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September 15



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The Fortnightly Review, St. Louis, Missouri



The Fortnightly Review



VOL. XXIV. NO. 19



ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI



Oct. 1. 1917



Is There Salvation Outside the Church?

The ancient axiom, "Outside the
^Catholic Church there is no salva-
tion," is jnisunderstood by most
non-Catholics and, we maj^ add, by
not a few Catholics. Count Xavier
de Maistre, e.g., was fully convinced

^that his loyalty to the Church de-
manded that he regard his wife,
a woman of angelic virtue, as doom-
ed to damnation if she remained a
schismatic. (Cfr. "Lettres Inedites
de Xavier de Maistre a sa Famille,"
ed. F. Klein in Le Correspondant,
Paris, Dec. 25, 1902, pp. 1109 sq.)
He attributed this strange belief to
a priest whom he had consulted re-
garding the matter. No doubt the
(zealous count had misunderstood
this priest. Had he investigated, he
would have found that the Catholic
Church holds no man lost except
through his own fault. Pius IX
says in his encyclical of Aug. 10,
1863, that "those who are invincibly
ignorant of our holy religion and
who .... nevertheless lead an honest
and upright life, can, under the in-
fluence of divine light and grace,
attain to eternal life; for God, who
knows and sees the mind, the heart,
the thoughts, and the dispositions
of every man, cannot in His infinite
goodness and clemency permit any
one to suffer eternal punishment
who is not guilty through his own
fault." (Denzinger's "Enchiridion,"
ed. Bannwart, Freiburg 1908, n.
1677).

But how can this truth be squared
with the ancient axiom that there is
no salvation outside the Catholic
Church?



Theologians are not agreed in ex-
plaining this apparently simple
axiom. Most of them insist on the
well-known distinction between the
body and the soul of the Church;
— which is good as far as it goes,
but does not go far enough. Fa-
ther J. Bainvel, S.J., in a little
treatise just translated into English
by the Rev. J. L. Weidenhan, gives
the most satisfactory explanation
we have yet seen. He says that the
axiom, "Outside the Church there
is no salvation," refers to the ordi-
nary workings of Providence ; in
other words, it is the rule, not the
exception. It is the order desired
by God that all men shall be saved
within the Catholic Church. The ex-
ceptional cases referred to by Pius
IX, (be they ever so numerous, but
they are less numerous than appears
at first sight), lie outside the divine
intention (praeter intent ioneni, per
accidens) , because of a defect of the
human will, and are supplied by
God with an extraordinary econo-
my, a special providence, gi'anted
according to the measure of necessi-
ty. The souls so saved may with
equal truth be said to belong to the
Church and not to belong to it.
They belong to it because, at heart,
they are united to God in faith and
charity; but the ties by which they
are affiliated are invisible to hu-
man eyes. "Consequently, although
it may be truly said that there have
been souls who have gained salva-
tion outside the Church, we cannot
say, because of this fact, that sal-
vation is equally possible for those
without as well as for those within



290



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW



October 1



the Church, since those very souls
who are saved outside the Church
(that is, without being, properly
speaking, members of the visible
Church), are not saved except by
the Church and in so far as they
are her members" (page 62).

In the light of this explanation
we can understand why the Church,
in spite of the objections raised by
those who are ignorant or imper-
vious to divine wisdom, calmly per-
sists in teaching and in demanding
that her children accept as an ar-
ticle of faith the ancient formula
"Outside the Church there is no sal-
vation."

Catholics and Protestants alike
will find Fr. Bainvel's booklet read-
able and instructive.

("Is There Salvation Outside the Cath-
olic Church?" B. Herder Book Co., St.
Louis, Mo.; 50 cts. net).

State Reform Schools for Delinquent
Boys

A large percentage of juvenile de-
linquents are committed to State in-
stitutions of reformation and com-
pulsory education. We assure the
reader this paper is written without
any prejudice against these so-call-
ed reformatories and the officials in
charge of them. We fully realize the
right and duty of the State to erect
and maintain such institutions, be-
cause when parents either cannot or
will not do their duty in the matter
of educating their offspring, the
State must take the place of the
parents, and the reformatory the
place of the home, to enforce hon-
esty and obedience at least during
the time of detention of the juvenile
delinquents.

This relation of the child to the
State, viz., the child becoming a
ward of the State, is, of course, un-
natural ; but what else can be done
under the circumstances? The ques-
tion is, Can the State succeed when
the parents fail? And the answer:
No. Can the State, minus the
Church, make good (Christians of



delinquent children? Emphatically
no, because the State as such has
nothing to do with Christianity and
Christian education. The reforma-
tory, so-called, is interdenomina-
tional, and for that reason cannot
concern itself with religion, and
therefore cannot give religion to its
inmates. But can not the State at
least turn delinquent children into
good citizens — which is evidently
the object of the State Reformatory
or Industrial School? The reply
must again be negative, because
good citizenship without sound mo-
rality is impossible, and sound mo-
rality cannot be had without prac-
tical Christianity.

If it be true that for the preserva-
tion of our religion, and, conse-
quently, good citizenship in our
children, we must have the Catholic
parochial school, then we cannot but
recognize the necessity of denomi-
national reformatories for delin-
quent children.

In the year of our Lord 1913, a
certain gentleman visited a State
Reformatory. When leaving the in-
stitution, he is reported to have
made the remark that he was pleas-
ed with the excellent way in which
the State was caring for the delin-
quent boys. Catholics as well as
Protestants. We beg to differ with
the gentleman, and propose to make
it plain why he and others who may
hold the same view are wrong in
recommending the State Reforma-
tory as a fit institution for our de-
linquent boys and girls.

If the State Reformatories are
such a pronounced success, why are
our juvenile judges so reluctant in
committing boys and girls to them?
The judges are public officials, and
should make it their b-usiness to up-
hold and recommend the State insti-
tutions of correction and compul-
sory education respectively. Instead
of this, however, they make every
possible effort to keep the delin-
quents out of them. They seem to
regard the State Reformatory with
disgust and look upon it only as the



1917



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW



291



very last straw. Time and again
we have heard judges declare that
the State Industrial School is not
the place for juvenile delinquents
and that other provision should be
made for them. They might as well
have told us (for, practically, it
amounts to the same thing) that
the State Reformatory is, in reali-
ty, f/eformatory, inasmuch as it
serves to make a bad thing worse.
The honorable judges are well
aware of the fact, and the rea-
son is that a large percentage of
professional criminals are gradu-
ates from the State Industrial
Schools. The State Reformatory is
intended to be a place of correction
for the juvenile delinquents of the
entire State. All the boys commit-
ted to it for various reasons (tru-
ancy, larceny, assault, even drun-
kenness and immorality of every
description) are brought together
there. All creeds are represented,
and there are those who have no
Church affiliations whatever. How
can such promiscuity be beneficial to
Catholic boys? One might as well
assert that the best way to clean
a boy is to roll him around in dirt.
Does it not, on the contrary, stand
to reason that continuous associa-
tion with all kinds of juvenile de-
linquents will destroy every vestige
of good which may still be found in
a boy at the time of his commit-
ment? And this is another reason
why we disagree with those who be-
lieve that the State Industrial
School, so-called, is a suitable place
for wayward Catholic boys.

The truant officer of a city in the
middle West told us some years ago
that the moral conditions among the
boys in the State Reformatory at X
were extremely bad. He had receiv-
ed his information from the State
agent of the Reformatory, who add-
ed that the authorities had employ-
ed an additional number of night
watchmen in order to check amon;4'
the boy inmates certain practices of
the kind which, according to St.
Paul, ought not to be mentioned



among Christians. The men in
authority, however, in spite of an
increased force and extraordinary
vigilance, could not eliminate the
evil. We found it didicult to believe
this, but our informant was a truth-
ful man, and we could not assume
that the State agent would make
false statements against the institu-
tion which he served. Neverthe-
less, we decided to investigate the
matter for ourselves. A number of
Catholic boys who had served their
term or been paroled from the Re-
formatory, presented themselves to
us to solicit our aid in finding em-
ployment, which was cheerfully giv-
en in every case and to any lad of
good will. We questioned them
about the Industrial School and con-
ditions existing therein. Every one
of the boys confirmed the truth of
the agent's statement. From our
conversation with them we estab-
lished the following facts: (1)
Moral disorders exist in the State
Reformatory; (2) They seem to be
general; (3) The boys who are
caught are severely punished; (4)
Most of the guilty boys manage to
escape detection.

Recently we met seven young
men, who had been inmates of the
Industrial School of an eastern
State. Their story was similar to
that told by the boys of X.

A last argument against the State
Refoi-matory, and in favor of de-
nominational industrial schools, is
that many of the lads discharged or
paroled from the institutions re-
lapse, partly because they return to
a good-for-nothing home or drift
back into their former evil environ-
ment. Among their former associ-
ates old reminiscences will be re-
vived and all good resolutions, if
any were formed in the days and
years of servitude, will soon go to
the dogs.

At any rate, results plainly show
that no true and thorough reforma-
tion is achieved by the State Indus-
trial School. The reason is not far
to seek. The reform of the soul, as



292



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW



October 1



has been truly said, is the soul
(or essence) of all reform, and the
hearts and souls of the boys are not
influenced for good in the State Re-
formatory. Of course, the boys obey
orders, but the motive is either fear
of corporal punishment or the hope
of being paroled as a reward for
good behavior. They do not steal
because there is nothing to take, nor
is drink or tobacco to be had in any
form. By the way, some people are
under the impression that smoking
and chewing are the greatest ene-
mies of a boy's physical and moral
welfare. This is not true. We ful-
ly recognize the injurious effects of
tobacco, but the greatest foe of the
boy is the devil of impurity, who
destroys the boy's happiness and
saps away his life.

The jurisdiction of the State ex-
tends only to the body, and physical
coercion can never reach the soul.
What is required are spiritual
means — God and His holy religion.
For the Catholic boy this means
prayer, attendance at Mass, suit-
able instruction, worthy reception
of the Sacraments, — in one word, a
practical Catholic life in a thorough-
ly Catholic atmosphere.

And as in case of Catholics, so
Protestant delinquent boys are in
need of, and should have, whatso-
ever means of reform their respec-
tive Church has to offer. Now, what
religious training have our boys in
the State Reformatory? Practical-
ly none, for in many cases there is
no one to concern himself about
their spiritual welfare, while in oth-
ers, they are entirely dependent on
what little care the village priest or
city pastor is willing or able to be-
stow upon them. We know of a re-
formatory which houses between
300 and 400 Catholic boys, with-
out a chaplain. There is Mass once
a week, but not on Sunday, and the
boys eat meat every day of the year.
The non-Catholic boys are not re-
quired to attend Mass, but the Cath-
olic boys are obliged to attend the



interdenominational services every
Sunday.

A certain detention house num-
bers from 80 to 90 inmates, mostly
Catholics. They have no Mass, no
religious instruction of any kind, no
opportunity to receive the Sacra-
ments. And yet we wonder why the
Church is losing so many of her
children. Some of the probation of-
ficers whom we met in different ci-
ties told us that quite a number of
boys "make good" when released
from the reformatory. This may be
true in so far as they will refrain
from those actions which will again
place them within the clutches of
the law. But the Catholic spirit, of
which they possessed more or less
during their earlier lives, is hope-
lessly gone.

The Fathers of the Second
Plenary Council of Baltimore devot-
ed a special chapter to unfortunate
and delinquent Catholic children.
They strongly exhorted the bishops
to erect houses of refuge and denom-
inational reform schools in their
respective dioceses for the poor
young victims of neglect and seduc-
tion. Evidently those Fathers did
not believe in the unchristian theory
of ridding themselves of "the nega-
tive factors of the Church" by com-
mitting them to State institutions.

Fr. A. B.
O



Flowers were always dear to the Fran-
ciscans. St. Francis himself permitted all
decorations which could be made of
flowers. He classed them with his broth-
ers and sisters, the sun, moon, and stars,
— all members of the sacred choir prais-
ing God. — Helen Hunt Jackson, "Ra-
mona."



Places have their affinities to men, as
much as men to each other; and fields
and lanes have their moods also. I have
brought one friend to meet another friend,
and neither of them would speak; I have
taken a friend to a hillside, and I my-
self have perceived that the hillside grew
dumb and its face clouded. — Helen Hunt
Jackson, "Hide-and-Seek Town."



1917



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW



293



Devotion to the Sacred Heart

A writer in the Cincinnati Sc)}(l-
bote (Vol. 44, No. 8) says that, ac-
cording to the Official Catholic Di-
rectory for 1916, there were in the
United States, in 1915, 694 parish
churches dedicated to the Sacred
Heart of Jesus, besides a consider-
able number of chapels in con-
vents, colleges, hospitals, etc. Seven
churches not included in the above
figure were consecrated to the Sa-
cred Hearts of Jesus and Mary, and
twelve to Our Lady of the Sacred
Heart. There is not a single dio-
cese in the country that has not
within its limits at least one church
dedicated to the Sacred Heart. In
five dioceses, (Dallas, Davenport,
Duluth, Richmond, and Superior)
the cathedral churches are under
the patronage of the Sacred Heart
of Jesus. With regard to the num-
ber of Sacred Heart churches, the
archdiocese of Dubuque leads with
22, followed by Hartford (19).
Boston (18), New York, St. Louis,
and Sioux City (16), Philadelphia
and New Orleans (15), Wichita
(14), Chicago (13), etc.

From this state of affairs the
Sendbote concludes that the Cath-
olics of the United States must have
a great devotion to the Sacred
Heart, and it need not surprise us.
therefore, that one of the candidates
for the doctor's degree in the Cath-
olic University of America this
year chose the "Theology of the
Cultus of the Sacred Heart" for the
subject of his dissertation. This
dissertation, by the Rev. Joseph J.
C. Petrovits, in its printed form
comprises 213 actavo pages and is,
we believe, the most extensive sci-
entific treatise on the subject that
has so far appeared in English.
After a brief introductory chapter
on the primary object of worship
in general and certain adumbra-
tions of the cult of the Sacred Heart
in the Fathers and medieval mys-
tics, the author traces the history
of the devotion from Bl. Margaret
Mary, explains its dogmatic basis.



its material and formal, primary
and secondary objects, and finally
discusses the so-called "Great Prom-
ise," which, he says, is of doubtful
authenticity. Fr. Petrovits is not
in favor of rejecting the Promise
entirely, but thinks prudent use may
be made of it, "provided it be in-
terpreted in conformity with sound
theological principles" (p. 183).
Chapter XV of this interesting and
scholarly treatise is recommended
particularly to those devotional
writers who in their fervor main-
tain that by means of the devotion
of the Nine Fridays one acquires clc
condigno a reward which consists in
the grace of final perseverance.
There is no theological justification
for such a belief. In extolling the
efficacy of the devotion to the Sa-
cred Heart, it is necessary to ac-
centuate the words of Bl. Margaret
Mary, found in a letter to Father
Croiset, dated Sept. 15, 1689, that
the Sacred Heart will be our assur-
ed refuge at the moment of death,
but in order to be found worthy
of such an exceptional blessing, we
must have lived in conformity with
Christ's holy maxims (p. 193).

Fr. Petrovits' dissertation is an
important contribution to the litera-
ture of the cultus of the Sacred
Heart, and we earnestly recommend
it to our readers.

(Theology of the Cultus of the Sacred
Heart. A Moral, Dogmatic, and Historical
Study. Dissertation Submitted to the
Faculty of the Sacred Sciences at the
Catholic University of America in Par-
tial Fulfilment of the Requirements for
the Doctorate of Theology by the Rev.
Joseph Julius Charles Petrovits, J.C.B.,
S.T.L., of the Diocese of Harrisburg. 213
pp. 8vo. Washington, D. C: The Cath-
olic University of America. 1917).



Surliness of heart must melt a little
under the simple effort to smile. A man
will inevitably be a little less of a bear
for trying to wear the face of a Chris-
tian.— Helen Hunt Jackson, "The Joyless
American."



294



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW



October 1



A Protest against Conscription of
Thought

Under the title, ''Conscription of
Thought," Professor John Dewey,
the eminent Harvard psychologist,
protests in the Neiv Republic (Vol.
XII, No. 148) against the attempts
that are being made in this country
under the cloak of patriotism to
suppress liberty of thought and
speech.

He says that while we have not
yet suffered in this country from a
bad attack of war nerves, we are
suffering from a morbid sensitive-
ness at any exhibition of diversity
of opinion, which leads us to attack
and persecute those not in agree-
ment with the war policy of the ad-
ministration on the ground that
"social cohesion is a necessity and
we must take measures to secure
union." This the Professor justly
calls "a piece of self-inflicted camou-
flage," both foolish and useless.
He admits that "without a cer-
tain sweep of undivided beliefs and
sentiments unity of outer action is
likely to be mechanical and simu-
lated." But he denies the efficacy
of force to remove disunion of
thought and feeling, and points out
how inconsistent a policy of force
is with modern notions of tolera-



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