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974.401 ^'

Es7es

V. 27-28 ,

1425147



GENEALOGY COLLECTION



ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY



3 1833 01







1266



BULLETIN



OF THE



ESSEX INSTITUTE.



VOLUME XXVII.



189^.



SALEM, MASS.

PRINTED BY THE ESSEX INSTITUTE.
1897.



^



O^- )



11251/17



CONTENTS



The Retrospect of the year, 1

The Lumbar Curve in Some American Races, by George A.

DORSEY, 53

The Flora of Colonial Days, by Miss Mary T. Saunders, 74

Pre-historic Relics from Beverly, by John Robinson, , . 89

Botanical Notes, by William P. Alcott, 92

On a New Genus and Two New Species of Macrurous Crustacea,

by J. S. KiNGSLEY, 95

The Nasal Organs of Pipa Americana, by Irving Rked

Baj^croft, 101

Supplementary Report on the Mineralogy and Geology of

Essex County, by John H. Sears, 109

Sandstone Dikes accompanying the Great Fault of Ute Pass,

Colorado, by W. 0. Crosby, 113

(ill)



BULLETIN



ESSEX IlsrSTITTJTE



Vol. 27. Salkm : January, — June, 1895. Nos. 1-6.



ANNUAL MKETING. MAY 21, 1895.

TuK annual meeting was held in Pluninier Hall, this
evening, at 7.4.5 o'clock.

President Edmund 15. AVillson, in the chair.

The reports of the Secretary, Treasuier and Auditor,
Secretary of tlu^ Women's T^ocal History class, T^ihrarian,
Committee on Publications and Library, were read, ac-
cepted and ordered to be placed on file.

The report of the Connnittee on Nominations was j>re-
sented by Mr. (reo. H. Allen, and it was

]^ofed, to proceed to the election of officers by ballot,
and the Society voted that the Secretary be authorized to
cast one ballot for the whole list of names that had been
nominated. This was done and the following persons
were declared to be unanimously elected :

(1)



THE RETROSPECT OF THE YEAR.

PRESIDENT :
EDMUND B. WILLSON.

VICE-PilESIDENTS :
Abner C. Goodkll, Jk. Edward S. Morse.

Danikx B. Hagau. Robert S. Rantoul.

SECRETARY : TREASURER :

Henry M. Brooks. AVilliam 0. Chapman.

AUDITOR : LIBRARIAN :

Henry M. Batchelder. Charlks S. Osgood.

COUNCIL :
William H. Govk. George D. Phippen.

Thomas F. Hunt. David Pingree.

Francis H. Lee. Frederic W. Putnam.

Richard C. Manning. George M. Whipple.

8. Endicott Peabody. Alden P. White.



Report of the Secretary, May 20, 1895.

It will perhaps he remembered that last year 1 spoke to
you on the great lack of interest, by people in general, in
society or corporation reports. This year I have a few
words to say on another suliject.

Annual meetings, to a large majority of people, are a
horef Some may think this is rather a strong expression.
I 8upi)ose it is, but it is the way such meetings are gen-
erally regarded and spoken of. Bank officers have to
" scratch round " and get a sufficient number of proxies to
elect themselves, and so do the officers of many other
corporations. I am telling you nothing new, for this is
well known.

But, some will say, how is it with those societies, where
they soinefi)nes have /)/// meetings? My answer to this
is, that steps have to be taken to enliven the meeting with
something besides the regular business. There must be



THE RETROSPECT OF THE YEAR. 6

speeches, literary exercises or iiutsic, or there would he
but a slim attendance even at those meetings.

When the time comes round to i)rei)are for out' annual
meeting, I always feel as Ailemas AVard said he felt when
he was surrounded by the Indians. He wished he had
happened to be somewhere else, just at that time ; or, like
General Butler, when he was out of favor with the Com-
mander-in-chief, ordered to report at Lowell.

Of course, when I come to the meeting, I like to see
a good attendance of handsome, well dressed [)eople, of
both sexes — like those here to-night — but I have no words
of censure for those members who do not care to come,
for I might myself, under certain circumstances, stay
away.

One very rainy Sunday afternoon, many years ago, the
worthy old sexton of the North church was pacing the
broad aisle, when the minister. Dr. Brazer, arrived. They
were the onl}' persons in the house. The Doctor said —
"It doesn't look, Mr. Sexton, as if there would be many
here this afternoon." "No, sir," answered the sexton, with
his usual rapid and pointed speech, "and you and I. sir.
wouldn't be here if we weren't })aid for it.'"

But in sjnte of what I have had to say on this subject,
it is, I suppose, incumbent on the Secretary to sacrifice
his own feelings and present for your consideration some
statistics, thought to be applical)le to the occasion.

The year just closed has been one of ccmiparative i)ros-
perity to the society. We have not, it is true, any of
those large legacies to mention, wliich we are always anx-
iously looking for. But wc nuist continue to work with
patience, and have faith that there is a good time coming,
some day or other, when we shall have the means to en-
large our buikling, in order to properly display all our
constantly increasing donations.



4 THE RETROSPECT OF THE YEAR.

At the last annual meetino- the fact was referred to, that
efforts were making to increase our membership, which
was then reported as numbering 391. I have now the
pleasure of stating that we have more than doubled the
number. To he exact, we have at this time 806 members,
and eight have 1)ecome life members.

The life members are Calel> Davis Bradlee, Augustus
Hemenway, Robert C. Winthrop, Jr., Edward Wiggles-
worth, of Boston, James J. Higginson, of New York,
Horace Fletcher, of New Orleans, Geo. Peabody Wet-
more, of Newport, R. I., C. W. Galloupe, of Swampscott.

This is certainly a good showing and proves that the
method adopted by the Secretary is a good one, whatever
any chronic fault-finders may have to say to the contrary, —
I mean if we have any such characters about. I hope we
haven't.

We must continue this work until we have obtained at
least 1,000 members, then we can take a short vacation.

The question has been asked how many members we
have outside of Salem. About 300, in 65 different cities
and towns throughout tlio country, and one member in
Birmingham, England.

The following members have died during the year :
Lincoln F. Brigham, Caleb Foote, John W. Masury, of
New York, Daniel Needham, of Groton, Fitz W. Per-
kins, George W. Pousland, of Boston, Thomas E. Proc-
tor, of Boston, Henry Saltonstall, of Boston, A. A. Scott,
of Saugus, Leverett Saltonstall, of Newton, Joseph W.
Lefavour, of Beverly, Matthew A. Stickney, Dr. George
A. Perkins; and of Honorary Members, Robert C. Win-
throp, of Boston, Prof. James D. Dana, of New Haven,
Oliver Wendell Holmes, of Boston, E. Rock wood Hoar,
of Concord.

The free course of lectures the past season in Phinnner



TFIE RETROSPECT OF THE YEAR.

Hall was apparently (juite satisfactory to the audiences,
which were aenerally nmch larger than in previous years.
The lectures have been hy Prof. T. C. Mendcnhall, of
Worcester, Richard Ilodgdon of Boston, Dr. George A.
Dorsey, of Cambridge, Howard Walker, of Boston, (la-
nialiel Bradford, of Boston, Goorgo S. Hale, of Boston,
Gharles Carleton Coffin, of Boston, Rev. Dr. Pulhnan, of
Lynn, Miss Lucia T. Ames, of Boston.

There have been twenty-three regular meetings of the
Society held this year ; a larger num])er, I think, than has
ever l)een held in any year previous. The evening meet-
ings in the Library room have been well attended. Papers
have been read by the following ])crsons : Herl)ert E.
Valentine, of Somervillc, Jolni Rol)inson, Prof. E. 8.
Morse, John H. Sears, Hon. R. vS. Rantoul, Frank Cous-
ins, Mrs. H. W. Edwards, Mrs. E. A. Kilham, of Bev-
erly, Miss Helen D. Lander for Miss Lucy Perry, Mrs.
R. C. Manning, Miss Mary S. Cleveland, Miss Abljy L.
Read, Miss Irene Weir, of Boston, and three i^ajjers by
the Secretary.

These papers were discussed by various members of the
Society. There is a great interest taken in these meet-
ings, which is very encouraging to those who planned
them. The only drawl)ack seems to be that some of our
members, who would gladly take i)art, have engagements
elsewhere on Monday evenings. But it might be the same
if we had the meetings upon any other evening.

Our regular meetings, in accordance with the by-laws,
occ ur on the first and third Monday in every month. They
have been held this season in tiie evening, from the first
Monday in December until the first Monday in May. Dur-
ing the summer months they are usually held on Monday
mornings, for business only, and notice is given in the
newspai)('i-s of the city on Frid;iy and Saturday previous.
I mention this here because members sometimes say they



b THE EETROSPECT OF THE YEAR.

do not know Avhen we have our meetings, or they would
be present.

At the last annual meeting it was stated that some of
the women connected with the Society proposed to form
a class for the study of local history. Such a class was
begun earl}^ in June last, and has continued during the
year. Miss Helen D. Lander, the Secretary, will read to
the meeting a most excellent report of the doings of that
very successful class. With regard to this matter, 1 have
only to say that, in my judgment, this is the most impor-
tant movement made in the Institute for years. I will
not except even the Chicago boom, — for one of the prin-
cipal objects of the society is the investigation and study
of local history.

As is perhaps well know^n almost everywhere now, we
hold the key to the broadest church in the land. Koman
Catholics, Protestants, Trinitarians and Unitarians, all go
to this church. Between l;),000 and 10,000 have been into
the church this year, the largest numl^er ever reported.
It is amusing to hear remarks often made about this house
of worship. As we have a card posted up explaining the
matter, visitors have ceased to ask how they got up in the
gallery. One party who applied for admission asked if
they " could be permitted to walk through the church,"
meaning, 1 suppose, up the broad aisle and down another.
One man from New York, upon returning the key, said,
" That'll do well enough to show to countrymen, but I can
hardly swallow it." One person asked how long the
church continued to be Baptist after Roger Williams left.
Another asked if all the seats were like the old " settle "
we have there.

The following societies have visited Salem the last year
and received attentions from the Institute and the Peabody
Academy of Science : The Auburndale Review Club, on
June .5, the Asburv Grove Methodist Trustees on June



THE RETROSREOT OF THE YEAR. 7

15, and on August 2, sixty members of the American
Society of University Extension under the direction
of Prof. Lyman T. PoAvell, of Phi]adeli)hia. This
society, under the escort of a committee of the Institute,
was taken about the city to historical points in barges,
lunched in Plummer Hall at 12 o'clock and attended a
meeting at Academy Hall in the afternoon, where Hon.
R. 8. Rantoul gave a tine address on the history of Saleni
during the Revolution. The visitors expressed themselves
as greatly i)leased with the attention they received, and
with what the}^ saw and heard on this occasion. Profes-
sor Morse and the Seci"etary by invitation, represented
the Institute at a reception given to the "Historical Pil-
grims " in Boston, on the succeeding Friday evening.

As usual, several schools and classes have visited our
rooms the past year. These excursions are l)ecoming so
general with the increase of the "travel habit," which has
taken i)ossession of most people, that any record of them,
ceases to be of sjiecial interest to any of us, I imagine. I
will mention, however, that on the olst of last May, the
architectural class of the Massachusetts Institute of Tech-
nology made a visit to Salem for the pur})ose of studying
exam])les of colonial architecture. This class was taken
to })oints of historical note about town by a committee of
the Institute, and two or three evenings our rooms were
opened to them that they might study any objects of inter-
est to be found there. The tirst evening the class was
introduced by jNlr. Ross Turner to the officers and commit-
tees of the society, who gave an informal recei)tion from
S to 10 o'clock, with a light lunch, nmsic, etc.

The large and valual)le collection of manuscript letters
and})apers left to the society by Dr. Wheatland have been
carefully examined and arranged by AVm. P. Upham,
Es(|., curator of manuscripts, and these are now in the



8 THE RETROSPECT OF THE YEAR.

hands of our library assistants who are placing them in
scrap books for their better preservation.

The donations to the Cabinets the past year have been
470, from 132 donors. Among these donations were an
ancient sword, silver case and hilt (marked 1319) from
Miss Mary Ellen Briggs ; a wooden l^ust of Hippocrates
which, in Oct., 1771, was a sign for Nathaniel Dabney of
Salem, a})othecary ; a cradle used by Judge Story and
afterwards by his son Wm. W. Story; and several very
finely carved tortoise shell combs from the Misses Cleve-
land.

From the late Judge E. KockNvood Hoar, a gold watch,
key, seal and chain, which belonged to Major John
Clarke, who was at the capture of Quebec in 1759 ; and
an early Chickering piano from Mrs. W. A. Lander;
from the Salem Marine Society, miniatures on ivory, of
Capt. Jona. Lambert and Capt. Samuel Lambert, of Salem,
and from Prof. Alpheus Hyatt of Cambridge, a slave whip.

We have also been presented with a Bull.* He is,
however, somewhat aged and infirm and will have to be
doctored l)efore he is ready for a bull light, or can be
exhibited. Besides this we have some of the bones of
Georo:e Jacobs, who was executed for witchcraft.

An album of leaves and flowers gathered in Italy by
Una Ha^^horne in 1858-9, sent to us by Richard Garnett,
Esq., of the British Museum, London.

These are a few of the most noted donations, for we
could not enumerate all in this report.

The Society still wants room, money and nienil)ers —
the young and old of both sexes.

Which is respectfully submitted,

Henry M. Brooks,

jSecretmy.

*Made of wood, iisecl as a si<;n l)y Jona. Aiuhow in 17<'i9, near Williams Street.



THE RETROSPECT OF THE YEAR.



Report of the Librarian.

The additions to the library for the year (May,
to May, 1895), have been as follows :



1894,



By Donation.



Folios, .

Quartos,

Octavos,

Twelvemos,

Sixteenmos,

Twenty-fourmos,

Total of bound volumes.
Pamphlets and serials,

Total of donations,



23
75

517

177

119

39

950
3,563

4,513



Folios,
Quartos,
Octavos,
Twelvemos,



By Exchange.



Total of bound volumes.
Pamphlets and serials,



5

21

184
1

211
1,819



Total of exchanges.



2,030



Folios,
Quartos,
Octavos,
Twelvemos,



By Purchase.



4

3

12

25



Total of bound volumes,
Pamphlets and serials,



Total of purchases.
Total of donations.
Total of exchanges,
Total of purchases.



44
441

485
4,513
2,030

485



Total of additions, . . . .

ESSEX INST. BUIXETIN, VOL. XXVII



7,02a



10 THE RETROSPECT OF THE YEAR.

Of the total number of pamphlets and serials, 2,244
were pamphlets and 3,579 were serials.

The donations to the library for the year have been
received from two hundred and one individuals and nine-
ty-three societies and governmental departments. The
exchanges, from ten individuals and two hundred and
nineteen societies and incorporated institutions, of which
one hundred and twenty-two are foreign ; also from edi-
tors and publishers.

To these facts and figures the librarian has but little to
add. The ordinary routine work of the library has been
performed quietly and effectively and, we have reason to
believe, has been appreciated by many students and in-
vestigators. There have been no large donations as in
many former years which accounts for the much smaller
increase of the library, although the number of donors and
exchanges have not materially changed.

The use of the library shows a steady increase from
year to year, one reason for it this year being found in
the impetus given to local historical research by the for-
mation, by the ladies connected with the Institute, of the
history class to which reference is made in the other re-
ports.

During the year the magazines in the library, both
bound and unbound, have been arranged, and an alpha-
betical list of them made, so that it is now possible to tell
at once what numbers of the different magazines we have
and what are our deficiencies. This will be found a great
convenience to all who wish to consult them.

The long-looked-for, and confidently expected addition
to the funds of the Institute, has not as yet been forth-
coming, but we do not lose heart on this account. During
the past year we have made an almost phenomenal addi-
tion to our list of members. This brings to the mind of



THE RETROSPECT OF THE YEAR. 11

many more persons the wants and needs of the Institute
and the good work it is doing for the county and city.
From this largely increased membership, or by means of
it, we hope and believe that some will be interested to the
extent of furnishing, in some form, a substantial addition
to our available funds. When we realize how much has
been done by the Institute, at a comparatively small ex-
pense, we can form some estimate of how much the public
would be benefited were a larger fund placed at its dis-
posal.

The needs of the library are a stack room for books
and a catalogue. Our ever increasing number of books,
now about 65,000 bound volumes and 200,000 pamphlets,
make the first a pressing necessity which we have partly
relieved by the undesirable method of storing those least
used outside the library building, and the second is need-
ed that the users of the library may be able to know just
what it contains on the subjects upon which they desire
to inform themselves. Both these needs appeal to the
liberality of the public and must await the time when that
liberality shall manifest itself.

In conclusion, the librarian would congratulate the mem-
bers on the possession of a library somewhat unique in
character, and one which, notwithstanding all the draw-
backs, is frequently and profitably consulted.

Charles S. Osgood,

Librarian.



12



THE RETROSPECT OF THE YEAR.



Treasurer's Report.



RECEIPTS.



Balance from last report,
Received from invested funds,

" " assessments of members,

" " life membership fees,

" " publications,

" " other sources,

Money borrowed.

Interest received and funded.



$508 97



$2,777 05




1,986 00




400 00




528 14




90 47






5,781 66






1,500 00




12 58




$7,803 21



Also received from Almy, Bigelow & Washburn, $25, the nucleus of a Reception
Fund.



EXPENDITURES.

Salaries of secretary, assistant librarians and janitor,

Fuel,

Lighting and water.

Labor, etc., on grounds.

Postage and express.

Supplies, .....

Insurance, .....

Interest on loan, ....

Furniture and fixtures.

Storage, .....

Lecture expenses,

Reception " ...

Our proportion of Athenaeum expenses.

Repairs, .....

Boolis, . - . . .

Publications and printing.

Miscellaneous, ....

Annuities, ....

Interest added to manuscript fund, .

North Bridge monument fund,

Balance of cash on hand, ....



$2,458 00

309 76

102 72

51 15

173 44

72 90

45 00

208 50

158 87

51 80

62 42

197 35

246 54

158 68

422 72

1,626 62

29 42

610 00

7 30
5 28



$6,985 88



12 58
804 75

$7,803 21



Respectfully submitted,

W. O. Chapman, Treasurer.



the retrospect of the year. 13

Auditor's Keport.

Salem, May 20, 1895.
The treasurer's accounts and books have been examined
from the last annual meeting to date.

The receipts appear to be correctly entered and the
expenditures properly entered and vouched.

The securities herein reported by the treasurer were
examined on May 18, 1895, and agree with the list sub-
mitted within.

Respectfully submitted,

H. M. Batch ELDER,

Auditor.

Library and Publication Committee Report.

The Library and Publication Committee respectfully
presents its report for the year ending May 20, 1895.

The condition of the library has undergone no consid-
erable change and is clearly indicated in the exhaustive re-
port of the Librarian. The library increases with a steady
and healthy growth, and so in an unmistakable degree
does the use of it, and the need of much additional shelf-
room is once more pressing upon us.

The publications of the Institute have now been sus-
tained in a manner which is recognized as creditable, for
a series of years dating from 1856-7, when the Institute
moved into Plummer Hall, and when six volumes of Pro-
ceedings, covering the work of the society from its incep-
tion in 1848, were begun and published at intervals
through a dozen years. In 18(59 the Proceedings made
way for the Bulletin, now in its twenty-sixth volume,
which has, for a reason about to l)e disclosed, become



14 THE RETROSPECT OF THE YEAR.

scientific in the main, although still embracing the current
record of the doings, the meetings and the necrology of
the society.

In April, 1859, a new publication, devoted to histori-
cal matter, was begun, which has now reached a total of
thirty completed volumes. It has been sustained without
a break. The spirit in which it was conceived and carried
on appears from the introductory notes which preface
each of the first eight volumes.

At first such material as came to hand and seemed
worthy of perpetuation in type — historical sketches,
copies of records, and essays in antiquarian research —
was printed, by a mutually convenient plan, in the col-
umns of the Salem Gazette, and before distribution of the
type, a limited number of extra copies were run off,
paged up in a form to be bound into a periodical volume,
and hence the double columns and peculiar shape of the
page in the first eight volumes of our Historical Collec-
tions. But in 186y, not without a good many pangs
amongst the more conservative of us, it was decided that
these swaddling clothes had been outgrown, and our pub-
lications took on the decorous and customary form of the
regulation octavo page.

During this series of forty years the Institute has print-
ed and put on record very little matter which has not
suflicient interest and value to warrant its preservation.
Some of the articles in this long series have possessed an
exceptional importance and a literary quality which has
been recognized by the public. Some have been the work
of persons of established literary, scientific and genealog-
ical repute. On the whole it is not presumptuous, perhaps,
to claim that our publications, as compared with others
of their class, contain a fair share of matter which would
be accepted as of value in the current issues of the press.



THE KETK08PECT OF THE YEAR. 15

Yet, notwithstanding the unstinted efforts which have
been made to keep up the standard of our publications and
to luring" their merits to the notice of appreciative readers
— notwithstanding the frequent expressions of pride and
satisfaction in the work which prevail about us, — the fact
remains that no appeal to the people of Essex County,
be they members or non-meml)ers of the Essex Institute,
to sustain these publications has any effect ; that no
considerable portion of the cost of production can be met
by sales, and that their remunerative value to the Insti-
tute lies in their availability in exchange.

As Ijooks of reference in the libraries of the country,
they are used l^y persons pursuing genealogy, local his-
tory and natural science. We have had occasion within
a year to refer an English investigator to a copy of our
Historical Collections which is on the shelves of the Brit-
ish Museum. As a purchasing medium, they bring us
large accessions of books from outside sources in the way
of exchange. As a ready source of information which
could not be reached without them, except through pro-
tracted research, they are drawn on by newsmen and
genealogists and antiquarians and historical students, as
unconsciously as the air they breathe, and, for the most
part, with as little sense of dependency or obligation as
the bird feels towards the atmosphere in which it floats.
Perhai)s this is as it should be ; clearly it is beyond our
power to change the fact, and we have either to support
the publications on these terms or suspend them altogether.

Besides parts four, five and six of volume twenty-six
— the current volume — of the Bulletin, comprising valua-
ble contributions from Mr. Sears and the annual reports,


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