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which no one who was brought into close relations with
him could fail to recognize. His was one of those rare
spirits that rise so far above the grossness of the world
that to praise them seems almost an impertinence. He
seemed to keep to the last all the native freshness of his
early days and to refine away, as time went on, whatever
dross alloys this mortal part.

In his death one more link is parted, and that a bright
one, which bound together the present and the past.



THE RETROSrECT OF THE YEAR. 27

Monday^ Jan. 13, 1896. — The first lecture in the
" free course " was delivered this evening, in Plummer
Hall, by Gamaliel Bradford, Esq., of Boston, on the
"Monroe Doctrine."

Mr. Bradford's views seemed to be somewhat in oppo-
sition to those of the President and a majority of the mem-
bers of Congress. He was opposed to war with England
under any circumstances and especially in the condition
in which the country now is, although he said he was a
thorough American in his feelings. But he did not be-
lieve there was anything to be gained by a war even if the
" Monroe Doctrine " should be affected by British move-
ments in Venezuela.

Monday, Jan. 20, 1896. — Regular meeting in the
Library room. Mr. Gardner M. Jones, Librarian of the
Salem Public Library, read a very interesting and in-
structive paper on " Public Libraries," describing in detail
their management, their great value and their remarkable
increase in number within a comparatively short period.
He gave a description of the Boston Public Library, with
some criticisms on its general character.

Monday, Jan. 27, 1896. — Thomas A. Mullen, Esq.,
of Boston, lectured this evening in Plummer Hall, on
" Impressions of Europe." He gave a very interesting
account of a rambling visit to various European countries,
during the last summer, with many humorous observations
on men and things abroad.

Monday, Feh. 3, 1896. — Regular meeting in the Li-
brary room. Miss Annie L. Warner, of Salem, gave an
interesting lecture on the "Birds of Winter." She spoke
of the birds noticed as coming every winter, and those
that come occasionally, and of those that are with us every



28 BULLETIN OF THE * ESSEX INSTITUTE.

month of the year. She illustrated her subject by speci-
mens from the Peabody Academy of Science.

Monday, Feb. 10, 1896.— Frof. T. C. Mendenhall, of
Worcester, lectured in Plummer Hall this evening. The
subject was "Chance and the Long Run," illustrated with
the blackboard and with lantern views. He spoke of what
is commonly known as chance and showed how little chance
there really is in it. By diagrams and figures he showed
how little the accidents on railroads vary from year to
year. He explained clearly how even the common events
of life may seem like chance but they simply follow out a
natural order of things.

Monday, Feb. 17, 1896. — Regular meeting in the Li-
brary room.

Monday, Feb. 24, 1896. — Messrs. Samuel Cabot of
Boston, and Edwin Reed of Cambridge, lectured in Plum-
mer Hall this evening. Mr. Cabot explained the cypher
which it is claimed Bacon used to show that he wrote the
Shakespeare plays. Mr. Reed demonstrated that the edu-
cation and early training of Shakespeare and his associa-
tions and surroundings at Stratford were all against the
possibility of his authorship of the works attributed to
him. He believed they were written by Francis Bacon
who, for political reasons, did not wish, in his time, to be
known as the author.

Monday, March 2, 1896. — Regular meeting in the
Library room.

Monday, March 9, 1896.— Frot Arlo Bates, of the
Institute of Technology, Boston, lectured this evening in
Plummer Hall, on "Dr. Johnson and his Dictionary."



THE RETROSPECT OF THE YEAR. 29

The lecturer gave a brief history of the several attempts
at dictionary making before Dr. Johnson's day and then
gave an account of the arrangements made by some Lon-
don booksellers for the publication of Dr. Johnson's dic-
tionary, which was ])egun in 1747 and tinished in 1755.
The work cost the Doctor £100 more than he received
from the publishers so he only made a reputation by the
work. Professor Bates gave a number of the amusing
definitions from the first edition of the dictionary and spoke
of the peculiar characteristics of Dr. Johnson in connec-
tion with this work.

Monday, March 16, 1896. — Regular meeting this eve-
ning in the Library room. On motion of Mr. Richard
C. Manning, the following resolves were passed :

Resolved, that no more fitting or more lasting memorial
of the virtues of the fathers can be desired than the pub-
lishing and distribution of the Records of the Continental
Congress by the Government of the United States.

Resolved, that the Essex Institute earnestly desires and
recommends the execution of this proposed work and re-
spectfully urges upon our representatives in Congress the
support of all proper measures looking to that end.

Mr. Gilbert L. Streeter read a portion of his paper on
" Salem before the Revolution," which will appear in the
Historical Collections.

Mondai/, March 23, 1896. — Edward Atkinson, Estj.,
of Boston, lectured this evening in Plummer Hall, on
"The Altruistic Motive of Self Interest." The lecturer
said he knew of no other word than altruism which so
completely embodies the idea of that mutual service, which
is the law of progress by which men are governed whether



30 BULLETIN OF THE ESSEX INSTITUTE.

they will or no. Resistance to the natural law of altruism
is the chief cause of war and want.

Monday, March 30, 1896. — The last lecture in the
course was given this evening in Plummer Hall by Rev.
D. S. Clark. He gave an interesting account of his trav-
els in Constantinople and on the Bosphorus. Illustrated
with lantern views^shown by Rev. J. F. Brodie.

Monday, April 6, 1896. — Regular meeting in the Li-
brary room. Mr. Gilbert L. Streeter read the second
part of his paper on ''Salem before the Revolution."

On Wednesday afternoon, May 6, 1896, an address
was delivered by Miss Kingsley, at Academy Hall, under
the auspices of the Institute, upon Warwickshire, and
the Personality and Surroundings of Shakespeare. Vice-
President Rantoul filled the chair and, in presenting the
distinguished lecturer, spoke substantially as follows :

On the 16th of February, 1874, the Reverend Charles
Kingsley, accompanied by Miss Kingsley, his daughter,
paid us the honor of a visit and began here his lecture-
tour of the United States. I shall attempt no character-
ization of Mr. Kingsley. There is no need of that. The
American Cyclopedias of Biography and the Encyclopedia
Britannica unite in assigning him to the front rank in the
literature of our common tongue. He was a Devonshire
man, born in that beautiful southern county of England
from which this Colony drew so many of its sturdy pio-
neers. And his ancestors bore their honorable part with
the Ironsides of the south of England amongst the Puritan
patriots of Cromwell's day. His mother was half Ameri-
can, a native of Barbadoes.

If I presume to postpone for a moment the pleasure
you are anticipating, it is to say that Mr. Kingsley was



THE RETROSPECT OF THE YEAR. 31

one of those visitors who come here in a friendly mood,
and whose broad culture opened his mind to favorable
impressions of the best this country had to offer him.
Naturally we feel kindly towards those who accept us at
something near our estimate of ourselves. Mr. Kingsley
had for years perceived, what some of his compatriots
had been unable to perceive, — that there was in America
a social condition which would well reward the study of
Englishmen of understanding ; that this nation was not
engaged in trying to make of itself a cheap and feeble
copy of Great Britain, but had a conscious destiny of its
own, fresh and high and admirable and noble, which for
better or for worse we have been placed here, in the best
part of this western continent, to work out. During the
period of our Civil War and of the Reconstruction Era,
Mr. Kingsley filled the important Chair of Professor of
Modern History at Cambridge University, of which he
had been an alumnus. He made American History the
topic of his lecture course for 1862, and in announcino"
his purpose to do this to a friend in Deceml)er, 1861, he
used these words :

" As for the American question ... I have thought
of nothing else for some time. For I cannot see how I
can be a Professor of past modern history without the
most careful study of the history which is enacting itself
around me . . . So strongly do I feel the impor-
tance of this crisis, that I mean to give, as my public
lectures next October term, the History of the American
States." In 1866 he was seconding the movement of a
Liverpool gentleman of large views and means for the
endowment at Cambridge of a Professorship of Ameri-
can History — a distinctly American Lectureship which
was to be filled by an American selected and endorsed l)y
the authorities of Harvard.



32 BULLETIN OF THE ESSEX INSTITUTE.

This extremely radical proposal, addressed to the con-
servatism of the mother country, naturally came to
nought. But the language used by Mr. Kingsley, — still
filling with distinction the Chair of Modern History at
Cambridge — shows the feeling which he, in common
with too few other leaders of English thought, entertained
towards us at the close of our war, and I ask your in-
dulgence in quoting from a letter of Mr. Kingsley to his
friend, Sir Charles Lyell, who also knew something of
us here in Salem from personal contact and observation.
These are am.ong Mr. Kingsley's words : — " When I did
myself the honor of lecturing in this University on the
History of the United States, I became painfully aware
how little was known and how little there could be known
on the subject. This great want has been since supplied
by a large addition to the University Library of Ameri-
can literature. I think it most important that it should
be still further removed by the residence among us of an
American gentleman."

" Harvard University is a body so distinguished that an
offer of this kind is to be looked on as a very graceful'
compliment."

"Of the general importance of the scheme, — of the
great necessity that our young men should know as much
as possible of a country destined to be the greatest in the
world, I shall say little. I shall only ask. If, in the
second century before the Christian era, the Romans had
offered to send a lecturer to Athens that he might tell
Greek gentlemen of what manner of men this new Ital-
ian power was composed, — what were their laws and
customs, their intentions, their notion of their own duty
and destiny, — would Athens have been wise or foolish in
accepting the offer?"

These and other arguments in favor of an Americai>



THE RETROSPECT OF THE YEAR. 33

Professorship — of establishing a sort of Ambassador Ex-
traordinary of Letters at the Court of St. James — were
embodied by Mr. Kingsley in an extended address issued
at Cambridge, which it was hoped might influence the
authorities of the University to accept the proposal. But
the movement bore no fruit.

To-day we have the great pleasure to welcome again
the daughter who visited Salem with Mr. Kingsley and
made the notes, since published, of his American jour-
ney. She has recorded in those notes the fact that the
Old World, South of England names of places and per-
sons which he found surviving here about Salem were to
him a never failing source of interest and pleasure. She
will address us to-day on Warkwickshire with something
of the personality and social surroundings of Shakes-
peare, a timely topic, since our Baconian friends have
done what they could of late, to persuade us that Shakes-
peare had little or no personality and no social surround-
ings worthy of mention. Miss Kingsley has lived in
that delightful midland county — the heart of England
— to which many of us are no strangers, and where the
name " Shakespeare " may still be read in the simple an-
nals on church-yard gravestones and in one instance, at
least, on the door-plate of a dressmaker pursuing her
art to-day.

I have the honor and very great pleasure to i)resent
Miss Kingsley.

[Miss Kingsley's address was listened to with much in-
terest l)y a large and critical audience.]

An adjourned meeting of the Institute was held June 18,
Vice President Kantoul in the chair. The death of our
late President, the Rev. Edmund B. Willson, was referred
to.

ICS.SEX INST. IIULLKTIN, \Or,. XXVIII 3



34 BULLETIN OF THE ESSEX INSTITUTE.

[The funeral was at the North Church on Saturday, June
16th. George H. Allen, Ezra D. Hines, Ross Turner,
George M. Whipple and Alden P. White, were requested
by the Executive Committee of the Institute to attend
and represent the Society.]

On motion of Mr. Thomas F. Hunt it was

Voted: That a Committee of three be appointed by
the Chair, of which the Chairman shall be one, — with full
powers, — to take some action in regard to the death of
the late President, the Rev. Edmund B. Willson.

Voted: That the thanks of the Essex Institute are due
and are hereby tendered to Mrs. Sarah Goodhue King of
New York City, the great granddaughter and last lineal de-
scendant of Benjamin Goodhue of Salem, for an admirable
portrait in oil, just received, of her distinguished ancestor.
A native and life-long citizen of Salem, born September
20, 1748, at the Goodhue homestead, now standing near
Goodhue street and numbered 70 on Bostorf street, Ben-
jamin Goodhue took his degree at Harvard at the early
age of eighteen and also received an honorary degree from
Yale in 1804. He embarked in commerce, and at the out-
break of the Revolution became engaged in public afiairs.
He represented Essex County in the Senate of Massachu-
setts for 1784-9, when, under the new Federal constitu-
tion, he filled for three terms the seat of Congressman for
this district, and with the aid ol a single colleague, framed
the system of revenue laws, which has proved a monu-
ment to his skill, assiduity and foresight. He became a
United States senator for Massachusetts in 1796, upon
the resignation of George Cabot, and acted as chairman
of the Senate committee on commerce, but retired to pri-
vate life four years later, and died July 28, 1814, at the
mansion on Essex street now numbered 403, which he
erected and occupied most of his years. The portrait, so



THE RETROSPECT OF THE YEAR. 35

kindly presented to the Essex Institute, is " an excellent
copy " made in New York City by William Southworth in
1895, from a likeness painted from life by J. Wright in
1790, and regarded by Mr. Goodhue and his family at
that time, as a orood likeness. Such a gift is an invaluable
accession to the historical storehouse of Essex County, and
finds its natural resting-place on the walls of the Institute.
Voted : That the above be spread at large on the records
and a copy forwarded to the generous donor of the paint-
ing.

Tuesday, June 25, 1895. — A meeting of the committee
to report what action should be taken on the death of the
President, Rev. Edmund B. Willson, was held this day.
On motion of Mr. Charles S. Osgood, it was voted that
a series of resolutions be reported to the Institute at its
next meeting. On motion of Mr. T. F. Hunt, it was voted
that Mr. R^-.toul be requested to prepare a memoir of Mr.
Willson to be presented to the Institute in October next.

Regidar Meeting, Monday, Jidy 1, 1895. — The Com-
mittee chosen at a meeting of the Essex Institute held
June 18, 1895, to consider and report what action it would
be proper to take on the recent lamented death of Presi-
dent Willson, beg leave to report : — That with the excep-
tion of the case of Dr. Wheatland, which was unique, the
action of the Institute upon the death of its Presidents
has been substantially uniform.

Judge White died in office, April 1, 18(U, after a long
term of service. Resolves were passed, and Rev. Dr. G.
W. Briggs was requested to prepare a memoir which was
read before the Institute, January 4, 18(54.

Colonel Peabody died in office after a brief service,
October 31, I8()7. Resolves were passed, and Hon.
Charles W. Upham was requested to prepare a memoir
which was read, July 18, 1868.



36 BULLETIN OF THE ESSEX INSTITUTE.

Ex-Mayor Huntington, an ex-President who had served
four years, died September 5, 1870. Kesolves were
passed, and Judge Lord was invited to prepare a memoir,
which he read before a meeting of the Institute, Septem-
ber 5, 1871.

Your committee believe that the Institute can not do
better than to continue the precedent so wisely established,
and they recommend that the testimonial of regret here-
with submitted, be spread upon the records and trans-
mitted to the family of the late President Willson, and
that a memorial be prepared, to be presented to the Essex
Institute at a meeting to be held in October next.
By the committee,

Robert S. Rantoul.
Thomas F. Hunt.
Charles S. Osgood.

Resolves.

Edmund B. Willson, the fifth President of the Essex
Institute, died after a brief illness at his home in Salem,
June 13, 1895. He was born at Petersham, August 15,
1820. He was the son of a clergyman and teacher of
youth. He was a student at Yale College and at the
Harvard Divinity School and received from Harvard, in
1853, the honorary degree of Master of Arts. He began
his ministry at Grafton, January 3, 1844, and, after
preaching there with acceptance, was called to West Rox-
bury as the successor of Theodore Parker, July 18, 1852.
He became pastor of the North Church in Salem, June 5,
1859, and was stricken down in that pulpit at the close of
his thirty-sixth anniversary service, on Sunday, June 2,
1895.

In addition to the pastoral duties to which his life was
given, Mr. Willson assumed others imposed upon him by



THE RETROSPECT OF THE YEAR. 37

his ardent synipiithy with all worthy endeavor. Twice he
yielded to the promptings of patriotism. He served as
Chaplain of the 24th Regiment of Massachusetts Volun-
teers in its Florida and Virginia campaigns from October
1863 to July 1864. He sat in the General Court as a
Representative from Salem in 1883 and 1884 and there
became the champion of the broadest educational policies
known to the Commonwealth, — objects as these had been
of his life-long devotion, — serving the State as chairman,
in his branch, of the Committee on Education. From the
days of Horace Mann he has labored on the school boards
of Grafton and of West Rox1)ury and for eight years on
that of Salem, and no man knew and loved the schools of
Massachusetts more thoroughly than he. Few of the
charitable and correctional establishments of Salem have
failed of encouraijement in some form from him. A num-
ber — too many to enumerate — have recognized his apt-
itude and their indebtedness, by choosing him to office.
Everywhere he was the welcome (!oadjutor in all good
works. Creeds had no terrors, sectarian and party lines
no restrictive potency for him. The friend of all men,
he could cooperate with all. Fearless and without guile,
he was a man to Avhom all hearts were drawn, for his
words even in the most sacred experiences of life were
wise and tit — a spirit tine enough for any sphere — a man
whose simple presence was a benedicti<m, whose voice and
look bespoke the soul within. To the great company of
pastors, revered and honored, who have illustrated our
annals, from the Higginsons and Williams and Peters and
Prince and Barnard and Bentley to the later times, it is
permitted us to add another name as lastingly enshrined
in the affections of his townsmen as those who went before.
Mr. Willsoirs active connection with the Essex Institute
began with his ministry in Salem. We find him at an
early day attending tield-meetings, — occasions which



38 BULLETIN OF THE ESSEX INSTITUTE.

especially interested him for their novelty, — and now and
again accepting the chair. From the first he has rendered
enthusiastic service on important committees. He was
chosen President at a special meeting in June, 1893,
and then at the annual meeting in May, 1894, with the
stipulation that the Institute must content itself with such
attention to the office, as his many preoccupations would
permit, and at the annual meeting in May, 1895, he was
again elected and accepted the office in warm and well-
chosen words still lingering in our ears. During these
years he was the President of the Salem Athenaeum and a
Vice-President of the New England Historic Genealogi-
cal Society as well. What advantage was to accrue from
the official influence of so rare a personality, holding so
preeminent a place in public feeling and thought, was
hardly to be demonstrated in the months which have in-
tervened. The members of the Essex Institute record
their loss with profound regret, and hold it to be a mat-
ter of pride that they are able, even for so short a term,
to enroll amongst the incumbents of their his^hest office,
the name of Edmund B. Willson.

Voted: That this report be spread in full upon the
records and that a copy of it be transmitted wMth the
deepest sympathy of the Essex Institute to the family of
the late President.

Voted: That Vice President Rantoul be requested to
prepare a memorial of Mr. Willson to be presented in
October next.

Necrology of Members.

Henry Blaney, son of Benjamin and Abigail (Bow-
man) Blaney, was born in Boston, Jan. 3, 1822 ; elected
a member of the Essex Institute, Nov. 16, 1891, and died
in Salem, Feb. 2, 1896.



THE RETROSPECT OF THE YEAR. 39

William A. Bowditch, son of Ebenezer and Mary
(Appleton) Bowditch, was born in Salem, in 1809 ; elect-
ed a member of the Essex Institute, March 11, 1857, and
died in Salem, May 15, 1896.

Hubbard Breed, son of Lucius H. and Rebecca (Story)
Breed, was born in Salem, Jan. 27, 1844 ; elected a mem-
ber of the Essex Institute, Jan. 15, 1894, and died in
Salem, May 9, 189().

Theodore Brown, son of Jonathan and Sarah C.
(Hill) Brown, was born in Salem, in 1818 ; elected a
member of the Essex Institute, Nov. 25, 18G7, and died
in Salem, June 8, 1895.

Mrs. Eliza D. Clement, daughter of Hazen and Se-
rena (Dustin) Ayer, was born in Salem, in 1834 ; elected
a member of the Essex Institute, April 15, 1895, and died
in Peabody, Feb. 26, 1896.

Eustace C. Fitz, sonof Jeremiah and Hannah (Eaton)
Fitz, was born in Haverhill, in 1883 ; elected a member
of the Essex Institute, Nov. 19, 1894, and died in Boston,
May 27, 1895.

Mrs, Matilda B. Frye, daughter of Benjamin Brooks
and widow of Major Fred Frye, was born in Bridgeport,
Conn., in 1829 ; elected a member of the Essex Institute,
June 3, 1895, and died in Bridgeport, Conn., Nov. 27,
1895.

OcTAvius Howe, son of Abner and Sarah (Thorndike)
Howe, was born in Beverly, Jan. 22, 1815 ; elected a
member of the Essex Institute, Aug. 19, 1863, and died
in Beverly, Oct. 30, 1895.



40 BULLETIN OF THE ESSEX INSTITUTE.

Thomas J. Hutchinson, son of Thomas and Nancy
(Bowden) Hutchinson, was born in Salem, in 1822 ; elect-
ed a member of the Essex Institute, March 20, 1876, and
died in Salem, July 15, 1895.

Amos H. Johnson, son of Samuel and Charlotte (Howe)
Johnson, was born in Boston, in 1831 ; elected a member
of the Essex Institute, Jan. 7, 1867 ; Secretary for 1868,
1871, 1872; and died in Salem, May 12, 1896.

William Mack, son of Elisha and Catherine S. P.
(Orne) Mack, was born in Salem, in 1814 ; elected a
member of the Essex Hist. Society, June 30, 1841; an
original member of the Institute, and died in Salem, June
9, 1895.

Edward H. Payson, son of Lemuel and Joanna (New-
hall) Payson, was born in Salem, in 1804 ; elected a mem-
ber of the Essex Institute, June 9, 1864, and died in
Salem, Oct. 26, 1895.

George D. Phippen, son of Hardy and Ursula (Sy-
monds) Phippen, was born in Salem, April 13, 1815 ;
elected a member of the Essex County Natural History
Society, in 1834, and of the Essex Historical Society, in
1843 ; an original member of the Institute, and died in
Salem, Dec. 26, 1895.

Alexander H. Rice, son of Thomas and Rice,

was born in Newton Lower Falls, Aug. 30, 1818 ; elected
a member of the Essex Institute, Aug. 20, 1894, and died
in Melrose, July 22, 1895.

William G. Webb, son of Stephen aud Martha T.
(Luscomb) Webb, was born in Salem, in 1833 ; elected
a member of the Essex Institute, Nov. 7, 1870, and died
in Salem, May 17, 1896.



THE RETROSPECT OF THE YEAR. 41

Edward Wigglesworth, son of Edward and Henri-
etta M. (Goddard) Wigglesworth, was born in Boston,


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