Ernest Rumley Dawson.

The causation of sex in man; a new theory of sex based on clinical materials together with chapters on forecasting or predicting the sex of the unborn child and on the determination or production of either sex at will online

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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

MEDICAL CENTER LIBRARY

SAN FRANCISCO




Gift of



Binghampton Gen. Hospital

Medical Library
Binghampton, New York



THE CAUSATION OF SEX
IN MAN



THE

CAUSATION OF SEX

IN MAN

A NEW THEORY OF SEX BASED ON CLINICAL MATERIALS

TOGETHER WITH CHAPTERS ON

FORECASTING OR PREDICTING THE SEX
OF THE UNBORN CHILD



AND ON THE



DETERMINATION OR PRODUCTION
OF EITHER SEX AT WILL



BY

E. RUMLEY JDAWSON

L.R.C.P. LOND. ; M.R.C.S. ENGLAND

LATE MEMBER OF THE COUNCIL OF THE OBSTETRICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON

AND FELLOW OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF MEDICINE
FORMERLY RESIDENT OBSTETRIC HOUSE PHYSICIAN TO THE WESTMINSTER HOSPITAL



"OMNE VIVUM AB OVO "



rfi^h



(ft 17







PAUL B. HOEBER

67 & 69 EAST 59TH STREET

NEW YORK

1917



238123






Printed in England



tbe

OF

A MEDICAL MARTYR

THE LATE

IGNATIUS P. SEMMELWEIS

FORMERLY OBSTETRIC ASSISTANT TO THE VIENNA HOSPITAL

THIS BOOK IS DEDICATED



AS A RESULT OF PROPOUNDING AND ADVOCATING A THEORY OF
THE CAUSATION- OF BLOOD-POISONING DURING CHILDBIRTH, NOW
UNIVERSALLY ADMITTED TO BE CORRECT, BUT NEW THEN AND
THEREFORE DISBELIEVED, HE WAS DESPISED AND RIDICULED
BY HIS COLLEAGUES AND TEACHERS, FINALLY DYING INSANE

A VICTIM

TO THE RELENTLESS PERSECUTION AND CONTEMPTUOUS
OPPOSITION TO WHICH HE WAS SUBJECTED



THERE IS NOTHING MORE THANKLESS THAN THE ATTEMPT TO INFLUENCE ANY FIELD
OF PUBLIC OPINION."



PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION

THE preparation of this new edition has enabled me not
only to revise it, but to explain and elucidate some of the
difficulties experienced by my readers.

I have therefore included many more cases, and examples
explanatory of different points have also been added.
In order to do this and yet keep the volume nearly to its
original size, some matter not strictly relevant to the chief
subject of the book has been omitted.

Further experience and testing of the theory have led
to but little alteration or modification of the conclusions
therein contained. The book has not only shown members
of my own profession how to determine the sex of the
next child for some of their patients, but that I had
also succeeded in making the book comprehensible, and
practically useful to the intelligent layman, is evident
from the receipt of many grateful letters from readers of
the book, previously quite unknown to me; I therefore
hope that this revised edition will be more than ever helpful
to all who desire to exercise a reasoned control over the
sex of their offspring.

The appearance of this new edition now must be deemed
most opportune, for owing to the abnormally heavy drain
on the manhood of the country, the birth of sons to the
nation becomes an Imperial necessity. And here I wish to

vii



viii PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION

point out once again, that those who desire to study the
Human Family must as was stated in The Mendel Journal
" quit the experimental garden and cloister, and pass out
into the world of his fellows "; for from his fellow-creatures,
rather than the invertebrata and plants, will he learn the
details and mysteries of human families, and so gather
confirmation of the views expressed in this book.



E. RUMLEY DAWSON.



THE ELMS,

TEDDINGTON,
MIDDLESEX.



PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION

I HAVE written this book, not as the outcome of a sudden
inspiration or guess, but as the result of prolonged and
careful study; hence I trust the reader will form his con-
clusions thereon only after careful perusal of it.

The problem of the Causation of Sex in Mankind has
always been a fascinating one, and only recently it has been
described as "on the borderland of the insoluble."

Some hitherto insoluble questions have been solved, for
example, by Marconigrams, Radiograms, and Submarine
Warships; others are being assailed, for both Arctic and
Antarctic expeditions are attempting to solve the Polar
question, while the conquest of the air by aerial machines
and dirigible balloons will not apparently be long delayed.

Such examples, therefore, encourage the attempt to solve
the question of the Causation of Sex, and supply a valid
reason for the production of my book, the more especially
as I claim to have discovered Nature's secret.

This theory is built up essentially on clinical material
and facts, and thus differs from Schenk's theory, which
recently startled the world. The latter looked like an
attempt to give a scientific flavour to the old nursery
rhyme that

" Sugar and spice and all things nice,
That is what girls are made of."

It was never seriously credited, however; for by the applica-
tion to Schenk's theory, or rather hypothesis, of the one



x PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION

well-known clinical fact of the occasional simultaneous
birth of both a boy and a girl, it was at once shown to be
quite untenable.

In the chapter on the Determination of Sex I have given
general rules only, as each individual case must be separately
worked out, preferably by the person's own private medical
attendant.

Of the illustrations, nine are new and original. The
source of the remainder is given in the text: all have been
redrawn, and some have been modified or simplified so as
to render certain points clearer to the reader; while for the
loan of Figs. 14 and 21, taken from Bland-Sutton and Giles'
" Diseases of Women," I have to thank Mr. Bland-Sutton
and his publishers, Messrs. Rebman, Ltd.

For many of the facts used I am indebted to others;
the fitting of them into the mosaic of the theory I claim
to be my own.

E. RUMLEY DAWSON.



CONTENTS



CHAPTER PAGE

INTRODUCTION - I

I. THE ANATOMY OF THE FEMALE GENERATIVE ORGANS - 5

II. PHYSIOLOGY OVULATION THE CORPUS LUTEUM

PUBERTY MENSTRUATION THE MENOPAUSE - 1 7

III. THE FORMATION OF OVA - 32

IV. THE FORMATION OF SPERMATOZOA - - 36
V. FERTILISATION - - 38

> VI. THE THEORY AND ITS EXPLANATION, TOGETHER 1 WITH

SOME CONFIRMATORY VIEWS - - 46

; VII. DOES THE MALE PARENT OR FATHER INFLUENCE S^X ? - 56

VIII. CASES OF UTERINE PREGNANCY WHICH PROVE THE

THEORY 63

IX. CASES OF EXTRA-UTERINE PREGNANCY WHICH PROVE

THE THEORY - - 67

X. CASES OF PREGNANCY AFTER OPERATIONS ON THE
OVARIES, WHICH PROVE THE THEORY AND SHOW THE

EFFECT ON CHILDBEARING OF SUCH OPERATIONS - 76

XI. CASES OF PREGNANCY IN ABNORMAL UTERI WHICH

PROVE THE THEORY - - 82

XII. THE CORPUS LUTEUM AS A SIGN OF PREGNANCY - 86

XIII. THE MIGRATION OR TRANSMIGRATION OF OVA - QO

XIV. PREGNANCY IN THE MAMMALIA - - 97

XV. WHY MORE BOYS ARE BORN THAN GIRLS - 105

xi



xii CONTENTS

CHAKTKR

XVI. THE INFLUENCE OF LATERAL DECUBITUS ON THE DETER-
MINATION OF SEX - - 115

XVII. THE PROPORTION OF THE SEXES IN INDIVIDUAL HUMAN

FAMILIES - 122

XVIII. MULTIPLE CONCEPTIONS OR PLURAL PREGNANCY - 132

XIX. DOES A DISEASED OVARY LEAD TO DISEASED CHILDREN ? 146

XX. HERMAPHRODITISM - 154

XXI. CASES THOUGHT TO DISPROVE THE THEORY - - 157

XXII. THE ALTERNATE ACTION OF THE OVARIES - IJO

XXIII. THE FORECASTING OR PREDICTION OF THE SEX OF THE

COMING CHILD - l8l

XXIV. DIFFICULTIES AND SOURCES OF ERROR EXPLAINED - IQ7

XXV. A CONSIDERATION OF THE PRE- AND POST-MENSTRUAL

THEORY OF SEX DETERMINATION - - 2O8

XXVI. THE DETERMINATION OR PRODUCTION OF EITHER SEX

AT WILL - 214

INDEX - - - - 221



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

VIG. PAG*

I AND 2. VIRGIN AND MULTIPAROUS UTERUS - 5, 6

3. FRONT VIEW OF UTERUS IN RELATION TO SURFACE OF BODY 8

4. ABNORMAL UTERI - - IO

5. POSTERIOR VIEW OF OPENED UTERUS, OVARIES, ETC. - 13

6. OVARY SHOWING FOLLICLES CUT ACROSS AND ONE JUST

RUPTURED - 15

7. GRAAFIAN FOLLICLE, CONTAINING NEARLY RIPE OVUM - 15

8. OVULATING OVARY, MAGNIFIED SECTION - 1 8
Q. CORPUS LUTEUM - IO,

10. A HUMAN OVUM - "34

11. HUMAN SPERMATOZOA - 36

12. A HUMAN OVUM, SHOWING ITS UNIVERSALLY POROUS

CELL-WALL - 40

13. AN INVERTEBRATE OVUM, SHOWING THE MICROPYLE - 4!

14. A RECENTLY PREGNANT FALLOPIAN TUBE AFTER COM-

PLETELY ABORTING. CORPUS LUTEUM IN THE OVARY 88

15. SHEEP'S UTERUS, UNOPENED - 97
i5A. SHEEP'S UTERUS, OPENED - 98

16. PREGNANT COW'S UTERUS, SHOWING BULL-CALF IN UTERO

facing 101

17. PREGNANT SHEEP'S UTERUS, SHOWING TWIN LAMBS IN

UTERO - - 102

xiii



xiv LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

no. PAGE

1 8. POSTERIOR VIEW OF UTERUS IN SITU, SACRUM REMOVED - Il6

19. RIGHT-SIDED SALPINGITIS CAUSING RIGHT-SIDED STERILITY 125

20. POSTERIOR VIEW OF UTERUS, SHOWING SITES WHERE ACCES-

SORY OVARIAN TISSUE MAY BE FOUND - - l6o

21. FRAGMENT OF OVARY CONTAINING A CORPUS LUTEUM AFTER

SUPPOSED COMPLETE REMOVAL OF BOTH THE OVARIES, ETC. 1 65



THE

CAUSATION OF SEX IN MAN

INTRODUCTION

EARLY in the year 1887 my attention was first called to the
fact that the great problem of the Causation of Sex in
Mankind was still unsolved.

The inquiries which I then began to make soon showed
me how much in the dark the medical profession is on the
subject.

The whole question of the Causation of Sex in Mankind
had been hedged around, encumbered and obscured with
observations ad nauseam on the eggs of the invertebrata ; on
worms and tadpoles; on sponges, and plants; on bees, and
water-fleas; and lastly, on hens' eggs, to which nothing more
dissimilar could be found than the human egg or ovum.

If ever it be true that " the proper study of mankind is
man," it is in this study of the causation of sex, and
therefore I have made it chiefly a clinical study.

Among the large number of theories which had been ad-
vanced, the great majority were quite untenable, and were
propounded without any clinical evidence or facts to support
them; several others I found had been suggested which
were diametrically contradictory to a theory which some
former writer had advocated. A few of these I mention
in the text.

As a general practitioner of medicine, the daily round of
work, the ever-present necessity of earning one's living,
sadly interfered with, and was hardly conducive to, close
study of and inquiry into such an engrossing subject, and
so progress was slow ; but we must remember, as Dr. Samuel



2 THE CAUSATION OF SEX

Johnson said, " it is dangerous to quiet our uneasiness by
the delusive opiate of hasty persuasion "; for the answers
to most great questions have only been arrived at after much
patience combined with persistence and sustained work.

It was not, therefore, till some thirteen years after first
beginning the study of the Causation of Sex that I ventured,
in December 1900, to bring the subject before the Obstetrical
Society of London : it is remarkable, but it was the first time
that the subject of the Causation of Sex in Mankind had ever
been discussed by the Society ! Innovations, however,
rankle with many, and, as was to be expected, but little
knowledge of the subject was shown, and much of the criti-
cism of the paper was irrelevant and inaccurate.

The reception of the paper did not discourage me, and
the following eulogistic notice of it from the pen of the
then President of the Obstetrical Society, Mr. Alban Doran,
F.R.C.S., appeared in vol. xliii. 1901, pp. 49 and 50, of the
Society's Transactions :

" A very remarkable monograph on ' The Essential Factor
in the Causation of Sex: a New Theory of Sex/ was read in
December by Mr. E. Rumley Dawson. This communication
was prepared after long study of cases of removal of one
ovary, and of families where one sex predominated or
prevailed entirely. . . . The boldest theory in this singular
monograph was the assertion that the sex of the child
depends upon which ovary supplied the ovum fertilised.
This paper was strongly criticised in a very active discussion
by several obstetrical and gynaecological authorities; but
the author, who showed great dialectical ability both in his
written monograph and in his reply to his critics at the
meeting, stoutly maintained the scientific value of his views.
This memorable discussion on a sex problem a subject
always of interest, though on the borderland of the insoluble
was further remarkable as being the last piece of work
done by the Obstetrical Society in the nineteenth century."

Having thus led the way, I continued to note and observe,
and the gradual collection of facts and cases stimulated me
to further efforts, for I found new patients and new cases
supplying almost daily fresh points or facts with which to
build up and maintain my theory.



INTRODUCTION 3

Each individual fact brought forward in support of my
theory may have no great force by itself, yet when we come
to add together the separate facts, the number of points in
favour of the theory form in the aggregate proof so con-
vincing as to leave very little room for doubting its accuracy.

The present book, then, is the result of this further study ;
the original paper is incorporated with it, the whole has
been rewritten, and the additions thereto more than equal
the original observations.

I have throughout endeavoured to support and sub-
stantiate every statement, proposition, or conclusion, either
by extracts from well-known authorities or by clinical cases,
and thus gradually to build up the theory on ascertained
facts; but no one save those who have hunted up cases in
medical literature can be aware of the great difficulty experi-
enced in finding perhaps the very item or fact we are looking
for. In this way scores of cases which might have been
used are found to be useless owing to the remarkable manner
in which authors have failed to note the sex of the child
born, or from which side an ovary was removed, or in which
half of a double uterus the child was contained. I have
had most exasperating experiences in this way, and writing
personally to the authors has been no more successful:
thus, in one case, though the weight of the child is given,
and a careful dissection was made of its heart, its sex was
unaccountably omitted; in others we get the weight and
length, but no sex ; and, finally, a case is described of open-
ing t'he mother's abdomen, removing a living child, elaborate
measurements of its head are given, but though the ovaries
were removed, they are not described, neither is the sex of
the child given !

I have thus found my investigations repeatedly hampered
by incomplete records, hence the number of cases is less
than it might have been.

I have claimed, and repeat my claim, that my theory is a
new one: in dissociating as I do the male parent from any
influence in sex causation, my theory essentially differs from
those old-world theories which some critics thought were
similar. Further, I prove my theory practically and with
clinical material; no attempt has previously been made to



4 THE CAUSATION OF SEX

utilise the sexually differing families daily met with; and
such subjects as extra-uterine pregnancy; pregnancy in
abnormal uteri; multiple pregnancy; the migration of the
ovum; and why more boys are born than girls; are all used
to prove the Causation of Sex in Mankind for the first time.

Confirmation of the correctness of the theory is practically
shown by my being able not only to forecast the sex of the
coming child, but also to determine either sex at will.

I have endeavoured to give chapter and verse for most
quotations and cases. I am well aware of faults in the book,
but I must claim the reader's indulgence, for, apart from
the claims of my daily work, which often rendered it im-
possible for several days and weeks together to either write
or study, the mere collection of so many cases necessarily
prevents the narrative running along in the smooth way
one might wish ; but they were essential to prove the theory.

And again, in order to emphasise the different points I
have had to utterly disregard repetition: emphasis requires
repetition, and hence I fear the narrative suffers thereby.

The absorbing interest of the subject, however, will over-
ride the literary deficiencies, for that the subject of sex is of
the greatest interest and importance is surely indisputable;
and all must agree with Havelock Ellis when he says that

"Sex is the central problem of life."



CHAPTER I



THE ANATOMY OF THE FEMALE GENERATIVE

ORGANS

A COMPLETE anatomical description of the whole of the
female generative organs being beyond the scope or necessi-
ties of this book, only the following abbreviated account of
the internal organs essential to reproduction will be given.
THE UTERUS or womb is roughly a pear-shaped muscular
organ, containing a small cavity which is capable of much



FUNDUS OF UTERUS



UTERINE OPENING OF

FALLOPIAN TUBE

WHICH IS CUT




CERVIX



VAGINA
CUT OPEN



PORTION OF CERVIX UTERI

WHICH
PROJECTS INTO THE VAGINA



EXTERNAL OS OR OPENING
INTO VAGINA



FIG. i. FRONT VIEW OF VIRGIN UTERUS.
A. Unopened. B. Opened, by removal of anterior wall, showing its cavity.

dilatation. It is situated within the bony pelvis, to the
walls of which it is attached or slung by folds of peritoneum,
known as the broad ligaments. These pass outwards, like
outstretched wings, from the sides of the uterus, and so
form suspensory ligaments for it. In front of the uterus
is the bladder, while the rectum or last portion of the bowel
is behind it.



6 THE CAUSATION OF SEX

The uterus is freely movable, and consists of a body,
the upper larger portion, triangular in shape, and a cervix
or narrowed cylindrical portion which projects down-
wards into the upper part of the vagina or external genital
passage.

The uterus varies in size slightly in different women, and
considerably whether it be in a virgin or multiparous state.



CORNU



UTERINE CORNU OR HORN




CUT END OF
FALLOPIAN TUBE



CAVITY OF BODY



EXTERNAL OS



FIG. 2. UTERUS OF WOMAN WHO HAS BORNE CHILDREN.

Anterior wall removed to show cavity.

The position of the body of the uterus is such that, as
Play fair 1 says:

"The body of the uterus is very generally twisted somewhat
obliquely, so that its anterior surface looks a little towards the
right side."

This facing towards the right side by the anterior surface of
the uterus leads to the left side of the uterus being carried to
the front, so that when the woman is in the dorsal position,
or lying flat on her back, the right ovary and the uterine
opening of the right oviduct or Fallopian tube are lower in
the pelvis than the left.

1 Playfair, " The Science and Practice of Midwifery," 1898, p. 33.



ANATOMY OF FEMALE GENERATIVE ORGANS 7

Spiegelberg 1 says:

" The uterus is not only inclined forwards, but almost always
towards the right side also, while the left side is rotated forwards,
a position caused mainly by pressure of the rectum during develop-
ment, and by the weight of the organ in the right lateral posture,
which is the commoner."

Garrigues 2 says :

" The mother's rectum causes a partial rotation of the uterus,
by which its left edge is carried a little more forward than its right
edge."

Parvin 3 too admits that

" A slight rotation occurs by which the left side is thrown toward
the front, and the right side backward."

Dr. G. Moor head reports a case where

" There was lateral rotation of the uterus, so that the left ovary
and tube came into relation with the anterior abdominal wall just
external to the middle of Poupart's ligament on the left."

This rotation is generally believed to be due to the presence
of the rectum, which stretches from the left sacro-iliac joint
obliquely towards the right side to reach the mid-line of the
sacrum.

As constipation is so universal with women, and as the
rectum is the portion usually most distended, the explanation
is doubtless the correct one.

Hart and Barbour 4 say:

" Rectal distension displaces the uterus forwards and to the
right side."

The variations in position of the uterus due to distension
of the bladder are more evanescent ; the pressure comes to be
directed on to the anterior surface of the uterus in a direction
backwards and upwards.

Apart from the oblique twist of the uterus, the whole

1 Spiegelberg, " A Text-book of Midwifery." New Sydenham Society
Translation, 1887, p. 32.

2 Garrigues, " Science and Art of Obstetrics," 1902, p. 83.

3 Parvin, " The Science and Art of Obstetrics," 3rd ed. 1897, p. 71.

4 Hart and Barbour, " Manual of Gynecology," 5th ed. 1897, p. 52.



8



THE CAUSATION OF SEX



organ lies far more commonly to the right of the mid-line of
the body than to the left.
Thus Garrigues 1 says:

" The fundus uteri lies a little nearer to the right side than to the
left";

while Cunningham 2 writes :

" The uterus rarely lies exactly in the mesial plane of the body,
but usually bends to one or other side, most frequently towards
the right ";



SOCKET FOR
HEAD OF
THIGH BONE




FIG. 3. THE RELATION BETWEEN THE PELVIS AND THE PELVIC
ORGANS AND THE SURFACE OF THE BODY. (Modified from Norris
and Dickinson.)

It shows the uterus pushed by the rectum over towards the right side; the right Fallopian tube,
F.T.R., is thus carried backwards. The ovaries are shown more or less encircled by their
respective tubes; the right ovary is larger than the left.

1 Garrigues, " Diseases of Women," 3rd ed. 1900, p. 54.

2 Cunningham, " Text-book of Anatomy," 1903, p. 1132.



ANATOMY OF FEMALE GENERATIVE ORGANS 9

and Gernsh 1 says:

" As a rule, the uterus does not occupy the median line of the body,
but is somewhat deflected, usually to the right. There is also present
a certain amount of torsion, by means of which the left superior
angle is carried a little farther forward than the right."

The cavity of the body of the uterus, when seen from the
front, is triangular in shape, and, like the whole organ, varies
in its measurements ; thus Richet 2 gives the following figures :

Virgin Multiparous

Utems. Uterus.

Vertical diameter of cavity .. 1*80 in. 2-44 in.

Transverse diameter of cavity 0-60 in. 1-24 in.

The cavity of the cervix is spindle-shaped, with narrowed
openings above into the body of the uterus, the internal os,
and below into the top of the vagina, the external os, or
mouth of the womb.

It should be borne in mind that, though usually described
separately, the cavity of the cervix uteri and the cavity of
the body are really continuous, and practically form a single
cavity only, which should normally in the woman's erect
posture, and when seen from the side, show a slight curve,
whose concavity looks forwards and downwards.

The cavity of the body of the uterus is lined by mucous
membrane, which undergoes monthly growth, and some
superficial decay. The glands in this membrane, the uterine
glands, secrete a thin secretion which serves to keep the
uterine cavity moist.

The walls of the cavity of the uterus, even in a virgin, are
not in complete apposition, being always separated by a
certain quantity of this mucus, and thus the cavity is
always dilatable.

In the event of a woman bearing a child the virgin shape
and size of the cavity of the uterus is lost, and is never
regained.

Into the cornu, or upper angles of the cavity of the body,
the Fallopian tubes open ; by its lower opening, the internal
os, the uterine cavity communicates via the cervix with
the vagina or external genital passage.

1 Gerrish, " Text-book of Anatomy," 2nd ed. 1903, p. 858.

2 Richet, quoted by Hart and Harbour, op. cit., p. 16.



10



THE CAUSATION OF SEX



In various abnormal uteri we find the cavity of the uterus
consisting of two parts, and making with the cavity of the
cervix a Y-shaped cavity; in other cases the uterus and
cervix are completely doubled.

The origin of these malformations is easily explained, as
the normal uterus is originally formed by the fusion of
two parallel tubes, the so-called Miiller's ducts; hence if
the septum between them, due to their coalescence, is not



DIVIDED
: UNDUSx




UTERUS BICORNIS
2CORNU I CERVIX
1 VAGINA







UTERUS
SU8SEPTU5




// DOUBLE

// UTERUS, CERVIX

/[ & VAGINA

vk



FIG. 4. VARIOUS ABNORMAL HUMAN UTERI. (Modified from Kehrer.)
U.C. Uterine Cornu and Cavity. C. Cervix of Uterus. V. Vagina.

absorbed, the cavity comes to be divided more or less
completely into two.

When the cavity is thus divided above, but coalesced
below, and thus opens into a single vagina, as in the uterus
bicornis or two-horned uterus, the human uterus closely
resembles in form the uterus of the mammalia as a class.

The function of the uterus is to receive the ovum, especially
when fertilised, to retain and support it during its growth
and development into the fretus, and then to expel it when
able to maintain a separate external existence.



ANATOMY OF FEMALE GENERATIVE ORGANS n

THE FALLOPIAN TUBES. The Fallopian tubes or oviducts


1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

Online LibraryErnest Rumley DawsonThe causation of sex in man; a new theory of sex based on clinical materials together with chapters on forecasting or predicting the sex of the unborn child and on the determination or production of either sex at will → online text (page 1 of 18)