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The oxidized zinc ores at Leadville are discussed by George O. Argall. *
Zinc ores in various parts of Colorado are also described in E. and M,
J., Sept. 2, 1911 ; F. L. Clerc' gives plans for the utilization of the new zinc
ores of Leadville.

Kansas (By A. L. Morford*). — Under the plan of Manager Playter
the Boston Land and Mining Company at Galena, Kansas, furnishes all
equipment for mining and mills the "dirt" for half the yield. Five
subleasing companies are now hauling dirt to the plant and the first
turnin of blende was made recently. Near the mill site a 35-ft. face of
zinc-bearing dirt has been opened above the 90-ft. level and development
work shows that the length of the face is 600 ft. All shafts are within
100 yd. of the mill, which has made the supplying of steam from a
central boiler plant to the five hoists an easy matter. Within a week
from the time of starting, the plant was placed on a double-shift basis,
this being made possible by the installation of electric-lighting apparatus
at the gas-engine pump station.

This is the first time such a plan has been tried by a land-owning
company and it is working perfectly. Other companies have begun
work at different places along the ore belt, which has been traced for
three-quaters of a mile across the company's holdings. Mill tests show
a recovery of 7 per cent, blende which assays 61 per cent, metallic zinc
with no iron.

Idaho (Coeur d'Alenes). — The Federal Mining & Smelting Co., from
the Macquisten-tube installation, at the Morning plant, produced over a
million pounds of zinc and the Success Mining Co. operated several months
during 1911, with a heavy output.

Much development was made in the concentrator practice of the
district. The new Hercules Mining Co. concentrator was put in com-
mission at the town of Wallace and the Federal Mining & Smelting Co.
made extensive improvements and extensions to its concentrator at the
Morning mine, at MuUan. These improvements were along the line
of finer grinding in ball mills and the use of Macquisten tubes for recover-

1 B. and M. J., Aug. 26, 1911, p. 399.

* Proceeding Colo. Scientific Society, and Mining Science, Feb. 22, 1912.

» E. and M. /., Dec. 17, 1911.



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ZINC



751



ing zinc which heretofore went to waste in the fine tailings. The picking
of clean shipping ore from the mill feed was extended and an elaborate
picking plant was erected by the Federal Mining & Smelting Co. at the
mouth of the Arizona tunnel, of their Wardner mine.

Missouri, Joplin District (By Jesse S. Zook*). — Shipments of both
sulphide and silicate ores decreased. Missouri sustained a reduction of
19,000 tons zinc sulphide and 5000 tons zinc silicate: Kansas 4960 tons
zinc sulphide and 80 tons zinc silicate; Oklahoma 4220 tons zinc sulphide
and 24 tons zinc silicate. For final figures see the following table.



ZINC- AND LEAD-ORE PRODUCTION OF THE JOPLIN DISTRICT
(In tons of 2000 lb.)







Zinc Blende.


Zinc SiHcate.


Lead Ore.


Total Vahie.


Webb aty-Carterville. .


101.515

63.474

16.138

11.770

10.065

2.040

1.394

4,660

4.101


$4,138,678

485.239
393.672
79,833
55.797
209.801
188.362






25.591

7.175

263.280

1.150

1.377

43

13

16

269


$1,476,732

409.603

15.279

65.735

75.631

2.395

741

876

16.805


$5,614,310


Joplin


25,226


$505


2.665.118


Al&Neck


719.756
607.219


Duenwes


2.164


56,245


Oronogo


469.303


Carthaoif


106
376


2.429
7.245


84.657

63,783

210,677


oarooxie- . - ,,.-


Otirl JunctioTi r .


Ciive Springii. - - r






206.167










Jftsper County


206.162




2.673




36.894




10,639.990










Gr»nby. , . ■. - - - ,


4,212
3.246
6.752


146.326
129.044
236.592


9.356
3.653


236.403
96.561


647

1.169

913

116


33.219

66.429

62.667

6.579


415.948
292.034
289.259


Spurgeon




Saginaw


375


11.470


18.049
11.691


Wentworth


288


11.691


Senaoa






23


1.290


1.290














Newton County


13.499




13.384




2370




1.028.171










Aurora


3,053

547


122,514
21,872


1,458


34,067


96
8


5.402
405


162.002
22.277


Stott City








Lawrence County ....


3.600




1,458




104




184,280










Dade County






39








695


Green County








37




2,174
















Kansas.
















Galena


16.811

1,338

848


683.441
53.248
36.914


81


2,424


3.497
87
52


198.906
5.210
5,126


884,770
68,468


Badger


Lawton






40,039










Cherokee County


18,998




81




3.636




983,267








Oklahoma.
















Miami


7,988
2,097


243,450
76,211






2.781
313


167,123
17,561


400,673


Quapaw. . , - - , ,


22


620


93.392




Ottawa County


10.086




22




3.094




493,967










Totals.
















Missouri


222,262
18,998
10,085




17.556
81
22




38.911
3,637
3.095




11,856.310
983,267


Kansas






Oklaho*ir»ft- . - ,






493.966










Joplin District, 1911


261,346
270,534




17.667
23,874




45,643
43,707




13.332,542


Joplin District, 1910






14,129,022











1 Abstract E. and M, /.. Jan. 6. 1912.



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Early in the year the Zinc Producers' Association adopted a contract
selling base for zinc-sulphide ores grading 60 per cent, and under. This
created a dissention resulting in a disruption in which the opponents
secured control of the Association and denounced the contract plan.
Talk of exporting ore and of erecting a producers' smeltery assisted in
boosting spelter prices, and while ore prices continued to rise, the advance
was meager in proportion to the metal advances. However, the collapse
of metal at the year-end indicated that no higher level of ore prices was
warranted.

The old association offered to place contracts covering 4500 tons for
each week's delivery, if there were suflScient sellers to accept that amount,
but less than 1000 tons weekly have been sold on contract. The con-
tract placed the price of zinc-sulphide ore at $37 per ton on a St. Louis
spelter market of 5 cents per pound with an advance or deduction of 8 1 /2
cents for each 1 cent up or down in the metal market. The base w^as
formulated on a recovery of 87 per cent, of the metallic contents shown
by assay. The close of the year ended the life of these contracts. A
substitute contract is offered, for 6 months, based on a metal recovery
of 87 per cent, of the metallic contents shown by assay, with a smelting
charge based at $21 per ton.



AVERAGE MONTHLY PRICE OF ZINC BLENDE ORE AT JOPLIN, MO. (a)
(Dollars per 2000 lb.)



(a) Base prices for 60-per cent, zinc ore.





SHIPMENTS OF ORE FROM THE JOPLIN DISTRICT.
(In tons of 2000 lb.)




Year.


Zinc Ore.


Lead Ore. [ Year.


Zinc Ore.


Lead Ore


1894


147,310
144.487
155,333
177,976
234.455
255.088
248.446
258.306
262,545


32.190
31,294
27,721
30,105
26.687
23,888
29,132
35,177
31,625


19a3


234,773
267,240
252,435
278,930
286.538
258,628
296,453
294.408
269,004


28,656


1895 .....


1904


34,362


1896


1905


31.679


1897


1906


39,180


1898


1907


42,065


Ig99


1908


38,532


1900


1909


43.659


1901


1910


43,707


1902


1 1911


45,643













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ZINC 753

In the Thorns station area, northwest of Joplin, a dozen new and
remodeled mills were in operation at the end of the year where four mills
were standing and but two operating a year ago. New mills were erected
in the Webb City, Carterville, Sarcoxie, Carl Junction and Jackson
fields. Two were built west of Joplin, and several were built in Kansas,
around Galena. During the year a number of mills were removed from
one to another part of the district and remodeled.

Buyers imiformly agree that the assessing of penalties has had good
effect on ore-concentrating methods, but the contract clause of $1 pre-
mium for zinc ores carrying less than one-half of 1 per cent, lead has
brought better results than penalizing methods. It was a definite offer
to producers in a form and manner so ever-present that it could not be
ignored. Human nature prefers premiums to penalties, anyway.

The shipment of zinc ores the past years was nearly 30,000 short tons
less than 1910. At the beginning of the year the reserve stock was but
a little over 3000 tons while at the close it approximated 11,000 tons.
The year's production was, therefore, close to 8000 tons greater than the
shipment.

Nevada, — The Yellow Pine mine, in southern Nevada, is down 700 ft.
on the vein. A narrow gage railway from Jean to the mine is contem-
plated. The Potosi mine hauls its ore to the S. L., Los Angeles and San
Pedro Railway. The outputs of the district are shipped to Joplin, Mo.

New Jersey, — The Mine Hill zinc mines, at Franklin Furnace, in
Sussex County, New Jersey, shipped 308,353 tons^ to the concentrators
(producing 263,606 tons of concentrates), and 67,324 tons of crude ore
to the smelteries. Figured as metallic zinc, the total recoverable output
was 137,355,219 lb. of spelter.

The mines are opened by a vertical shaft 965 ft. deep, a slope to the
600-ft. level, and a shaft 1500 ft. deep on an incline of 47 1/2 degrees.
The crushing plant has a capacity of 2240 tons per 24 hours and the
separator a capacity of 1344 tons.

New York (By D. H. Newlands). — Exploration of zinc blende deposits
near Edwards, St. Lawrence County, were in progress last year, and
some shipments of selected ore, amounting to several hundred tons in
all, were sent to the smelter. The work was carried on by the Northern
Ore Co. of Philadelphia. The developments have encouraged the
company to provide a mill which is now in course of erection and which
is planned to treat 50 tons crude ore a day.

The zinc ores are found along a northeast-soutwesth belt that parallels
the talc range with the same crystalline limestones for county rock.
They occur as disseminations along bands of the limestone and also in

» U. S. Geol. Survey.
48



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THE MINERAL INDUSTRY



compact bodies which are lens-shaped and range up to 4 or 5 ft. thick.
Though narrow as compared with most commercial deposits, they average
very rich, in some places over 40 per cent. zinc. In addition to blende they
carry more or less pyrite and in the southwestern part of the belt con-
siderable galena. Thus far exploration has been limited to one out-
cropping lens in the northern section near Edward, and further work
will be necessary before the importance of the district can be estimated.

Oklahoma. — Notes on mining and production are given by George
W. Bingham, E. and M. J., Jan. 6, 1912.

Tennessee. — A new zinc production is expected to come before long
from the Holston River district in Tennessee, where the American
Zinc, Lead and Smelting Co. claims to have developed 11,000,000 tons
of ore and is now sinking a shaft to a depth of 1000 ft. for its extraction
and is planning to erect a concentrating mill of 2500 tons daily capacity
at Mascot. The chief production of zinc ore in this district in 1911 was
made by the Grasselli Chemical Co., which erected a new mill there.

Washington. — The lead-zinc ore production from the Oriole, near
Metaline Falls, Stevens County, decreased 20 per cent, in 1911.

Wisconsin. — The table of shipments for Wisconsin-Illinois is given
by J. E. Kennedy, Platteville, Wis. No zinc ore was reported shipped
from Iowa during the year 1911.



WISCONSIN-ILLINOIS ZINC ORE SHIPMENTS.



Wiscontin:



Highland

Linden

Harker

Mineral Point.

Montfort

Livingston

Rewey

Platteville

Cubaaty

Benton

Haxel Green...



ShuUsbunc* •
Dodgesvillie.



lUinoit:
Galena.



Totals.



Gross from mines.
Pounds.



9,612.430
16.945,482

7,798.995

2,314,169

3.011,060
12,979,290

6,111,660
29.315,420

4,384,090
52,188,830
39,469,020

9,067.800
460,910



21,287.980



214.947,136



Net to Smelterie
Pounds.



9,143,130

753,150

7,469,525

36,838,929

1,008,120

285,000

1,765,120

36,190,240

4,056.700

13,873,610

12,052,220

1,478,220

460,910



26,313.570



151,688,444



Some Notes on Foreign Countries

Africa (By H. F. Mariott*). — ^The recent advance in the market
price of zinc served to direct attention to the ore to be foujid in the
Transvaal, and, although the production is at present very small, it is

1 B. and M. /.. Jan. 7, 1912.



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ZINC



755



anticipated that the output will be increased to some extent in the near
future.

Australia, New SoiUh Wales. — Silver, lead, and zinc mines produced
1,484,397 tons of ore in 1911 and 1,243,648 tons in 1910; zinc concen-
trates were produced as follows:



Tom.



Amalgamated Zinc 142,083 l De Bavay process

Propnetary I 92,302 I Potter procesa

Zinc Corporation ; 92,527 I MineraiB process

Minerals Separation ] 94,015 , Minerals process

British Broken Hill 76,585 , Elmore process



The Proprietary Company began the production of spelter on a
larger scale at their Port Pirie works. In the last half of 1911, 1037
tons of spelter were produdced and it is anticipated that a production of
9000 to 10,000 tons will result with the installation of the Hegeler roaster,
and with 10 furnaces. The ore treatment and results for the first half
of 1911 are given in Engineering and Mining Journal, Oct. 21, 1911.

Western Australia produced $500 worth of spelter in 1911.

Austria, — In 1910 the spelter produced, partly from foreign ores,
amounted to 12,458 metric tons, of which 47 per cent, was in the form
of zinc dust. Zinc dust is specially made at the state owned works at
Cilly, Styria.

France, — At Malines, the Murex process of concentration is producing
48 per cent, zinc concentrate from an ore containing zinc and lead in
barytes gangue.

Germany, — The exports and imports of zinc ores and products of
Germany for the year 1911, are reported, in metric tons, as follows:



Speltar

Sheet*

Scrap

Zinc ore

Zinc dust. . . .
Zinc sulphide
Zinc white. . .



Importa.


Exporta.


48,355


77.088


467


36,093


2,252


3,953


262,398


48,998


787


3.689


2,719


13,740


4.977


20,677



In Prussia, 714,855 metric tons of zinc ores were mined. Of this
522,440 metric tons were sulphide and the balance calamine. The
centers of the industry are in Upper Silesia and Rhineland and
Westphalia. While prices rose the tonnage declined but the increase
in value of zinc produced amounted to 2,280,480 M. The amount of
spelter produced from 22 zinc works, employing 11,784 persons, was



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756



THE MINERAL INDUSTRY



216,362 metric tons, which includes that used up for zinc white and zinc
manufactures, and also that obtained from foreign ores of which there
is a considerable importation.

Italy, — The great bulk of zinc and lead ores comes from Sardinia; but
at Bergamo, the English Crown Spelter Co., the Vieille Montague, the
Society Austro Belga and the Society Orobia together returned 17,320
metric tons of 43 per cent. Zn ores in 1910; these are smelted in foreign
countries. Zinc ore exported from Italy in 1911 was 78,948 tons to
Belgium, 32,259 tons to France, and 14,167 tons to Great Britain.

Japan, — The zinc ore produced in 1910 was 21,108 metric tons.

Russia, — ^Poland has the only zinc industry near Olkusch, apparently
an extension from Silesia. Production of ore at the Boleslav and Uliss
mines was: 1907, 3,441,000 poods; 1908, 3,647,000 poods; 1909, 3,027,000
poods; 1910,. 3,302,000 poods. Smelting of zinc was done at works
named as follows, in poods:



Paulina

CoQstantine
Bendsin.. . .





1907.


1908. 1

1


235.000
145,000


217,000
145,000
175,000






214,000








594,000


639,000 j



1909.



1910.



192,000 I 232,000
152,000 1 156,000
141,000 139.000



485.000



527.000



Rich deposits exist also at Sadon, Northern Caucasus, production
of zinc being 50,000 poods.

Recently at Primorsk, Far East, 43 per cent, zinc calamine has been
mined. This is worked by the Tetjruch Company. From four mines,
914,000 poods of ore were mined in 1910, and 362,000 poods in the first
quarter of 1911. Ore shipped was 1,233,800 poods in 1910 and 674,800
poods the first quarter of 1911.

The Russian production of zinc is given as 586,434 poods in 1909 and
526,914 poods in 1910.

Sweden produced 558,484 kilos of spelter valued at 318,336 crowns in
1910.

Turkey. — The amount of zinc ore produced in Turkey in 1911 was
40,000 metric tons. Ore deposits occur at Kirasliyaila and Berghama.

United Kingdom, — The year 1911 saw the successful working of the
most up-to-date mill for the concentration of blende in England. It
has a capacity of 200 tons per 12 hours, and was designated and con-
structed by German contractors for a mine in Cumberland. The blende
mines are situated in the north of England and north Wales. Derby
yields about 600 tons per year. The output was stationary as the
increase in Cumberland was counterbalanced by the decreases elsewhere.



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ZINC 757

T3E Metallurgy of Zinc
By W. R. Ingalls

In the metallurgy of zinc there was no radical change in 1911; con-
ditions were distinctly in favor of the smelters.

The construction of several new works in the coal field of Illinois
was begun in 1911. Two new plants were also built in the gas field of
Oklahoma. Smelteries to use natural gas as fuel are relatively cheap
and quick to construct. Smelteries to use coal are more permanent, but
are more costly not only for zinc smelting proper but also because a
plant of this kind in order to compete successfully must be provided
with an accessory sulphuric-acid works. It is interesting to note that
the first furnace of the new works of the Bartlesville Zinc Co. at Collins-
ville, Okla., was put in operation on Dec. 18, just 5 months after the
beginning of construction of the works. So far as I am aware, this is the
shortest time on record.

Interesting events of 1911 were the inauguration of zinc smelting by
the Broken Hill Proprietary Co. in New South Wales, at Port Pirie; and
the beginning of zinc smelting, on a small scale at Osaka in Japan, where
the production of about 4000 tons of spelter in 1912 is projected. The
operation of these new plants will be watched with interest.

Ore-Dressing, — The enormous output of zinc ore at Broken Hill
continues to be made by the oil-acid flotation process, the patent
rights to which are the subject of bitter litigation. In 1911 this process
was introduced by James M. Hyde at the mill of the Butte & Superior
Copper Co. at Basin, Mont., where ore from Butte containing about
20 per cent, zinc is raised to a product assaying 45 to 50 per cent. zinc.
Mr. Atwater, manager of the company, informed me that an extraction of
90 per cent, was being made, the cost of the process being about 75 cents
per ton. This company is paying no royalty. Suit on the ground of
infringement has been brought against Mr. Hyde by Minerals Separation,
Ltd. The Butte & Superior is engaged in the construction of a new
mill at Butte, which will be of capacity of about 200,000 tons of ore per
annum.

The Macquisten tubes have been introduced in the Morning mill
at MuUan, Idaho, for the treatment of middlings, and it has been reported
that an installation of them is 'to be made by the Grasselli Chemical
Co. at Park City, Utah. Henry E. Wood operated the flotation sep-
arator of his invention in his testing works at Denver, Colo.

A good deal of attention was devoted in 1911 to what may be called
the pyrometallurgical concentration of zinc ore by burning off the zinc
after the fashion of the Wetherill process of zinc oxide manufacture,
but without the refinements that are necessary when the oxide is to be



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758 THE MINERAL INDUSTRY

collected for use as a pigment. Such a process of concentration may
find a useful field in the treatment of ores and metallurgical products
that are not amenable to mechanical concentration and consideration of
this possibility has been inspired by the success of Pape in extracting
zinc from the slags of Oker, in Germany. Among others who have been
experimenting on this line are Bab4, Blum, Hommel, Witter, and
Huntington.

Grades of Spelter, — At the annual meeting of the American Society
for Testing Materials in June, 1911, Prof. William Campbell, of Columbia



Grade.


Pb.


Fe.


Cd.


Tot*l not
over.


A. High grade*


0.07
0.20
0.75
1.50


0.03
0.03
0.04
0.08


0.05
0.50
0.75


0.10


B. Intermediate*


0.50




1.20


D. Prime Western













University, chairman of the committee on "Non-ferrous Metals and
Alloys'' reported a classification of the grades of smelter as above, the
figures representing the maximum percentages of impurities allowable.

This classification is rational and corresponds substantially to the
understanding among American zinc smelters.

Roasting Furnaces, — In the United States the furnaces in common
use for blende roasting continue to be the Hegeler and the Zellweger,
the former being employed invariably when it is desired to use the
roast-gas for sulphuric manufacture, while in the natural gas field the
Zellweger furnace is employed. At Cherryvale and Neodesha, where
the supply of natural gas has seriously diminished, these furnaces are
now,*! understand, being fired with petroleum.

Many of the zinc smelters in Germany have spent large sums of money
in the trial of furnaces of their own design and construction. It is diffi-
cult to see why the European smelters have not seen fit to adopt the
Hegeler furnace, which has been well proved in American practice, and
although being far from perfect from the economical standpoint is,
nevertheless, immensely superior to hand work.

At certain works in Swansea, Wales the Merton furnace has found
successful employment. With reference to hand-raked furnaces the
Rhenania continues to be the standard, but in Belgium and France the
new furnace of Delplace has found more or less use. This is an elabora-
tion of the old Maletra shelf-burner. As to the results accomplished with
it, some remarkable stories are told. It is said that in a furnace roasting
15,000 kg. of ore per 24 hours the consumption of coal is as low as 90 to
120 kg. per 1000 kg. of raw ore.

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ZINC 759

The counter-current type of furnace is a favorite of the New Jersey-
Zinc Co., at whose Palmerton works the Convers & De Saulles furnace
is employed. The Schmidt & Desgraz furnace, which has lately found
rather extended employment in Europe, is also of the counter-current
type. Furnaces of the Schmidt & Desgraz construction have been
installed at the works of the Broken Hill Proprietary Co. in Australia.

As to the furnaces of the reversing-regenerative type, the Overpelt
furnace is generally in use among European smelteries. Furnaces of
this kind exist in the United States at the works of the United States
Zinc Co. at Pueblo, Colo. A new design of reversing-regenerative fur-
nace is that of Dor-Delattre, which is in use in Europe. This furnace
is said to have been operated with a consumption of heating coal of
only 900 kg. per 1000 kg. of ore, which figure is undoubtedly better
than anybody else has been able to achieve. Heretofore a fuel consump-
tion of 1000 to 1100 kg. has been considered extraordinary work in
the case of reversing-regenerative furnaces, while in the case of the coun-
ter-current furnaces the figure is 1300 to 1400 kg. and upward.

At the Birkengang works, near Stolberg, Rhenish Prussia, experiments
have been made on a large scale with a new furnace containing vertical
retorts. The results attained have not yet been made public.

The tendency among European zinc smelters to drive their furnaces
harder, and at high temperatures increases.

As to the arrangement of the retorts of the distillation furnace,
European practice tends toward the Rhenish system; American toward
the Belgian. Among American works using natural gas the lola type
of furnace still prevails, in spite of certain disadvantages.

Electrothermic Smelting

At the Scandinavian works electric zinc smelting has been carried
on after a fashion for 5 or 6 years back, the DeLaval arc furnace having



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