England) United States. Commissioner to International Priso.

Report on the International Penitentiary Congress of London, held July 3-13, 1872 online

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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
AT LOS ANGELES




R E P R T



INTERNATIONAL PENITENTIARY CONGRESS



L OISTD oi<r.



HELD JULY -S-LS, m9..



By E. C. WINES, D. D., LL. D.

UNITED STATES COMMISSIONER.



TO WHICH IS APPENDED



THE SECOND ANNUAL REPORT OF THE NATIONAL PRISON ASSOCIATION

OF THE UNITED STATES, CONTAINING THE TRANSACTIONS

OF THE NATIONAL PRISON REFORM CONGRESS,

HELD AT BALTIMORE, MARYLAND,

JANUARY 21-24, 1873.



WA SHTN^GTON:

GOYEENMENT PRINTING OFFICE,
1873.



V4V



To the Senate and House of Representatives :

I transmit herewith a report from the Secretary of State aud accom-
panying papers.

U. S. GRANT.

Washington, February 13, 1873.



Department of State,

Washington^ February 13, 1873.
Referring to the joint resolution of Congress, of the 20th March,
1871, authorizing the appointment, by the President, of a commissioner
to attend an International Congress on Penitentiary and Reformatory
Discipline, proposed to be held in Europe, I have the honor to transmit
herewith the report of Mr. E. C. Wines, appointed under the said res-
olution, of the congress which was held at London, together with an
^ appendix containing a summary of the proceedings of the late National
"^ Prison Congress of Baltimore.
Respectfully submitted.

HAMILTON FISH.
The President.



<^



Washington, February 12, 1873.

^ Sir : I have the honor to submit to you my report as Commissioner

"^ of the United States to the International Penitentiary Congress of Lon-

2^ don, together with an appendix, containing summary of proceedings of

the late National Prison Congress of Baltimore.

With gTcat respect, I have the honor to be, your most obedient servant,

E. C. WINES,

Commissioner, dc.
His Excellency U. S. Grant,

President of the United States.

H. Ex. 185 *



1



jj"^. ■.'1 .■ ^ .y'v. ■- ''■■ .'



CONTENTS.



Page.

Genekal ixtkoduction 1

PAET FIRST : STATE OF PKISONS.

Chaptek I : PiiisoN systems 7

§ 1. Austria , 8

2. Belgium 7

.3. Denmark 10

4. France - 11

5. German Empire 14

(1.) Baden 14

(2.) Bavaria 15

(3.) Prussia 15

(4.) Saxony IB

(5.) Wiirtemberg 16

6. Italy , 17

7. Mexico , 18

8. Netherlands - 19

9. Norway 19

10. Rassia"^ ; 20

11. Switzerland 21

12. Sweden 22

13. United States .■ 23

14. England 25

1.5. Ireland 26

Chaptek II : PrasoN administration 27

^ 1. Austria 27

2. Belgium 28

3. Denmark , ■. 28

4. France 28

5. German Empire 29

(1.) Baden 29

(2.) Bavaria 29

(3.) Prussia 30

(4.) Saxony 30

(5.) Wiirtemberg 30

6. Italy 31

7. Mexico 31

8. Netherlands 31

9. Norway 32

10. Russia 32

11. Sweden 33

12. Switzerland 33

13. United States .- 34

14. England and Ireland 34

Chapter III : Prison discipline 35

§ 1. Austria , 35

2. Belgium 36

3. Denmark 36

4. France 36

5. German States 37

(1.) Baden 38

(2.) Bavaria , 38

(3.) Prussia 38

(4.) Saxony 39

(5.) Wiirtemberg 39

6. Italy 40

7. Mexico 41

8. Netherlands , 42

9. Norway 42

10. Russia 43

11. Sweden 43

12. Switzerland 44

13. United States 45

14. England 46

15. Ireland 47



IV CONTENTS.

• Page,

HAPTER IV : Moral axd religious agencies 48

5 1. Austria 48

" 2. Belgium 48

3. Denmark 49

4. France 49

5. German States 50

(1.) Baden 50

(2.) Bavaria 50

(3.) Prussia 51

(4.) Saxony 51

(5.) Wiirtemberg 52

G. Italy 52

7. Mexico 52

8. Netherlands 52

9. Norway 53

10. Russia 53

11. Sweden 54

12. Switzerland 55

13. United States 56

14. England 57

15. Ireland 57

Chapter V : Scholastic education 57

6 1. Austria 57

2. Belgium , 58

3. Denmark 58

4. France 58

5. German States 60

(1.) Baden 60

(2.) Bavaria 60

(3.) Prussia 60

(4.) Saxony 61

(5.) Wiirtemberg 61

6. Italy 61

7. Mexico : 62

8. Netherlands 62

9. Norway 62

iO. Russia 62

11. Sweden 62

12. Switzerland 63

13. United States 64

14. England 66

, 15. Ireland 67-

CitAiTER VI : Prison labor 67

^ 1. Austria 67

2. Dennuuk 68

3. Belgium 68

4. France 69

5. German States 69

(1 ) Badon 69

(2. ) Bavaria 70

(3.) I'nisHia 70

(4. ) Haxony 70

(.5.) Wiirt(!nibcrg 71

6. Italy 71

7. Mexico 71

H. N(!thiTlarids 71

9. Norway 71

10. ItiiHMJa 72

11. Sweden 72

12. Kwitzdrland 73

13. United States 74

14. Eiightnd 75

ir.. Inland 76

(-'iiAiTKU VII: Sanitary condition ok prisons 76

^ 1. AoHtria 76

2. l'<!lgiiiiti 76

3. I )r'iiinark 78

I. Fraiicf! 78



CONTENTS. V

Page.
Chapter VII : Sanitary condition of prisons — Continued.

5. German States 79

(1.) Baden ' 79

(2.) Bavaria 80

(3.) Prussia 80

(4.) Saxony 81

(5.) WUrtemberg 81

6. Italy 82

7. Mexico 82

8. Netherlands - 82

9. Norway 83

10. Russia 83

11. Sweden 84

12. Switzerland 84

13. United States 84

14. England . - . 85

15. Ireland 85

ChapterVIII: Reformatory results 85

§ 1. Austria i 85

2. Belgium 85

?>. Denmark 86

4. France 86

5. German States 86

(1.) Baden 86

(2.) Bavaria 86

(3.) Prussia 86

(4.) Saxony - 86

(5.) Wiirtemberg ! 86

6. Italy 87

7. Mexico 87

8. Netherlands 87

9. Norway 87

10. Russia 87

11. Sweden 87

12. Switzerland 88

13. United States 88

14. England* and Ireland 89

Chapter IX: Prison officers, their qu^axifications and training 89

§ 1. Austria i 89

2. Belgium 89

3. Denmark 89

4. France 89

5. German States 90

(1.) Baden 90

(2.) Bavaria , 90

(3.) Prussia 91

(4.) Saxony 91

(5.) Wiirtemberg 91

6. Italy 91

7. Mexico 91

8. Netherlands 91

9. Norway 92

10. Russia 92

11. Sweden 92

12. Switzerland 93

13. United States 93

14. England and Ireland 93

Chapter X : Sentences 94

§ 1. Austria 94

2. Belgium 94

3. Denmark ^ , 94

4. France 94

5. German States 94

(1.) Baden 94

(2. ) Bavaria 94

( 3. ) Prussia 94

(4.) Saxony 95

6. Italy 95

7. Mexico 95

8. Netherlands 95



VI CONTENTS.

Page.
Chapter X : Sentences — Coutinuecl.

9. Norway 95

10. Russia , 95

11. Sweden 95

12. Switzerland 95

13. United States 96

14. England and Ireland 96

Chapter XI : Imprisonment for debt 96

1^ 1. Austria 96

" 2. Belgium , 96

8. Denmark 96

4. France 96

5. German States 97

(1.) Baden 97

(2. ) Bavaria 97

(3J Prussia 97

(4.) Saxony 97

(5. ) Wiirtemberg 97

G. Italy 97

7. Mexico . : 97

8. Netherlands 97

9. Norway » 97

10. Russia 97

11. Sweden 98

12. Switzerland 98

13. United States 98

14. England and Ireland 98

CnAPTi^R XIJ : Causes op crime 98

(\ 1. Austria 98

2. Belgium 98

3. Denmark 98

4. France 98

5. German States 99

(1.) Baden 99

(2.) Bavaria 99

6. Italy 99

7. Mexico 99

H. Netherlands 100

9. Norway 100

10. Russia". 100

11. Sweden 100

12. Switzerland 100

13. United States 100

14. Engl.'ind and Ireland 100

Ciiai'Ter XIII : Liijerateo imusoners 101

$ 1. Austria 101

2. Belgium :.., 101

3. Denmark 101

4. France 102

.5. German States 102

(1.) Baden 102

(2.) Bavaria 102

('.',.) I'rnssia H'3

(4.) Saxony 103

(5.) Wiirtemberg 103

0. Italy 103

7. Mexico • 103

H. Netherlands 103

9. Norway 104

10. KriHsia 104

11. Sweden 104

, ' 12. Switzerland ^ 104

13. United States 104

11. F'lngland 105

1.'.. Ireland 105

CiiArri-.K XIV: Sixjuehtions uklatino to J{ef<»i{mh 105

^ 1. AuHtria 105

2. Belgium 10.5

3. France lOii



CONTENTS VII

Page.
CiiArTER XIV : Suggestions relating to reforms— Continued.

4. German States 106

(1.) Baden lOR

(2.) Bavaria 106

(3.) Prussia 106

.^). Norway 106

6. Netherlands 106

7. Eussia 107

8. Switzerland ll^I

9. United States 113

Chapter XV: Juvenile reformatories 114

§ 1. Denmark 114

2. Saxony 114

3. France 114

4. Italy 115

5. Switzerland 115

6. United States 115

7. England 116

Historical sketch of reformatory system 116

Results of the system 118

Distinction between reformatory and industrial schools 119

Fnndamental principles of reformatory system 119

1. The union of private agency with government support and

supervision 119

2. The use of moral in preference to physical dicipline 120

3. Its thoroughly religious tone and character 121

4. Careful industrial training ^ 121

5. Supervision and occasional assistance after liberation 121

6. The responsibility of parents to contribute toward the support

of their children committed to reformatories 121

Chapter XVI : State of prisons in British possessions 122

^1. India 122

" 2. Ceylon 124

3. Jamiaca 125

4, Victoria 126

PART SECOND : WOP.K OF THE CONGRESS.

Introductory 128

Chapter XVII : The prisoner after arrest and before conviction 130

What treatment should he receive? 130

Remarks of Count de Foresta 130

Mr. Collins 131

Mr. Stevens 131

Mr.Pownell 131

Chapter XVIII : The prisoner during his incarceration 131

^ 1. Proper maximum of prisoners for any single prison. 131

Remarks of Mr. Ekert 131

Sir John Bowring 132

Mr. Vaucher Cr6mieux 132

Mr. Stevens 132

Dr. Mowatt 132

Mr. Peterson, (Norway) 132

Hon. H. H. Leavitt./. 132

Mrs. Janney 133

Colonel Colville 133

Dr. Frey 133

General Pilsbury 133

Professor Foynitsky 133

Mr. F. Hill 133

Baron A'on Holtzendorff" 133

ij 2. Classification of prisoners 133

Remarks of M. d'Alinge 133

Mr. Stevens 134

Dr. Mowatt 134

Mr. Tallack 134

Dr. Marquardsen 134

Mr. Sargent Cox , 134

Dr. Bittinger 134

Colonel Ratcliff 135

Baron von Holtzendorff 135



VIII CONTENTS.

Page.
CliAPTEK XVIII : The rRisoxER during his incarceration — Continued.

§ 3. How far should prison management be regulated by legislation ? 135

Kemarks of Mr. Stevens 135

Baron Macay 135

Mr. F.Hill 135

Dr. Mowatt 135

Baron von Holtzendorff 135

Mr. Beltrani Scalia 136

Mr. Hastings 13G

Mr. Berden 136

$|4. Whether ^vbipping should be used as a disciplinary punishment ... 136

' Remarks of Mr. Stevens 136

Major DuCane 136

Dr. Mowatt.... 137

Mr. Shepherd 137

Dr. Marquardsen 137

Dr. Frey 137

Dr. Guillaume 137

Major Fulford 137

Mr'. Wills 137

Mrs. Julia Ward Howe 137

Mr. F.Hill 137

Mr. Hastings 137

Sir Walter Crofton 138

General Pilsbury . 138

Dr. Marquardsen 138

§ 5. Kinds and limits of instruction suited to the reformatory treatment of

prisoners 138

Remarks of Mr. Stevens 138

Mr. Tallack 139

Mr. Merry 139

Mr. McFarlane 139

Dr. Varrentrapp 139

Miss Mary Carpenter 139

^ 6. Whether it is expedient in certain cases to employ an imprisonment

consisting in mere privation of liberty without obligation to work.. . 139

Remarks of Count de Foresta 139

Professor Wladrinoif 139

Mr. Chandler 140

Dr. Mowatt 140

Dr. Marquardsen 140

$ 7. Whether sentences for life are expedient 140

Remarks of Baron von Holtzendortf 140

Dr. Wines 140

Dr. Mowatt 140

Hon. Daniel Haines 140

Mr. Stevens 140

Mr. Vaucher Cr6micux 140

Mr. Hastings 140

§ 8. Wh<!tlier jirisoiK rson reconviction should be subjected to a more severe

disci jiliiiary tn-iitnient 141

Remarks of Mr S. I'dersen, (Bavaria) 141

Mr. rioos van Amstul 141

Dr. Fr.v 141

M. Robin 141

.Mr. St<!vcns 141

(■(Mint Sollolmb 141

l>r. (Jiiillauiiic ■ 141

Connt d(! Foresta 141

Dr. BiUiiigcr 142

Mrs. .Julia Ward Howe 142

•',;*. Wliat hhould lie tin' niaxiininii of imprisonmonl, cellulnr or otherwise,

for t«TMiH Irss than lid; ? 112

Remarks of 1 )r. .Maninanlseii H2

Dr. Frey 142

Mr. Htcvcns 142

Mr. Monciire 142

I'.arnii Mmkav 142

Sir VViilt.T Crofton 142



CONTENTS. IX

Page.
Chapter XVIII: The pklsoner during his incarceration— Contmued.

^ 10. Whether or not imprisonment should be uniform in nature, and differ

only in length 142

Remarks of Count Sollohub 142

Dr. Mowatt 14«

Count de Foresta 143

^ 11. Prison labor — penal and industrial 143

Remarks of Mr. F. Hill 143

Major Fulford 144

General Pilsbury 145

Dr. Wiues 145

Mr. Hibbert, M. P 145

Sir John Bo wring , 145

Mr. Ploos von Amstel 145

Colonel Colville 145

Mr. Stevens 145

Dr. Mowatt 145

Dr. Frey 146

Chapter XIX: The prisoner after his liberation 146

§ 1. Best mode of aiding discharged prisoners 146

Remarks of Mr. Murray Browne 146

Mr. Powell 147

M. d'Alinge 147

Mr. Rankin 147

Baron Mackay 148

Mrs. Meredith 148

Rev.M.Robin 148

Mr. M. Browne 148

A member from France 148

Dr. Guillaume 148

Mr. Biemner 149

$ 2. Best means of securing the rehabilitation of prisoners 149

Remarks of !Mr. Stevens 149

Mr. Hastings , 149

Sir Walter Crofton : 149

Mrs. Julia Ward Howe 149

Baron Mackay 149

Mr.Baker 149

Dr. Wines „ 149

Mr. Chandler 150

Sir John Packington 150

§ 3. Best mode of giving remission of sentences and regulating conditional

discharges « 150

Remarks of Sir W. Crofton 150

Mr. Tallack 150

Mr. Stevens 150

Mr. Chandler 151

Mr. F. Hill 151

Major Du Cane 151

Mr. Nevin '. 151

/ Dr. Frey 151

Mr. Hastings 151

$ 4. Supervision of discharged convicts 152

Remarks of Mr. Baker 152

Mr. F. Hill 152

Mr. Browne 152

M. Stevens 152

Chapter XX : Miscellaneous joints 152

$ 1. Whether prison officers should have special training for their work 152

Remarks of Dr. Guillaume 152

Major Du Cane , 153

Baron Mackay 153

Sir Harry Vorney, M. P , 153

Mr. Rathbone 153

Major Fulford 153

Dr. Mouat 153

Dr. Wines 154

^ 2. Whether transportation is expedient in punishment of crime 154

Rejmarks of Count de Foresta 154



X CONTENTS.

Page
Chapter XX: Miscf.i.i^\neous points— Continued.

M.Pols 154

• Count Sollohub 154

Mr. Hastings 154

Count de Foresta 154

Baron Von Holtzeudortf 155

^ 3. Whether short imprisonment and the non-payment of fines may be

replaced hy compulsory labor without privation of liberty 155

Remarks of Count de Fox'esta 15.5

Mr.Tallack , 155

Rev. Mr. Collins 155

Mr. Stevens 155

Sir John Bowring 155

Baron Mackay 155

Mr. Bremuer 156

Baron von Holtzendorft' 156

•^ 4. The proper limits of the power of boards of prison-managers, as regards

the administration of prisons 1.56

Remarks of M. Loysou 156

M. Yaucher-Cr6mieux 1.56

Colonel Ratclitf 1.56

^> 5. Whether the government of j)risons should be placed in the hands of

a supreme central authority 156

Remarks of Mr. Hastings'. 156

M. Ploos van Anistcl 156

M. Stevens 156

Dr. Guillaume 157

Messrs. Carter and Baker 157

«> ("). International prison statistics 157

Remarks of Mr. Beltrani-Scalia . . ^ 1-57

Count Sollohub 1.57

Dr. Frey 1.57

Dr. Guillaume 1.57

Trofessor Lione Leir 157

^ 7. The best means of repressing crime-capitalists 157

Remarks of Mr. Edwin Hill 157

Mr. Serjeant Cox 158

Mr. Chandler 1.58

Colonel Ratcliff 1.58

Mr. Aspimill 159

$8. Whether whipi)iiig is expedient in punishmcut of crime 159

Remarks of M. Pols 159

, Mr. Aspinall 159

Colonel Ratolitt' 159

Dr. Maniuardsen 159

v> 9. lOx trad it ion trcatii'S 100

lieiiiai ks of Dr. Frey 100

MO. Woman's work in prisons 160

liemarivs of Mrs. Ciiaae 100

M iss 'Mary Carpenter 160

Miss Emily Faithful ir»l

Mrs. .Julia Ward Howe 161

^Irs. Ltswis 161

Mr. Jiremucr 162

liev. Mr. Crombleholuie 16">

l.afly Bowring h'>2

CiiAi'ii.K XXI: l'i:i;vK,N-nvK anu kkkok.matoky wokk 1.52

liiiiiaiki lit' Mr. Uracr 162

MIhh Cui'pi-nlitr 16U

Mr. Foot.-, 164

.M. Vanclii r-(,'n'micux 164

Mr. Ilcndiicksou 164

.Mr. Howe 1 64

.M. Hourniit 164

.Mr. MiirHliall 164

•Sir "i". Fowell Baxtoii 104

Mr. linker 101

Haroii von I loltzendorH' 105

Dr. (inillaunuT 16.5

Mr. Wills 155



CONTENTS. XI

Page.
Chapter XXI : Preventivk and REroRMATOiiY work — Continued.

Eev. Mr. Crombleholnie 165

Remarks of Mr. Aspinall '. 16.^

Sir W. Crofton 16."

Dr. Marquardseu 16".

Mr. Ford 165

Charter XXII : Penitentiary systems 166

^ 1. The Irish convict system, as explained by Sir W. Crofton 16G •

2. The Irish borough and county prison system, as explained by Mr. Bourke

and others 167

3. The English convict system, as explained by Major I)u Cane.., 167

4. The English borough and county jirison system, as explained by Cap-

tain Armytage and others 16b

5. The Scotch prison system, as explained by Mr. Monclare 168

6. The Belgian prison system, as explained by Mr. Stevens 169

7. The Russian prison system, as explained by Count SoHohub 16^

8. The French prison system, as explained by M. Berenger 169

9. The Swiss prison system, as explained by Dr. Guillaume 170

10. The Italian prison system, as explained by Count de Foresta 170

11. The German prison system, as explained bj- Heir Ekert, Dr. Varrentrapp,

and Baron von Holizendoiff 170

12. The Netherland's prison system, as explained by M. Ploos van AmsteL. 171

13. The Swedish prison system, as explained by M. Almquist 171

1 4. The Austrian prison system, as explained by Dr. Frey 171

15. The prison system of India, as explained by Dr. Mouat 171

'16. The prison system of the United States, as explained by Mr. Chandler

and others 171

Chapter XXIII : Concluding session of Congress 172

§ 1. Presentation by -Dr. Wines of the Works of Edward Livingston on

Criminal Jurisprudence, in English and French 172

Letters from M. Vergd, member of the institute, and Archbishop Man-
ning on the subject of Livingston's Works 172

2. Presentation by Dr. Wines of M. Lucas's observations 17^-5

R«?sum^ of Mr. Lucas's views 173

3. Propo.sit ions submitted by American delegation , 174

4. Propositions embodied in tinal report of the executive committee, and

adopted by the congress as expressing its conception of the funda-
mental principles of prison discipline 177

Remarks of Mr. Hastings on moving the adoption of the report 178

• Gov. Haines in seconding same 179

Miss Carpenter on report 179 '

Siv John Packington on putting motion to adopt report 179

5. Creation of permanent international prison commission 179

6. Vote of thanks to Mrs. Hastings and Pears, with remarks by Dr. Wines,

Archbishop Manning, and Sir John Packington ISO

7. Vote of thanks to Dr. Mouat, w ith remarks by Mr. Aspinall and Baron

Mackay 180

8. Vote of thanks to Dr. Wines, with remarks by Drs. Guillaume, Mar-

quardsen, and Sir John PacKiugton 180

Response by Dr. Wines ^ 181

9. Vote of thanks to Sir John Packington, "with remarks by Messrs. Has-

tings and Mouat 181

10. Response by Sir John Packington 181

PART THIRD : PAPERS SUBMITTED TO THE CONGRESS.

Introductory l«*ir

Chapter XXIII : *Prisoners and their reformation, by Z. R. Brockway.. 162

Chapter XXIV : Cumulative sentences, by Liverpool magistrates 184 /

Chapter XXV : Treatment of prisoners, by Sir W. Crofton.. 185 /

Chapter XXVI : Preventive police organization, by Edwin Chadwick. .. 187 ~ /
Chapter XXVII : Crimes of passion and crimes of reflection, by Dr.

Bittinger 189

Chapter XXVIII : Life and services of Howard, by Dr. Bellows 190

Chapter XXIX : Historical sketch of the prison of Ghent, by M. Vis-

SCHERS 194

Conception of this prison due to Viscount Vilain XIV - 194

State of society in Belgium near the middle of eighteenth century 195

* !Number of last chapter repeatedlnadvertently.



XII CONTENTS.

Page.
Chapter XXIX : Historical sketch, etc.— Continued.

Principal events in the life of Viscount Vilain 195

Analysis of two memoirs, by Vilain, proposing the construction of the

prison of Ghent 19.5

Plan and interior division of the prison 196

' Administration, discipline, and industries 197

Howard visits and praises this prison » 199

Kecapitulation of Vilain's principles of prison disciiiliue 200

Progress of prison discipline during the last century 200

Mr. Visschers prefers the Crofton system 201

Note on a paper communicated by Dr. Despine, of France, on the criminal

himself, being a study and development of his moral anomalies 201

PART FOURTH: PERSONAL INSPECTIONS OF EUROPEAN PRISONS AND

REFORMATORIES.

INTRODUCTORY 201

Letter of instructions by Governor Seymour 201

Chapter XXX: Prisons and reformatories op Ireland 202

1. Convict prisons of Ireland 202

2. Juvenile reformatories of Ireland 208

Chapter XXXI : Prisons and reformatories op England 209

? 1. English prisons 209

2. Aid to discharged prisoners - 213

A. Mrs. Meredith's wash-house in aid of discharged female prisoners 213

4. Carlisle memorial refuge for women 214

5. English reformatories 216

Chapter XXXII: Prisons and rejormatories of Switzerland 216

^ 1. The prisons of Switzerland 216

Penitentiaries at Geneva and Berne 216

Penitentiary at Zurich - 216

Penitentiary at Lenzbourg 217

Penitentiary at Neufchatel 217

2. Reformatories of Switzerland 228

Chapter XXXIII: Prisons of Germany •.. 228

(' 1 . German convict prisons 228

(a) Convict prison at Berlin 228

(b) Convict prison at Bruchsal 229

{(•) Convict prison at Munich 230

2. Detention prison at Municli « 231

:?. Patronage of discharged prisoners at Bavaria 232

System of patronage admirably organized ; its orgauization/lcscribed in

'detail 232

Minutes of a njeeting of the patronage society of Munich, August 12,

1873 234

Chapter XXXIV: Prisons in Italy 235

^ 1. The prison delhs Marate, at Florence 235

2. The ]iris<)iis of Rome 235

(a) 'I'he i)rison ch-Ue Terino 235

(h) Tlie juison of San Micliele 235

This prison liistoric 235

Founded in 1704, byl'ope Cleniont XI 2.36

San Micheie the germ of tlio Auburn system 236

3. Tin- fiitnro of penitentiary rcibrni in Italy 236

CHAITEK X.\X\ : I'KISO.NS and RErORMATOItlES OP BELGIUM 237

(» 1. Brjgian prisons 237

(a) l'( III tent iary of Lou vain 237

(h) (Convict prison of (ilient 238

(c) Detention prison and house of correction at Ghent 238

2. .jnveniln reforniatorirs of Belginni 2.38

' liAriKR XXXV'I: I'imso.ns and itKioitMAToitiKS IN Netiikulands 240

^1. Military jirison at J/cydcn 240

2. Cellular prison of AniMtcrdani 241

'■'. Detention jirinon at tlie Hague - 242

t. Aid tf> liberated prisoners 242

.5. Netherlands Mettruy 242

Chaptkr XXXVII: I'kihonw aki> kki-ohmatouiks ln France 245

$ 1. Two (list in<t jirison adniinistr.'itions 245

2. Kxi)l;uiatifin of the, tcniiH indiljii'n, jnrroiUH, accuses 246

3. Grand d«]iot of the ijrefcctnre of ] ml ice 246



CONTENTS. XIII

Page.
CiiAPTEK XXXVII : Prisons and beffrmatories in France— Continued.

4. Mazas - 247

5. The Concierj^erie 249

G. The Grand Roquette 249

7. Sainte-Pdlagie , 250

8. Saint-Lazaie 251

9. LaSaut6 253

10. La Petite Roquette 255

11. The female central prison of Clermont , 255

12. Male central prison of Melun 257

13. Departmental prisons at St. Omer 258

14. A quasi prison 259

15. General remarks on French prisons 259

(a) Material organization excellent — moral, lanqiiid 259

(&) Percentage of relapses increase rather than diminish 259

(c) Wards of preservation and amendment , 260

(d) Dietaries too low 260

16. Agricultural and penitentiary colony of Mettray 260

Founded by M. Demetz thirty-five years ago 261

General statistics 261

Conducted on the family system 261

Advantages of this system 262

Agriculture the chief industry, but not to the exclusion of mechan-
ical labor 262

System of training — the heart, the body, the intellect 263

Earnest care given to the vrards of Mettray after their discharge 264

Mettray resembles a great and beautiful vrork of nature 264

Extraordinary results 265

The training school of Mettray, {^cole preparatoire) 265

The maison paternelle, (house of ijaternal correction) 266

Review of the colons 268

17. Patronage of discharged prisoners in France 268

Has not taken root widely 268

Well organized and successful as far as it goes 269

PART FIFTH: LESSONS, SUGGESTIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS.

Ch^vpter XXXVIII : Conclusion 270

§ 1. Principle above systems 270

2. Evil eifects of repeated short sentences 271

3. The character of sentences needs modification 272

4. The prison system of a country should be a unit 274

5. Stability of administration an essential condition of a good prison

system 275

6. Series of institutions needed in a good system • 277

(a) Preventive institutions 277

(6) Juvenile reformatories 278

(c) The county jail , 279

(d) The house of correction 280

(c) The state- prison 281

Connected with these last two classes of prisons should be inter-
mediate or testing establishments 282

Mr. Barwick Baker's proposition on this subject 283

7. Crime-capitalists should be exterminated 285

8. Society owes indemnity to persons wrongfully imprisoned and declared

innocent by the courts 286

9. Effective means should be devised to identify prisoners previously con-

victed 288

10. Greater attention should be given to penitentiary statistics 289



Online LibraryEngland) United States. Commissioner to International PrisoReport on the International Penitentiary Congress of London, held July 3-13, 1872 → online text (page 1 of 78)