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THE JOURNAL



OF



HELLENIC STUDIES



THE SOCIETY FOR THE PROMOTION OF HELLENIC STUDIES



THE JOURNAL



OK



HELLENIC STUDIES



VOLUME XXVII. (1907



PUBLISHED BY THE COUNCIL, AND SOLD ON THEIR BEHALF



BY



MACMILLAN AND CO., Limited, ST. MARTIN'S STREET

LONDON. W.C.



MDCCCCVII



The Rights of Translation and Reproduction are Reserved



Richard Clay and Sons, Limited

bread street hill, e.c. and

bungay, suffolk.



CONTENTS.



Rules of the Society

List of Officers and Members

Proceedings of the Society, 1906-1907

Financial Statement -

Additions to the Library

Accessions to the Catalogue of Slides

Notice to Contributors

Compton (W. C.) and H. Awdry Two Notes on Pylos and Sphacteria



xin
xix
... xliii
lx
... Ixv
... lxxii
. . . lxxvii
... 274



Dawkins (Pi. M.)
FORSTER (E. S.) ...
FOTHER INGHAM (J. K.)

Gardiner (E. N.)



Hasluck (F. W.
Hicks (E. L.) ..
Macdonald (G.)

Miller (W.) ..
Myres (J. L.) ..



Smith (C.)
Strzygowski (J.)
Tarn (W. W.) ..



Archaeology in Greece (1906-1907) ... 284
Terracottas from Boeotia and Crete ... 68
On the 'List of Thalassocracies ' in

Eusebius ...

Throwing the Diskos [Plates I. -III.] ...
Throwing the Javelin [Plates XVII.-

XX.]

Inscriptions from the Cyzicus District ...
Three Inscriptions from Asia Minor
Early Seleucid Portraits [Plates XIII.,

XIV.]

Monemvasia [Plates XV., XVI] ... 229, 300
The ' List of Thalassocracies * in Eusebius :

a Reply

A History of the Pelasgian Theory

The Central Groups of the Parthenon

Pediments

A Sarcophagus of the Sidamara type

[Plates V.-XIL]

The Fleet* of the First Punic War



75
1

249

61

226

145



123
170

212

99
48



CONTENTS.



TlLLYARD (H. J. W.) ...

Wells (J.)
Wroth (W. W.)

Notices of Books

Index of Subjects

Greek Index

List of Books Noticed



Instrumental Music in the Roman Age ... 160

The Persian Friends of Herodotus ... 37

Peparethus and its Coinage [Plate IV.] 90

131,302

315

321

322



CONTENTS.



LIST OF PLATES.

I. B.-F. Amphora in the British Museum (B 271).
II. Attic B.-F. Lekythos in the British Museum (B 576).

III. R.-F. Pelike in the British Museum (E 395).
B.-F. Fragment at Wurzburg.

IV. Coins of Peparethus, etc.

V. Figure B from the Cook Sarcophagus.



VI.


11


c


VII.


11


D


VIII.


11


E


IX.





F


X.


11


G


XI.


11


H


XII.


11


J



XIII, XIV. Early Seleucid Portraits.

XV. Monemvasia : Ilavayia MvpriSicoTicro-a — 'Ayi'a 2o<£ia.

XVI. ,, : Town Walls and Gate — Modern town at Base of

cliff.

XVII. Nolan Amphora in the British Museum (E 326).

XVIII. Panathenaic Amphora in the British Museum (B 131).

XIX. B.-F. Amphora in the British Museum (E 256).

XX. Panathenaic Vase in the British Museum.



CONTENTS.



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE TEXT.



Throwing 1 the Diskos.

1. R.-F. Kylix (Louvre G 96)

2. R.-F. Kylikes (after Jiithner)

3. R.-F. Kylix (B.M. E 6)

4. B.-F. Kelebe(B.M. B 361)

5. R.-F. Krater (after Hartwig)

6. Diskobolos on Bronze Lebes (B.M. 559)

7. Fifth Century Bronze (after Burl. Fine Arts Club Catal.)

8. From B.-F. Tripod (Berlin 1727)

9. 10. R.-F. Kylix (Naples : after Arch. Zeit.)

11. Bronze Diskobolos (B.M. 675)

12. Lekythos from Eretria ('E<£. 'Apx-)

13. The Standing Diskobolos (Vatican)

14. R.-F. Kylix (Munich 795)

15. R.-F. Kylix (from Gerhard)

16. R-F. Kylix (interior of Fig. 14)

17. R.-F. Kylix (after Hartwig)

18. Myron's Diskobolos (Lancelotti)

19. Coins of Cos in British Museum...

20. From Panathenaic Vase (Naples : after Bull. Nap.)

21. R.-F. Hydria (B.M. E 164 : after B.C.H.)

22. Athenian Lekythos (Boulogne : from Le Musee)

23. R.-F. Kylix (Boulogne : from Le Musee)

24. B.-F. Hydria (Vienna)



2
11
13
15

16
17
18
19
20
22
23
25
26
2G
27
27
28
30
32
32
33
34
34



Inscriptions from the Cyzieus District.



Inscription at Kermasti



62



Terracottas from Boeotia and Crete.

1. Primitive Standing Figure from Boeotia

2. Primitive Seated Figure ,. ,,

3. Primitive Standing Figure ..

4. Chariot Group from Crete

5. Horseman carrying Faggots



69
70
71
72
73



CONTENTS.



Peparethus and its Coinage.

A, B. Coins with winged figure and head of Herakles ...
C. Coin with seated Dionysos



9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.



A Sarcophagus of the Sidamara

Fragment A of the Cook Sarcophagus

The Sidamara Sarcophagus

Sarcophagus Fragments at Smyrna

Dioscurus from the Sidamara Sarcophagus
Sarcophagus from. Selefkeh at Constantinople ...

Development of the Sarcophagus-Capitals

Relief at Berlin

Sarcophagus Fragment in the British Museum

Muse from the Mantinean Basis

The 'Matron of Herculaneum ' (Dresden)

Niche in Cemetery of the Tulunids, near Cairo
From the Throne of St. Maximian, Bavenna . . .

Leaf of Ivory Diptych in the B.M

Portion of Pompeian Wall-Painting

Reconstruction of Pompeian Stage-Facade
Pompeian Wall-Painting



type.



Instrumental Music in the Roman Age.

1. Trigonum or Sambuca

2. Terracotta Figure at Susa (Woman with Zither)

3. Pandora

4. Terracotta Figure at Susa (Woman with Pandura and Wreath)

5. ,, ,, in Mus. Alaoui (Man playing on Pandura)

6. Sarcophagus in the Taormina Museum

7. Pan-pipes

Three Inscriptions from Asia Minor.

Inscription from Troy

Monemvasia.

1. Monemvasia from the Land

2. Entrance to Kastro

3. Kastro

4. Arms on Well- Head in the Castle

The Central Groups of the Pediments of the Parthenon.

1. Scheme of Restoration of Central Group of E. Pediment

2. ,, ,, „ ., W. Pediment

3. i:.-F. Vase with Birth of Athena



95
97



100
101
103
104
105
108
109
110
111
112
114
116
117
119
120
121



162
163
164
165
165
166
167



226



229
230
238
240



244
245
247



CONTENTS.

Throwing- the Javelin.

1. Various methods of attaching the amentum

2. Interior of B.-F. Kylix (B.M. 380)

3. From the Francois Vase (from Furtwangler)

4. U.se of the throwing-thong

5. E.-F. Psykter of Phintias (from Ant. Denkm.)

6. Panathenaic Amphora (Leyden, from Arch. Zeit.)

7. From R.-F. Stamnos (Mus. Greg.)

8. From B.-F. Vase from Acropolis, Athens

9. R.-F. Kylix (Munich: after Juthner)

10. R.-F. Kylix (Berlin: after Hartwig)

11. From R.-F. Kylix (Torlonia : after Juthner) .

12. R.-F. Kylix (Munich : from Arch. Zeit.) ... .

13. R.-F. Amphora (Munich : after Furtwangler)

14. From R.-F. Kylix (Rome : App. des rom. Inst.)

15. R.-F. Kylix (Berlin: after Juthner)

16. Panathenaic Amphora in B.M. (B 140)

Two Notes on Pylos and Sphaeteria.

1. General View Northwards from Cliffs South of the Panagia
Plan of Pylos and Sphaeteria (after Grundy) . . .

2. Red Bluff from South

3. Red Bluff and Route between Cliff and Bushes

4. Looking North from same point as preceding ...

5. Looking down from the Notch southward

6. Pylos and Sphaeteria from the North

7- » „ from the N. boundary of Voithio-Kilia



XI
PAGB

250
252
253
257
25 'J
2G0
261
261
262
263
264
264
265
266
268
272



275

•-':•;

277
278
279
280
282
283



PROCEEDINGS.



SESSION 1906-7.



The First General Meeting of the Society was held on November 13th,
1906, when the Rev. G. C. Richards read a paper on 'The Ionian Islands
in the Odyssey,' the object of which was to bring before the notice of
English students the theory of Prof. Dorpfeld that by Ithaca Homer in the
Odyssey meant the island later known as Leucadia or (after its chief town)
Leucas, and in modern times as Santa Maura. This theory is now
conveniently published in pamphlet form along with a reply to Prof, von
Wilamowitz (Athens, Beck & Barth). Since the excavation of the sixth
city at Hissarlik, the substantial accuracy of the descriptions of scenery in
the Iliad has been demonstrated, but the Odyssey has presented such
geographical difficulties as apparently to exclude personal knowledge
on the poet's part. The greatest difficulty is, however, removed by M.
Berard's identification of the Pylos of Nestor with Samikon, near the
mouth of the Alpheius, which, if correct, supplies an instance of the
transference of a place-name to another site. Dorpfeld's theory starts from
the comparison of Od. ix. 21 with xxi. 347, which shows that the three
islands Dulichium, Same and Zacynthus are off Elis, and Ithaca is not.
The only four islands worthy of being reckoned in the Septinsular
Republic (Corfu, Paxo, and Cerigo, not being in question) are Cefalonia,
Thiaki, Zante, and Santa Maura. The first three are off Elis ; Santa
Maura remains for the Homeric Ithaca. The ancients thought of Leucas
as an island, but as one that had been in earlier days connected with the
mainland : they therefore identified it with the peninsula in Od. xxiv. 57S,
and were debarred from identifying it with Dulichium or the Odyssean
Ithaca. Recent researches have shown conclusively that Leucas was an
island in 1000 B.C., and separated from the mainland then, as now, by a
channel liable to become c loked unless artificially kept open for naviga-
tion. This explains the transport of cattle from the mainland (Od. xiv.
IOO;, where the Cephallenians then lived (Od. xx. 187); and also the four
times repeated line 'I do not think you came by land,' which it is
impossible to interpret as a joke of Telemachus at the moment of recognition.
If Leucas = Ithaca, Cefalonia suits Dulichium well (Dulichium, if a real place
in the catalogue of Iliad A, cannot be imaginary in the Odyssey), Thiaki
is Same ; while Zante has always kept the same name. Thiaki will not
suit the Homeric data, (i) It is an island divided almost into halves,



xliv

with two mountains of approximately the same height, not an island with
one conspicuous mountain {Od. ix. 21). (2) It is not 'furthest of all to
the west.' (3) It is so close to Cefalonia that it seems to be part of it
from the eastern side (contrast with this ix. 25, xxi. 346). (4) Yet it
•yOayLcCkr) means low-lying, it is quite inappropriate to it ; whereas Strabo's
interpretation 'near to the mainland' suits Leucas, and if the other
rendering is correct, Leucas has more level land on the coast. (5) The
only possible site for the Megaron of Odysseus has yielded no trace of pre-
historic settlement to the excavations of Dorpfeld and Vollgraff. (6) There
is no possibility of identifying Asteris (Od. iv. 844) with the rock of
Daskalio. (7) The local identifications in the Thiaki are all modern and
suspicious ; the island was deserted, and only repeopled early in the
sixteenth century. Leucas provides (1) a suitable site for Odysseus's
home, where Dorpfeld has found prehistoric remains ; (2) similarly suitable
sites for the other Odyssean descriptions ; (3) a suitable Asteris with a
double harbour in Arkondi, between Santa Maura and Thiaki. Changes of
population (which Dorpfeld connects with the Dorian invasion) pushed the
Cephallenians into the islands (Od. xxiv and II. ii). The inhabitants of
the northern island passed over into Same and founded a new Ithaca
there ; while the inhabitants of Thiaki founded a city in Cephellenia,
which existed in historic times under the name Same or Samos. This
explains the statement of Pliny (H.N. iv. 15) that Neritis was an early
name of Leucas. It is impossible to maintain any longer that by Ithaca the
Odyssey means Thiaki. Against the view that the poet had no correct
local knowledge, and merely gave his fancy play (Von Wilamowitz), must
be set the ease with which Leucas satisfies the data of the Odyssey.

On November 27th a special general meeting was held for the purpose
of further discussing the paper read on November 13th. No one was
found to maintain the claims of Thiaki adequately to represent the Ithaca
of the Odyssey, as still maintained by Berard, and in Germany by those
who, like Menge, Michael, Lang, have opposed Dorpfeld's view. — Prof.
Ernest Gardner said he took up the position of a sceptic rather than of a
convinced opponent of Prof. Dorpfeld's theory or a defender of the identifica-
tion of Thiaki as Ithaca. Prof. Dorpfeld's arguments seemed to him to fall
into two classes : those which dealt with the geographical position of
the islands, as described or implied by Homer, and those which suggested
a minute topographical identification of sites, such as the stalactite cave
of the Nymphs or the double harbours on Asteris. The latter were
rather a source of weakness than of strength to the theory ; but it must be
admitted that the broader geographical evidence for Leucas made, in Prof.
Dorpfeld's masterly exposition, a very strong case, if we were to recognize
the Homeric topography in existing islands. We must, however, remember
that this theory would imply that the Odyssey was composed by a poet
and for an audience familiar with the Ionian Islands, and before 1000 B.C.,
from which time to the present day the names of the islands had been as
they now are. Such a solution of the Homeric question required a revision



xlv

of the whole evidence, philological, historical and literary, as well as
topographical, before it could be accepted ; and in any case the Odyssey
was interpreted by all the Greeks of the historical period as it is by modern
scholars. To them the Homeric topography did not correspond to any actual
topography ; and there did not, after all, seem sufficient reason for rejecting
the view now generally held that the poet's imagination rather than his
familiarity with the spot was responsible for his descriptions. Such a view
was more in accordance with the usual custom of poets and writers of
fiction. It was generally admitted that in the Odyssey we had an inner
zone, confined mainly to the Aegean, within which the geography was
familiar to the poet and his readers ; and an outer zone of vague traditions
and travellers' tales, where the knowledge of both was at best taken
at second hand. If we regarded the Ionian Islands as belonging to the
vague rather than the more definite region, there was no difficulty in keeping
to the accepted traditions about the names of the islands. — Prof. R. C.
Bosanquet said that minor identifications were of less importance, and
general correspondences alone should be looked for. On the whole,
Leucas reproduced Odyssean geography better than Thiaki. Dorpfeld's
finds in Leucas suggested to him an earlier d ite than the period generally
described as Mycenaean. The transference of names was extremely likely,
and had parallels in mediaeval and modern Greek history. But he was
not disposed to accept Dorpfeld's view that this took place at a very early
date. — After the reader of the paper had made a brief reply the President,
in summing up, regarded the claims of Thiaki as conclusively disproved,
but maintained that Homer could not be regarded as a safe source
for history.

The Third General meeting was held on February 19th. Professor P.
Gardner, President, was in the Chair and spoke as follows : —

Since our last meeting, one of the most distinguished of our Vice-
Presidents has been somewhat suddenly carried away by death, Professor
Henry Pelham, President of Trinity College, Oxford. He was from the
first a Member of the Council of this Society, and a Vice-President from
1895. In the foundation of what may be called offshoots of this Society,
the British Schools of Athens and Rome, he took an important part :
the latter was indeed a special child of his and he was Chairman of the
Committee of the School. Ever since our Society was. founded Professor
Pelham has been its earnest supporter at Oxford, and has done all in his
power to further its aims.

His work and his interests lay rather in the direction of Roman than of
Greek antiquity. But while an acknowledged master in his own studies,
he by no means limited his interest to them, but in a broad and earnest
spirit applied his great powers of organization and his strong personal
influence in support of the whole movement for broadening and deepening
classical study, for promoting research, travel and excavation, for spreading

d



xlvi

an interest in the inscriptions and the monuments of the ancient world, in
which this Society is so deeply interested. Though he never himself
contributed to our Journal, he did so copiously through his pupils.

I have often felt that if Professor Pelham had chosen a political career,
he would have attained a very high position. He had all the qualities of a
statesman. But he preferred the more modest career of a University
teacher and organizer. And his justification has been that his presence
and work at Oxford has raised the whole tone of the place. More I think
than any other man has he succeeded in imparting a high purpose to
Oxford study and a high tone to University business. All this was the
result of a noble personality. An English gentleman of the highest type,
straightforward, manly, open minded, ready to appreciate any kind of
excellence, generous almost to a fault, he was everywhere a central figure,
the doyen of ancient history at Oxford, the leader whom we were all glad
to follow. His departure leaves a great void which those who remain must
try between them to do something towards filling.

Mrs. S. Arthur Strong, LL.D., Litt.D., then read a paper by Professor
J. Strzygowski (printed in this volume, pp. 99-122). The paper was
discussed by Miss Gertrude Bell, Sir H. Howorth and Mr. Arthur Smith.

The Fourth General Meeting was held on April 30th, Mr. G. F. Hill in
the chair. Prof. Ridgeway read a paper on ' The True Scene of the
Second Act of the " Eumenides " of yEschylus/ of which the following is a
summary. His object was to inquire whether the true scene of the second
act was really the Erechtheum on the Acropolis, or whether we ought not
rather to look for another site. It would be said, What more appropriate
spot than on the Acropolis and at the most famous shrine of Athena in
the ' strong house of Erechtheus ' ? But the action required a shrine
which contained an ancient bretas, at which manslayers took sanctuary,
and moreover a bretas called by the name of Pallas, not of Athena ; for
the Pythian priestess speaks of Pallas ; Apollo bids Orestes take refuge
with Pallas, and it is Pallas who will see that he has a fair trial ; and the
Eumenides on their departure address the goddess as Pallas, though
Orestes twice, and the Chorus twice, speak of Athena. Now there is no
evidence that there was any such bretas in the Erechtheum or on the
Acropolis, or that such bretas ever conferred sanctuary ; whilst there is the
strongest evidence that the goddess of the Erechtheum was only known as
Athena, or the Polias, or Athena Polias, never as Pallas. It is still more
strange that not one of the four famous courts for the trial of homicide was
situated at the Erechtheum or on the Acropolis, though in the Prytaneum,
on the northern slope, were tried weapons which had shed the blood of
men or oxen. It seems incredible that iEschylus should not have placed
the trial at one of the four places where from of old manslayers were tried,
for the Attic audience would have been very censorious if he had placed
the trial at a spot where there was neither sanctuary nor law court. There



xlvii

were five courts for the trial of bloodshed : (i) the Areopagus, on the hill
west of the Acropolis, where were tried those accused of wilful murder,
poisoning and arson ; (2) the to eVt UaXXaSio) south-east of the Acropolis,
outside the walls, where were tried those guilty of involuntary homicide
(toU uKovo-L'tis airoKTeivciGi,) ; (3) the Delphinium, a shrine of the Delphian
Apollo, where those who pleaded justification (for instance, for having slain
an adulterer) were tried ; (4) the court at Phreattys, on a tongue of land
at Zea, where a man who was said to have shed blood during his period of
exile was tried, docked in a boat off the shore, the judges seated on the
land ; (5) the Prytaneum, already mentioned. It is obvious that the last two
cannot have been the scene of the trial in the play. The Areopagus will
not do, for there is not a jot of evidence for the existence of any ancient
image there called either Pallas or Athena, Pausanias mentioning only an
Athena Promachos ; nor is there the slightest evidence that there was
ever an asylum there. Again, the Delphinium will not do, for it certainly
did not contain a bretas of Athena, but rather an image of Apollo;
moreover, its name shows that it was not an immemorial cult-spot, since it
was in honour of the Delphian god, who first urged in Athens the plea that
deliberate homicide could be justified. Only the court of the Palladium
remains. Here there was a most ancient xoanon or bretas. This bretas
was an asylum, for each year the image was taken down to Phalerum to
the sea, doubtless to be washed in order to rid it of the pollution of the
manslayers who in the course of the year had embraced it, as Orestes is
supposed to have done (cf. Eur. Iph. Taur. 1169). The only name ever
applied to this image was Pallas or Palladium. Some said that it was the
Palladium from Troy ; others that Athena, after slaying her playmate
Pallas, in atonement set up an image of her. Finally, the court for trying
involuntary homicide in classical times was held there. (1) The plea urged
for Orestes is that he slew his mother on compulsion by Apollo, and Apollo
bears this out. (2) Apollo urges justification. It may be said that
justification trials were held at the Delphinium, not at the Palladium in
classical times ; but it has just been shown that the Delphinium is a later
court, as its name implies, and it derived its title from the story that
Apollo in the trial of Orestes had urged that certain kinds of homicide
could be justified. There is no evidence that the Delphinium was
ever an asylum. Hence we are led to conclude that in early days,
when the first step was taken towards mitigating the dread doctrine
SpdaavTt TraOelv, those who could plead that the)- had shed blood either
by mistake or justifiably took refuge at the Palladium. The trial of
Orestes is represented by /Eschylus as the first for murder: the court
which tries him is called a #607x6?, a term always applied to immemorial
institutions. The judges here, at the Delphinium, Phreattys, and
Prytaneum and in early times on the Areopagus, were the Ephetae, the Court
of the Fifty-one, i.e. 50 Ephetae and the King Archon. This court probably
was a survival of the ancient king and the Gcrousia, the only tribunal
in a primitive community. All the conditions required for the scene of

d 2



xhiii

Act II are now fulfilled : (i) an ancient image, (2) called Pallas, (3) used
as an asylum, (4) with a court attached for the trial of involuntary
bloodshed, and probably in early times for justifiable bloodshed also. But
not one of these conditions is fulfilled by the Erechtheum. It may be
urged that, though Orestes certainly took sanctuary at the Palladium,
nevertheless he was tried on the Areopagus ; but this involves the
insuperable difficulty that the man who had taken asylum would be
carried from that spot right away to another place, all the while being
exposed to the attacks of the avenger of blood. The essence of such
ancient asylums was that the case must be decided where the man was
in sanctuary. If Orestes took refuge at the Palladium, he must have
been tried at that court. Moreover he would be out of place in the
Areopagus, which tried cases of wilful murder only. — The paper was
briefly discussed by the Chairman and Prof. W. C. F. Anderson, the latter
expressing considerable doubt as to the proposed removal of the final
scene of the play from the Areopagus.

The Annual General Meeting was held at Burlington House on June
25th, the President, Professor Percy Gardner, taking the Chair. The Hon.
Secretary, Mr. George Macmillan, read the following report on behalf of
the Council : —

During the past session there has been no striking event to record, but
the Society has carried on its regular work in an efficient way and shown
abundant vitality in the several departments of its activity.

The modification in the rules recommended by the Council, that the
office of President be in future tenable for five years only, was approved
by members at the last Annual Meeting, and on the same occasion
Professor Percy Gardner was, under the terms of this rule, unanimously
elected President in place of the late Sir Richard Jebb.

The new departure in the Constitution of the Society, the creation of a
class to be admitted to certain privileges of the Society without payment of



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