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the opinion of the writer, suflSciently dike-like to demand
recognition here. One of these is that described by
Prof. J. D. Dana,'* in the quartzite of Dutchess Co., N. Y.,
where the rock between vertical joint or shear planes has,
perhaps before its complete induration, been reduced by
compressive and shearing movements to a structureless
mass of sandstone — a dike of sandstone in walls of sand-
stone, a species of crushed zone, dike-like structurally
but not dj^namically or in the sense of being intrusive.
Professor Dana says, "The obliteration of the bedding by
impulses of lateral pressure is well illustrated in the
quartzite near Poughquag, where the bedding is beauti-
fully distinct and nearly horizontal. In two or three
places, in the course of a long section of the well strati-
fied beds, there are narrow vertical portions of the whole
height of the section exposed, which have lost entirely
the bedding, and are divided only by vertical joints."
Such a vertical strip "looks a little way off like a dike of
igneous rock, yet it is only a narrow vertical section of
the stratified quartzite, in which, under the lateral pres-
sure, fractures were produced, and where, consequently,
the successive movements shook down and re-arranged
the sands adjoining, so as to obliterate the planes of bed-
ding and substitute vertical planes."

The other mode of occurrence of sandstone in dike
form is really one phase of unconformity, where sedi-
ments deposited over an eroded surface fill fissures and
chasms of various forms. Later erosion may remove the
sedimentary deposit and leave the ancient floor intact,
with the dike-like roots of the sediments remaining in it.
Irving^ has described and fio^ured sandstone dikes of this

« Am. J. Sci. (3) :), 181-18-2.

6 Mouographs U. S. Ueol. Survey, v, -292-3.



146 BULLETIN OF THE ESSEX INSTITUTE.

type in amygdaloid on the siiore of Lake Superior, near
Duluth, and I have described and figured equally striking
"root " dikes of sandstone and conglomerate in the granite
of the Boston Basin'^, which have been exposed by the
erosion of the Carboniferous conglomerate of the Nan-
tasket area. No student of onr coastal geology can
doubt that other fine examples are now forming where the
numerous deep and narrow chasms due to the erosion of
trap dikes or of the rock between contiguous joint planes,
as in the case of the chasm called Purgatory at Newport,
R. I., are being filled with sand and gravel, during the
gradual subsidence of the land ; and unquestionably dikes
of this type were developed on a grand scale when the
rugged topography due to pre-glacial and early glacial
erosion was wiped out by the drift deposits.

It appears, then, that although the term sandstone dike
is a comparatively recent coinage, four distinct types now
claim recognition, and may be classified as follows : —

1. Dikes formed in antecedent or original fissures
(erosion crevices and gorges) by sedimentation. The
"root" dikes of Duluth, Boston Basin, and doubtless,
many other localities, belong here.

2. Dikes formed in subsequent or secondary fissures :
(a) By earthquake movements forcing quicksand

upward from a bed below the horizon of the dikes. This
type includes the dikes described by Diller^ in California
and Hay^ in Nebraska ; and the fact that the ejection
of quicksand from fissures is a common accompaniment
of earthquakes indicates that many other examples must
await discovery.

(6) By the settling down of sand from overlying

• Occas. Papers, Boston Soc. Nnt. History, iv, pt. 1, 76-77.
' Bull. Geol. Soc. Aiiicrica, J, 411.

• Bull. Geol. Soc. America, 3, SO-S.").



SANDSTONE DIKES OF UTE PASS. 147

deposits into earthquake and fault fissures and chasms.
The only examples so far recognized are those of Ute Pass
and the Pike's Peak massif; but according to the explana-
tion which I have proposed this is probably not a rare type,
especially in the Rocky Mountain region.

(c) In situ, by compressive and shearing movements.
The examples described by Dana belong here, and practi-
cally all sharply defined crushed zones accompanying faults
and joints. This type is the commonest of all ; but, as
noted, the material is not intrusive, and hence they are
dike-like in their structural but not in their genetic rela-
tions.



BULLETIN



OF THE



ESSEX INSTITUTE



VOLUME XXVIU.



1896.



SALEM, MASS.

PRINTED BY THE ESSEX INSTITUTE.

1898.



Salem IPrese:

The Salem Press Co., Salem, Mass.
1898.



CONTENTS.

HAUK.

The Retrospect of the Year 1

The Photograph and Skeleton of a Native Australian, by (tKokgk

A. DORSEY, 57

The Inundation in Coventry in 1607, 70

Some Resources (or Protection Aniona: Rei>tiles, bv \V.m. V

Alcoti 71

Roger Williams in Salem, by Mrs. Hknhy M. Brooks, . . 77

Chondrocranium in the Ichthyopsida, by Guy Monroe Winslow, 87



v.



;



BULLETIN

OF THE

esses: IlsrSTITTJTE.

Vol. 28. Salem: January, — June, 1896. Nos. 1-6.

ANNUAL MEETING, MAY 18, 1896.

The annual meeting was held in Plummer Hall, this
evening, at 7.45 o'clock ; Vice President A. C. Goodell, jr.,
in the chair. The record of the last annual meeting was
read by the Secretary.

The reports of the Secretary, Treasurer, Auditor, and
Librarian were read, accepted and ordered to l)e placed
on file.

Vice President Edward S. Morse spoke in approval of
portions of the Secretary's report, particularly of that
part in reference to the method pursued in electing new
members and also what was said about interesting young
members to aid in arrannrinj; our collections.

The report of the committee on nominations was pre-
sented by the Chairman, Richard C. Manning, and it was

Voted, To proceed to the election of officers for the

(1)



2 BULLETIN OF THE ESSEX INSTITUTE.

ensuing year. Messrs. William L. Welch, John H.
Sears and Frank Cousins were appointed by the chair to
distribute, collect, assort and count votes. This com-
mittee reported that the whole number of ballots cast
was 92.

The ticket presented by the committee on nominations
was as follows :

PRESIDENT:
ROBERT S. RANTOUL.

VICE-PRESIDENTS :
Abneh C. Goodell, Jk., Edward S. Morse,

Daniel B. Hag ah, Aldbn P. White.

SECRETARY : TREASURER •

Henry M. Brooks. William 0. Chapman.



AUDITOR:



LIBRARIAN :



Henry M. Batchelder. Charles S. Osgood.

COUNCIL :

George H. Allen, s. Endicott Pkabody,

William H. Goat:, David Pingrke,

Thomas F. Hunt, Frederic W. Putnam,

Francis H. Lee, Charles S. Rea,

Richard C. Manning, George M. Whipple.

Of the ninety-two ballots cast for President

62 were for Roijert S. Rantoul,
15 " " Alden P. White,
13 " " AbnerC. Goodell, jr.,
2 " " DeWitt S. Clark.

Mr. Rantoul was therefore declared to be elected.

The others nominated were nnunimously elected with
the exception of a few scattering votes among one or two
of the Vice-Presidents and one or two members of the
Council.



the retrospect of the year. 3

Report of the Secretary, May 18, 1896.

In looking at the recortl of the past year we must all
feel the great loss the Society sustained in the death of its
honored President, the Rev. Edmund B. Willson. It
will be remembered that at our last annual meeting Mr.
Willson presided and, to all appearance, was in his usual
health, having come from Petersham that very day, in
order to be with us in the evening. He made, as you
know, upon that occasion, a brief but excellent address
in accepting the Presidency tor another year. We little
thought then that we were so soon to lose him. Within
a fortnight from that time he was stricken down in his
pulpit in the North Church, having just finished deliver-
ing his thirty-sixth anniversary discourse, and in the
course of a few days passed away.

After the able and appreciative address of Vice-Presi-
dent Rantoul in Academy Hall, I do not feel that it is
desirable for me to add another word ; but perhaps I may
he permitted to say that my personal relations with Mr.
Willson extended over the whole time he lived among us,
for I was a member of the North Society when he first
came to Salem, and in fact proposed his name to the
Committee of the Society, as the man for pastor, which
circumstance led to his settlement over the North Church.

The name of another valued member of the Institute
comes to my mind, Mr. George 1). Phippen, who died
on the 2Gth of last December. He was one of the original
members of this Society and served in various ofhces from
time to time. He was the faithful Treasurer for man}'
years, and afterwards Auditor. He was always greath'
interested in the success of the Society. He wrote many
interesting historical articles in the early volumes of our
Collections. He was not only a well-read historical and



4 BULLETIN OF THE ESSEX INSTITUTE.

genealogical writer, bat an accomplished botanist and well
acquainted with various branches of Natural History.
Many who listen to me will call to mind his fine garden
in Bridge street, which for years afforded so much pleas-
ure to his numerous friends. Whatever he undertook he
did well. We all remember him as a quiet, unassuming
and genial man. I feel that I knew him well, for I served
two years with him in the Salem Bank, and in those two
years, he taught me more than I had learned in all the
years I had been at school, so that I have felt that I was
under great obligations to him, and I am glad of the op-
portunity now ofiered, to pay my feeble tribute to his
worth. It is a singular fact that the*e two good men,
although differing somewhat theologically, had much in
common, and often conferred with each other on religious
matters and duties. This I know to be a fact, for Mr.
Phippen himself so informed me, and it shows that truly
religious people can differ in such matters, without being
offensively partisan.

I trust I shall be pardoned for these few personal allu-
sions, for I could not otherwise do even imperfect justice
to those of whom I have been speaking.

Since the last meeting one hundred and thirty persons
have become members of our Society, while eighteen have
died, and fourteen have withdrawn, leaving the member-
ship at the present time nine hundred and four. The
additional members include, as life members, Mrs. John
L. Gardner of Boston, Wm. D. Sohier of Boston, Amory
A. Lawrence of Boston.

These are the members who have died during the year :

Henry Blaney, Theodore Brown, Hubbard Breed, Thos.
J. Hutchinson, Wm. Mack, Amos H. Johnson, Edward
H. Payson, Geo. 1). Phippen, Wm. A. Bowditch, William
G. Webb and Edmund B. Willson of Salem, Mrs. Eliza



THE RETROSPECT OF THE TEAR. D

D. Clement of Peabody, Mrs. Frederic Fry of Bridge-
port, Conn., Octavius Howe of Beverl^s Eustace C.
Fitz, Alexander H. Rice, Henry W. Williams, Edward
Wigglesworth of Boston (life member). One honorary
member has died, William Wetmore Story of Rome,
Italy.

It will be noticed that, in spite of losses, our member-
ship has increased. There is no reason why we should
not have a still larger increase, if some of our members
would interest themselves to help us in this way. There
are doubtless many men and women who would ])e glad
to join us, if they understood they would be welcomed.
As a general rule, people will not, of their own accord,
come forward and ask to he admitted. That question was
settled long ago, and our membership was declining be-
fore we adopted the new process of inviting people to
become members, ]\y electing them. If we had kept on
in the old way, instead of having nine hundred members
to-day we should have had but two hundred.

As I have often remarked, I think it is very important
to enroll as many young people as possible, as meml)ers.
Eleven of our members, who have died this last year, were
upwards of seventy years of age.

There is another matter, in this connection, which I
might as well speak of now. Have we not, among our
members, some young men or women who would devote
a little time occasionally, in assisting us in the arrange-
ment of our Library and other departments of the Insti-
tute? We have, for instance, an immense collection of
manuscripts of all kinds, and many of great value : let-
ters, deeds and other legal documents, mercantile papers,
genealogical minutes, etc., etc. Some have been inserted
in books, but require to be indexed : many have not been
arranged at all, and many have never been read, to ascer-



6 BULLETIN OF THE ESSEX INSTITUTE.

tain their value. Now, with our present force and means,
it would take perhaps twenty years to render these manu-
scripts available.

Perhaps this is asking too much in these bicycle days,
and some may think, we are always begging for some-
thing, either donations or money or members. But let
such consider the fact that, in the last report of the great
British Museum of London, that institution was begging
for more room. Indeed all similar institutions are always
in want of more room or more money and, with the ex-
ception of the Essex Institute, seem to get it.

The free course of lectures in Plummer Hall the ,past
winter has been as popular as ever. The lecturers have
been, Gamaliel Bradford, Thomas H. Mullen, Samuel
Cabot and Arlo Bates, of Boston, Prof. T. C. Mendenhall
of Worcester, Edwin Reed of Cambridge, Edward
Atkinson of Brookline, and Hev. D. S. Clark of Salem.

The Women's Local History Class have continued their
meetings weekly since the summer vacation, and are as
much interested in their work as ever. Those who desire
further information about this class can receive it l^y ap-
plication to the Secretary, Miss Helen D. Lander.

There have been twenty-five regular meetings of the
Society, three meetings of Committees and two of Direc-
tors, one special meeting, December 28, to take action
on the death of Mr. G. D. Phippen, and another, June
16, on account of the death of President Willson.
A memorial meeting in honor of Mr. Willson was held
November 7, in Academy Hall, when an interesting and
eloquent address was given by Vice-President Rantoul
upon the life and character of the President. Vice-Presi-
dent Morse presided at this meeting and made remarks
appro[)riate to the occasion.

The evening meetings of members in the lihrarv room



THE RETROSPECT OF THE YEAR. 7

the past season have been well attended. Papers have
been read by the following persons :

Miss Mary Ropes on "John Horn or Orne."
Miss Rosamond Symonds on " Salem Common," ''Win-
ter Island " and " The Neck."

Gardner M. Jones on "Public Libraries."
Miss Annie L. Warner on "Birds of Winter."
Gilbert L. Streeter, two papers on " Salem before the
Revolution."

J. H. Choate, J. H, Sears, Harry R. Peach and John
Robinson exhibited specimens under the microscope one
evening, but owing to a severe storm, but few persons
were jiresent. The papers read were discussed by some of
the members interested, and valuable facts brought out.
We have had a larger numl)er of visitors during the past
year than at any former period. The officers and assist-
ants had al)out as much as they could do the last summer
and fall to attend to callers : various large organizations,
such as the Society of Christian Endeavor, the Universa-
list Christian Union, and the Masonic Society of Knights
Temjilars, — each of these numbering thousands. Then
there were the Auburndale Review Club, the Dorchester
Woman's Club, the Randolph Literar}' Club, the New York
Literary Ckib, besides several schools and classes. This
will account for the great increase in the numlier of those
who have visited the old first meeting house, — nearly
is, 000, double the number who have ever visited it in the
same time before. It is a curious fact that many people
call for the key to this church, who have not time to
examine our collections. They have to go to ISIarblehead
or the Willows. Some of the schools and classes, before
mentioned, have been addressed by Vice Presidents Morse
or Rantoul, in Academy Hall, and other members of the
Institute have conducted the strangers to places of his-
torical interest about the city.



8 BULLETIN OF THE ESSEX INSTITUTE.

The inquiries of visitors to our rooms are sometimes
quite amusing. This very season, at least two persons
have asked to see the " Scarlet Letter," Hawthorne found
in the Custom House. They had been told we had it.
Once before, a lady said she had seen it some years ago
in our rooms — she felt pretty sure about it, but it might
have been at the Court House she saw it. Another per-
son asked to see the instruments of torture which were
used upon the witches. One lady Jisked if we could give
information about an ancestor who came over with the
early settlers ; but did not know his name. She was anx-
ious to be a Colonial Dame. Another wanted informa-
tion to establish her right to be a " Daughter of the Revo-
lution" or a "Daughter of the American Revolution," I
have forgotten which. She knew she had a great grand-
father in some Regiment, but could tell nothing farther.

The donations to the Cabinets the past year have lieen
four hundred and twenty-nine from one hundred and seven
donors. Among the more important donations was a
tine copy in oil, from the original portrait of the Hon.
Benjamin Goodhue, the first member of Congress from
this District. This was the gift of his great granddaughter,
our associate, Mrs. Sarah Goodhue King of New York
City. Francis H. Lee, Esq., donated a rare old Dutch
water-color view of Salem, at an early period. This
picture was bought at a shop in Holland. From the
estate of Esther C. and William Mack we received a min-
iature and a portrait of the Rev. John Clark, D.D.,
a former minister of the First Church in Boston, who
was a native of Salem. We already had Dr. Clark's gold
watch in our collection. From the same source we also
received portraits of Judge Elisha Mack and wife, painted
by Charles Osgood.

From John S. Williams, Esq., a large and valuable
collection of manuscript papers, among them an original



THE RETROSPECT OF THE YEAR. »

letter of Dr. Doddridge of England. There were also, in
this lot, forty-eight old MSS. sermons, of the last cen-
tury.

At the last annual meeting, Mr. Ross Turner referred
to the condition of many of the old portraits in the Socie-
ty's rooms, as requiring rebacking and restoring, to put
them in a proper condition for preservation. The matter
was referred to the Fine Arts Committee. This Commit-
tee has since had the work thoroughly done, and now all
the portraits and other paintings belonging to the Society
are in first class order.

The Publications of the Society have progressed favor-
al)ly this year. The first part of Vol. ol of the Historical
Collections has been issued, and the second part, con-
cluding the volume is now in press and nearly ready for
issue. The first part of Vol. 27 of the Bulletin has been
published, which includes the Annual Report for 1895.
There does not appear to be much of a supply of good
material fitted for publication in the Bulletin. The Visit-
or's Guide was issued under the imprint of the Essex In-
stitute. The first of the special catalogues of the Institute
Library w^as issued early in the year and w\as devoted to
the Special Library on China. Among the leading arti-
cles in the Collections were :

A Historic Ball Room, by Robert S. Rantoul ; List of
Salem Vessels issued by Timo. Orne, John Nutting, Jr.,
and John Higginson, 17.57, 1758, compiled by Geo. H.
Allen ; Lady Deborah Moody, by Mrs. Henry W. Ed-
wards ; Some Localities about Salem, by Henry M.
Brooks; Memoir of Edmund B. Willson by Robert S.
Rantoul.

Which is respectfully submitted,

Henry M. Brooks,

ESSKX INST. BULLKTIN, VOI, XXVIII 1*



10 BULLETIN OF THE ESSEX INSTITUTE.



Report of the Librarian.

The additions to the library for the year (May 1895 to
May 1896) have been as follows :

By Donation.

Folios, 38

Quartos, 204

O.tavos 1,412

Twelvemos, 308

Sixteenmos, 181

Twenty-fourmos, 101

Total of bound volumes, 2,244

Pamphlets and serials 4,510

Total of donations . 6,754

By Exchange.

Folios, , 3

Quartos, 8

Octavos 263

Twelvemos, 5

Sixteenmos, 5

Total of bound volumes, 284

Pamphlets and serials, 1,646

Total of exchanges, 1,930

By Purchase.

Folios, . . . . • 3

Quartos, 5

Octavos, 16

Twelvemos, 1

Total of bound volumes, 26

Pamphlets and serials, 433

Total of purchases, 458

Total of donations, 6,754

Total of exchanges, 1,930

Total of additions, 9,142

Of the total number of pamphlets and serials 2,116 were
pamphlets and 4,462 were serials.

The donations to the library for the year have been
received from two hundred and four individuals and ninety-
two societies and governmental departments. The ex-
changes, from fifteen individuals and two hundred and
forty-nine societies and incorporated institutions, of which
one hundred and twenty-four are foreign ; al?o from editors



THE KETROSPECT OF THE YEAR. 11

and publisher.^. The largest single donation was from the
estate of the late General Cogswell.

The library now contains about 70,000 bound volumes
and something more than 200,000 i)amphlets.

There is little for the librarian to say in his rei)ort this
year except to reiterate and emphasize what he has said
for the past live or six years. The library is greatly in
need of funds to make it more available and useful to the
public. It needs a fire-proof stack room for the storage
of books' and it needs a catalogue. These needs appeal to
the generously disposed as a most excellent method of
benefiting the large number of persons who annually visit
the rooms of the Institute, and the still greater number
that would be attracted thither by increased accommoda-
tions and facilities. We are confident the aid will come
in time, we ho})e in a comparatively short time, and when
it comes the Institute will be able to be of greater service
to the public in many ways. Until that time we must be
content to go along as at present doing a little work each
year and preparing the way for the future changes.

The interest in the library is fully maintained. It is
frequently consulted and is of great use to students who
are pursuing special lines of study and research. It does
not aim to be a popular library, but pursues its work on
dirterent lines from the Public Libiary and Salem Ath-
a-neum, and by so doing avoids duplication, and relieves
the libraries named from making any attempt to supply
those books which are within the special line of work
marked out by the Institute.

The (juickened interest in the Institute is shown in its
largely increased membership. Let us see to it that this
interest is not allowed to flag, or grow cool, from any
want of efibit on our part.

Chas. S. Osgood,

Lihvarktn.



12 BULLETIN OF THE ESSEX INSTITUTE.



Treasurer's Report.

RECEIPTS.

Balance from last report, $804 75

Received from Invested Funds $3,246 26

" " assessment of memberK, 2,382 00

" " life membership fees, 150 00

" " publications, . . . . . . . 400 51

" " Almy,Bigelow & Washburn, for reception

fund, 25 §0

" " contributions for restoring pictures, . . 150 00

•• other sources 241 64 6,595 41



$7,400 16



EXPENDITURES.

Salaries of secretary, assistant librarian and janitor, $2,598 15

Fuel, 205 50

Lighting and water, 129 12

Shrubs and labor, 62 80

Postage and express, 167 37

Supplies, 103 81

Storage 37 80

Furniture and fixtures 65 09

Repairs and new furnace, 288 60

Restoring pictures and frames, 689 25

Lecture expenses 25 61

Books 449 42

Publications and printing, 620 26

AtheuKum expenses 168 36

Miscellaneous, 35 21

Annuities, 610 00

Interest on loan, 218 66

Atchison assessment, 80 00 $6,555 01

Paid on loan account, 500 00

Cash on hand, 345 15



$7,400 16



Respectfully submitted,

W. O. Chapman, Treasurer.



the retrospect of the year. 13

Auditor's Report.

[Indorsed on the above.]

Salem, May 16, 1896.

Your auditor respectfully reports that he has examined
this day the securities herein listed and finds them to
aaree with the treasurer's schedule.

The treasurer's books and accounts have i)een exam-
ined from the date of the last annua! meeting. The re-
ceipts and expenditures appear to be properly entered
and the books correctly kept.

H. M. Batchelder,

A uditor.

The Local History Class.

The Local History Class, — a spontaneous organization
of ladies anxious to inform themselves more exactly on
many of the interesting topics in the History of the
County, is now well estal)lished and enters upon its fourth
year. Its system is unique and might be adopted with


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