate the poet's
life the remaining poems in the collection must be used with the greatest
caution, and mere occurrence in the collection should never induce us to
accept a j)oem as genuine.

Outside tiie Theognidea, we have no trustworthy information about the
poet himself, and every reference to him in the works of ancient writers has
been the subject of violent controversy. The ancients could not agree even
on the (ptestion of his home and birthplace. In v. 23 he calls himself
' Theognis the Megarian.' The poems contain such clear references^ to the
Nisaean Megara on the Isthmus of Corinth that most modern scholars agree
in regarding Theognis as a native of that town. The ancients, it is true,
were divided in their opinions, and many preferred the claims of Megara in
Sicily. The latter had the support of Plato, who* refers to Theognis as
iroXiTqv Twv ev %iKe\la Vie'yapeoiv : in spite of many ingenious suggestions^'



^ M«70(j€i/$ ' witliout ail a'ijective ' naturally
means 'a native of the Mepaia ' and no one
will Jeiiy the claim of Nisat.-in Mcj^ara to that
distinction.

The political situation described in the
Tbeognidca corresponds ( lo.sely with the
accounts of Megara giv.n by Aristotle and
Plutarch. Many expn-.ssions in the poems U!i-
doubtedly refer to Nisaean Megara, but we
cannot be always certain tliat Theognis is the
author of the poems in qne^tion.

The opening couplet of elegy 773-782 con-
tains a leference to continental Megara, and its
patron Apollo.

^ol^t 6.va.^, ainhs fitv (irupyiiXTas Te6\ii' a.Kprjv,
'A.KKa86if> niXo-Kos naiSl x^P'C'^M^''''^-
For we know that Apollo hel[ied Alcathous to
rebuild the walls of Me>;ara ; and one of the
town's citadels bears the name of Alcathous.
(Pans. i. 42). Alcathous is said to have
dedicated a temple to 'Air6\Ko>v iypdios and
"ApTtfiis kyporipa {Piua. i. 41). The opening
pocujs of the collection are addressed to deities
especially connected with Megara, viz. Apollo
and Artemis, who figure ]>rominently on the
bronze and silver coins of the state.
♦ Laws. 629 a.

'KB. ■KpoaTTiaaifjitBa yodv Tvpraiov, rhv <pia(i
ftXv ' KBrivaluv, riavif 5e ■KoKirriv ytvSfxfvov. . . .
030 A6. 'Hfiui h( yt ayadwv ivroiv roxnoiv ?ti
^a/itc kutivovi flvai Ka\ iroKv tovs iv r(fi fi(yiffT(f>
roKifiif yiyyofitvovi ipiarovs SiOipauuis- ■wonjTr)i'
S« Kai vtitii fjidprvpa (xofjifv, ^loyvtv, itoAItt}!'
Tuy o 2iK(A(a Vlfyapiwv.

' Most modern critics endeavour to remove the



difficulty by acceptingthe suggestion of a scholi-
ast (quoted by Sitzler, Tlieognidis Reliquiae,
addenda to p. 49) rl Si ^KwKi'tv avThf (k Tavrrjs
fifv flvat rfis MtyapiSos, airfKBovra 5e eis SiKcAiaf,
iii T) icTopia ?x^'j yfVfffBai v6fi.\f Vityapta 4ku, wj
Kol rhi Tvpraiov AuKtSaifjiivtov : Plato, tliey say,
knew that Theognis was a native of Ni.saean
Megara, and in the passage under discussion be
tells us that the poet had received the franchise
in the Sicilian city. Had Plato meant this, he
would surely have added the word yiv6^i(vov to
7ro\'nr\v (as in the case of Tyrlacus). Welcker
(followed by Sitzler) removes the difficulty by
assuming that in the above quotation from the
Laws the words Koi Tjfitlt mean ' we inhabitants
of Attica.' This would certainly make every-
tiiing clear, but such a tran.slation is quite
imposs-ible. Although the speaker is an
Athenian, kai rifie'is (like vfius 8«' two lines
earliir) can only mean ' we, and those who
agree with us on this point,' 'we who differ
from Tyrtaeus in our views can also bring for-
ward a poet in support of our 0]iinion6.'
Theognis is not brought upon the stage as a
native of Attica to meet Tyrtaeus the Spartnn.
Such a contra.st is out of question here. .Not
only would it be irrelevant and out of place,
but Tyrtaeus liim.sclf has at the very outset
been claimed not merely as a native of Attica,
but as an Athenian. The two poets are intro-
duced to represent not two districts but two
shades of opinion on the question at issue,
viz. the respective merits of ardvis and 6
i^wBfu -irSKf/xos as tests ol a man's good quali-
ties.



THEOOXl.S AND HIS POEMS. ."^

it is impossible to reconcile cotiHicting statements by explaining these words
away, and we must admit that Plato looked upon Sicilian Megara as the home
of our poet. But the protests of the ancients " and the testimony of the
poems themselves justify us in rejecting the philosoplier's statement and
accepting the claims of continental Megara on the borders of Attica. So
strong is the evidence in support of this view that even the two (icrman
critics^ who refuse to regard Nisaean Megara us the home and biithplace of
the poet, have found themselves compelled to connect him with that town,
and fi» admit that at least part of his life was spent there.

We must next discuss the question of date. In elegy ^ 53-60 Theognis
deals with the changes in the political situation, and informs us that
sovereign power had been taken away from the * good ' /.e. the nobles, and
passed into the hands of the ' low,' ' those who before knew not suits or
laws, but wore out with their sides the skins of goats, and like stags dwelt
outside the city.' This is a reference to the introduction of democracy at
Megara : to fix its date we have but very scanty materials at our disposal, but
we may still arrive at a fair degree of certainty by examining the statements
of Theognis himself and the stray bits of evidence we may gather from the
works of Aristotle and Plutarch. We must start with the reign of Theagenes,
Avho raised himself to power by the means commonly adopted by all aspirants
to tyranny in those days.** Posing as the champion of the poor, he attacked
the rich landlords who, it would appear, had occupied a particularly
fertile tract of land near the river, and there he slaughtered their cattle.
With the help of a body-guard furnished by the people ^^ he made himself
tyrant, and seems, for a time at least, to have been a most successful ruler.
IIow long he ruled we do not know, but we do know that he was already
tyrant when his son-in-law Cylon, with the help of a body of mercenaries
sent over from Megara, seized the Acropolis at Athens and endeavoured to
make himself master of the city. During his rule Theagenes adorned the city
with works of public utility. ^^ His reign cannot have been a long one.
Plutarch (Qii. Graecae, 18) ^^ tells us that the tyrant was expelled by the
people of Megara; some ^•'* scholars have assumed that the cause of his ex-
pulsion was his failure t(j prevent Salamis falling into the hands of the



•* e.g. DiJymus, of. Schol. ad Plat. legg. 630 the reference to cavalry in Thecj. .'519-554.

(qvLoted by Sitz\e\)ovTaii 6 ^livfioi, ^wt<pu6fifvos ' Das griechische Megara hat so wenig wie tier

T^ Tl?tiTuyi oil irapKTTopovvTi : and Ilarpocralion: gauze Peloponnes bis an das Eude des 5ten. Jh.

ovTos 8' ^v Mtyapfvs inro rwv wphi tj) 'Attkctj einc Reiterei unterhalten.'

Mfyipaiv airhs yap <pv(rtv d woitjt^s- fi\Bov ' Quoted in full below, n. 41. My quotations

fi'fv yiip iywyt kuI ts 2(««aV "■"t* 7arai' are taken from Bergk-Hiller-Crusius .(4n<Ao/o_7f('

( T/ieog. 783). Lyrira, 1897 ( = B. H.C.) Theognis, pp. 67-122.

7 G. F. Unger ('Die Heiniat von Theognis,' •' Aristotle, Pol. 1305a.

Vhilohigus 45) takes tlie poet to 1m: a native ol ''' Aristotle, 1357 b. ^t€( <pv\aK))v ko5 KaBitv

a Megara on the borders of Macedonia and (rvpivvtvat.

Kpirus, and a member of the tribe AfffiKts " Pausanias, 1. 40.

(cf. Theog. 1209). '• Quoted below, n. 16.

J. Beloch (Neue Jahrh. f. Phil, u fad. 1888) '^ e.g. Bcrgk, Griech. LiUeraturgeschichte ii.

Rccepts the view of Plato, chiefly on accoiint of p. 30.5.

B 2



4 T. HUDSON WILLIAMS

Athenians when they attacked the island at the instigation of Solon. As the
capture of Salarais can hardly have occurred before 600 B.C., we musi reject the
above suggestion, for it would give Theagenes a reign of at least ^* twenty-
five years, in which case" his name would certainly have been inserted by
Aristotle in his list of long tyrannies, since the fourth place oft the list is held by
the tyranny of Hieron and Gelon, which lasted only eighteen years (including
the reigns of the two tyrants).^^ The reign of Theagenes must then have been a
short one, and we shall n6t be far wrong if we reduce its duration to five or
six years.

Plutarch^* tells us that after expelling Theagenes the Megarians enjoyed
a short period of ' moderate ' goveri»ment, and afterwards, under the leader-
ship of demagogues ' who gave the people copious draughts of the wine of
freedom,' became thoroughly corrupt and violent towards the rich, entering
their houses and treating themselves to sumptuous banquets at their ex-
|>ense. Finally they passed a measure compelling the money-lenders to return
the interest they had exacted. In another passage (Qu. Gr. 59) we find a
reference to an incident in the history of this same democracy which the
author refers to as rj aKoXaa-To^ hrnxoKparia, r) koX tt^v iraXivroKiav iTrolr^ae
Kal TTjv i€pQ<Tv\lav. Then follows an account of an act of violence com-
mitted by ro)v Meyapitov oi dpaavTarot, fieOvadivre^, who, vjSpec xal
uilMOTrjTi, assaulted a deotpia HeXoirovvrjaicov. As the state neglected to
punish the authors of this act of veritable Hooligan ism ,i^ the Amphictyons
interfered and punished the 'accursed' citizens, some of whom were put
to death and others driven into exile.^® The conduct of this democracy
is characterized by the same expressions in the two passages of the
Quaestiones Graecae ; its features are daeXyeia, vfipt^, a/xoTr)^ and ataxia ;
it afforded the stock instance of democratic lawlessness at Megarn, and
it is distinguished from all others by the epithet aKoKacrro^.

If, in other Greek authors who deal with the fortunes of Megara, we
find references to a democracy in which prominence is given to the violence
and lawlessness of the commons, we shall, unless it is otherwise stated,
not be wrong in assuming that the one referred to by Plutarch is
meant.



'* t.«. if we accept 624 B.C. as the latest date i\(vOtplav t&p irfnayuymv ohoxooivruj', iia-

I>086ible for the attempt of Cyloii. fdapitntt itavriiratri, ri rt 4X\o rois ir\oufflois

1* Ariatotle, 1315 b. ruv 6i \oivun r] (tuv) ii(Tt\yws iipoat<pipo¥To, Koi naptivrts tis rks

vtpl 'Upvva Kal Ti\'j)va T«pl ^vpaKoivas. ?t»j 8* oMat alruv ol ithrtTts ^((oi/v ioria<r9a.i Koi

abV aCrrj »oAAi iitfxtiyfy, AAXi ri ffifiwavra itmvuy voKvrtKui' *l tk /xi) rvyx^^o^tv, upht

ivtlv hioma tlKoai- ri\wv flip ykp iwrk rvpuv- ffiav Ka\ fxtd' CBptws ixpmro iratri. T4\oj 8c

ftiam 1$ dyi6(f rhv ^iov iit\({ir7\<nv, Hko. Z6yfia Btfxtvoi, robs tSkovs ikve-wpdrropTo wapk

8' 'lipwv, Spaau$ov\os it t^ ivStKiiTtii fxrjvl i^t- rvv tavtiarwv, odj 8fS(i>K((r«i irvyxctvov, vaAif-

■wtaty. al 8« woWal tup rvpavpiijip oKiyoxp^PH'^i tokIup ri> yiy6fxtpop vpoaayop^iiaaprts.
Toffai yny6vtxin -KaPT^Xuti. '^ ol h\p Ktyaptls 8i' irailap ttjs roXirtlas

'• Quaestiones liraecae, 18. i\tii\i\irav rov kliK^hftaros.

Vityapui %fayipr), rbf rvpavpop, infiaKiprts, '* As Athens had her trtiacixOtia and rh iyos

i\iyoy^ XP^"''^ i<ri»^p6prjffap Kara, r^p iraKtTtlay SO Megara had her waXivruKia and ol ivmyus.
*lra woKK^iv —nara n\drwva — koI iKparopai/Ttix



THEOaJNTS AND HIS POEMS. 5

For further light on the subject we must go to the Politics of Aris-
totle/® 1304b. TTapairX'qaloi'i'^^ he koI -q iv MeydpOK; KareXvdr) SrjfioKparia-
01 yap 8r]fiay(oyoi, 'iva ■)(^prip.aTa e)(^(ooi Srjfieveiv, e^e/SaWov ttoWou? tmv
yvcopificov, e'ft)? ttoXXov'; eTrocrjaav Tov<i <^evyovTa<;, o't he KariovTet ivLKijaav
fiayop,evoi rov 8rj/j,ov Kal KaTeairjcrav ttjv oXiyapyiav.

1302 b. iv ral<; Bi)fj,oKpaTiat<; [(TTacrui^ovatv] oi eviropoi KaTa(f>povi]-
aavT€<i T7/9 dra^iaf; Kal dvap'^ca'i, olov Kal eu ^t]0ai<i fiera ttjv iv Olvo^v-
Toi<; fid'xrjv KaK(t)<i TToXiTevofievot^ rj hrj/moKpaTta Bt€(f)ddpT], Kal rj Meyapicov
hi'dra^iav kuI dvap^iav rjTTrjdivTcov, Kal iv "ZvpaKovaai^ irpo rrff; FeXwi/o?
Tvpavvi8o<i, Kal iv 'VoSm o Sf]^o<i irpo rrf^ i7rava(TTda€Q)<;>

The characteristics of this Megariau democracy are exactly those given
by Plutarch : if Aristotle had not the dKoXacnos hr/fioKparia in mind when
he was talking of daeXyeia, hra^ia, dvap)(^ia, and confiscations, he would
surely have said so, especially as in the very same passage he is so careful
to specify the other examples he adduces, e.g., iv ^rjfiai^ fierh rrfv ktX ;
there was no need of further description in the case of Megara, as the
reference was at once plain to all.^^ We gather from Plutarch that demo-
cracy was established after a short period of ' moderate ' government sub-
sequent to the expulsion of Theagenes. A sentence in the Poetics of
Aristotle (ch. 3:3) may give us further help in fixing the date.^^ The
Megarians, we are told, claim comedy as their own, dating its invention iirl
T^9 Trap' avTol<i Br]p,oKpaTia<i.

The Parian marble (B.C. 264 — 3)^ tells us that the people of Icaria
instituted competitions in comedy at a date somewhere between 581
and 562 2'': Susarion is referred to as the 'inventor.' Whether the above
statement is correct or not, we can certainly draw the following conclusions
People living less than sixty years after Aristotle ^^ believed that comedies
were performed in Attica before 562 B.C. In the time of Aristotle (without

^' Tho ancients attributed a Meyaptuy iro\«- opponents in battle but returned under an

Tfia to Aristotle. Strabo, lib. vii. 7 at 'Apia- agreement (Koivo\oyjj(Til^i.«voi Kariyovffi).

TOTfAoui iro\«T€»at Sri\ov<riv . . . <f>r)(r\ . . . iv r^ ^^ ttjs fifv KOJUtfiSias {avrtrroiovvrai) ol Meyapels,

'OtrovvTlaii' Kol Mtyapfuv. ol re ivravda, oii ^irl rrji irop' aurois StifMKparias

^ irapairKri(rl(i>i refers to the preceding in- ytvoixtvr\s, koX ol iK 'iiK(\ias.

stances of the statement made at the beginning ^ Flach, Chronicon Parinni, 1884, Christ

of the chapter, viz. al fiiv oiv ir}noKparlai 'Gr. Litt.-Gesch.' in Miiller's Handbuck, vol.

fiiKiara fifrafiiWovffi 5ii t^ twi' irinaywywv vii. ed. 3, 1898, p. 557.

aff(\y(iav. • ^* There was a definite date engraved on the

-^ Another passage in the Politics probably marble, but it is no longer legible. The entry

refers to the overthrow of this democracy : comes in between the archouship of Damasias

1300 a TTtpl Tekj rwv ipx^v Karaffrafffis . . . and the tyranny of Pisistratus : Flach, p 18,

SxTirtp iv Mfyapois ^k tSov avyKaTfXduvTuv koI § 39 a,(p' oZ iv 'Afl[^»']a«f K(^fi(fi[Swv X"]?!^*

avfjLixaxfO'^f'-*'"^'' '"'P^i Tby Srjfj.ov. Some {e.g. rivp](0rt [(T'n]]<Tiv[Tav avrhv] tuv . 'iKapitotv,

Cauer) refer 1300 a, 1302 b, and 1304 b to the tvpivros Zoucraplwvos, kuI aB\ov irtBr) trpirov

return of the exiles narrated in Thiic. iv. 74, l<TxdSw[v] ipinxo[s] koI otvov [ifx<pop]f[vs].

but as Welcker pointed out in iiis Prolegomena Bergk reads iv kfii^ais Ktaficpila i\upi9ii Or.

to Thcognis (p. xii ) this is impossible owing to Litt.-Ocsch. iv. p. 43.

tlie words iviia\(Tav fiaxififvot, TiTT7)8fVT(Dv and ^' Some think that the compiler of the

ffvfinaxf(Taixfvwv : for the exiles of 424 did not chronicle derived his information from a pupil

secure their restoratiou by defeating their of Aristotle.



T. HTHiSON Wli.LTAMS



Ixiiig coiitiiidictt'ti by him) the people ot Mugaia claimed the inventiou of
comeily. They wfjiild not be able to get anyone to listen to their claim
unless they asserted that coined io«: wvre performed at Megara at a date
previous to the popularly accepted iIik of the Icarian contests and the
appearance of Siisarion : whether thoy cUiinied him as a Megarian or not is
a question which does not concern ns here.-''

The date they gave was eVl t?')? irap avroU Bi]fj,oKpaTia<;. So this
democracy must have been ostablished at least before 570 B.C., probably a
good many years earlier. What happened at Megara after the restoration of
the oligarchs must remain a matter of conjecture. AVeloker assumes that
the connnons again made themselves masters oi th(> state ;ind set up a
democracy which remained in power till (Jlymp 80. ].'-" But this theory
must be modiiied, as Thucydides close:; his account of the changes at Megara
(424 B.C.) with the word.s : kuI TrXeiaTd' Btj ypovov avrrj vir eXaxiarayj/
yevofiiu)] ck aTuaefix; fieTaaTacri<i ^vrcficdcv. As this must have been
written before .'JiiG B.C. (the probable date of the historian's death), the
oligarchy of 424 must have broken the record when they had been consider-



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