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THE RETROSPECT OF THE YEAR.



55



The following have



been received from editors and



publishers



American Journal of Science.
American Naturalist.
Beverly Citizen.
Cape Ann Advertiser.
Chicago Journal of Commerce.
Danvers Mirror.
Dollars and Cents.
Engraver and Printer.
GeorgetOAvu Advocate.
Groton Landmark.
Home Market Bulletin.
Iowa Churchman.
Ipswich Independent.
Lawrence American.
Le Naturaliste Canadien.
Lynn Item.
Lynn Transcript.
Marblehead Messenger.



Musical Record.
Nation.
Nature.
Open Court.
Peabody Advertiser.
Peabody Press.
Peabody Union.
Popular Science.
Salem Gazette.
Salem News.
Salem Observer.
Salem Register.
The Citizen.
Topsfield ToAvnsman.
Traveller's Record.
Valley Visitor.
Zoologischer Anzeiger.



The donations to the cabinets during the year nunil)er
four hundred and twenty-nine from the following one
hundred and seven donors :



Allen, George H.

.\lmy, Bigelow & Washburn.

Andrews, Oilman A.

.\rvedson, George.

Atkinson, Miss M. P., Atlanta, Ga.

Barnes, Walter, Chicago, 111.

Barrett, Edwin S., Concord.

Barton, Mary.

Battis, E. C.

Bemis, Caroline E.

Benson, Arthur F.

Bowditch, Charles P., Boston.

Bowkcr, Charles.

Braden, Mrs. James A.

Brooks, Alice F.

Brooks, Henry M.



Brown, Daniel A.
BroAvn, Mrs. Lucy S.
Browne, Mrs. J. H.
Buxton, James.
Casey, J. C.

Chamberlain, James A., Boston.
Clark, Rev. De Witt S.
Cleveland, Misses.
Cloutman, Mrs. Wm. B.
Codman, Mrs. Martha P. R., Bos-
ton.
Cole, Estate of Mrs. N. D.
Conant, W. P.
Cousins, Frank.
Curwen, George R.
Dean, Annie A.



56



BULLETIN OF THE ESSEX INSTITUTE.



Derby, Perley.

Dodcl, Benjamin C, Topsfield.

Ellery, Harrison, Boston.

Elwell, N. W., Boston.

Fabens, Benjamin H.

Fanning, James.

Foster, James M.

Full, William L.

Gage, Andrew.

Getcbell, Benjamin W.

Goldthwaite, Mrs. E. H.

Hardy, Mrs. M. C , Farmington,Ct.

Harrington, Richard.

Hay ford, J. N.

Hill, WilUam M.

Hotchkiss, Susan V., New Haven,
Ct.

Hnnt, T. F.

Ingalls, Susie, Beverly.

Jenkins, L. W., Boston.

Johnson, Samuel A.

Johnson, Thomas H.

Kerby, Caleb F.

Kimball, Elizabeth H.

Kimball, Mary A.

King, Mrs. Susan G., New York,
N. Y.

Kinsman, Mrs. Frances J., Ips-
wich.

Knowlton, G. W.

Lamson, Frederick.

Lauder. Helen D.

Lee, Francis H.

Lee, Harriet R.

Lefavour, James F.

LeGrande, Charles E.

Little, David M.

Little, Mrs. David M.

Low, Daniel.

Mack, Estate of William and
Esther.



Meade, William E.

Moore, David.

Morse, Edward S.

Morton, Henry.

Noyes, F. B., Stonington, Ct.

Oliver, Mrs. Grace A.

Parsons, Mrs. Mary A., Lynnlield.

Peabody, Edwin N.

Peabody, George L.

Peabody Academy of Science.

Philbrick, Misses.

Pulsifer, Mrs. C. H.

Putnam, George G.

Rantoul, Robert S.

Robinson, John.

Salem Gas Co.

Salem Water Board.

Savage, M. F., New York, N. Y.

Shepherd, Misses.

Silver, William.

Skinner, John B.

Stickney, George \. D.

Stiles, J. G.

Stone, Arthur R.

Stone, Joseph.

Stowers, Estate of Mrs. S. B.

Thayer, Edward S.

Treadwell, J. Russell.

Turner, Ross.

Van Zandt, Margaret, New York.

Waters, Alice G.

Welch, William L.

Wheatland, Elizabeth.

Wheatland, Estate of Henry.

Wheatland, Estate of M. G.

Whipple, George M.

Whitney, Mrs. H. M., Lawrence.

Wiggiu, E. C.

Williams, John S.

Wright, Frank V., Hamilton.



BULLETIN

OF THE

ESSEIK IIsrSTITTJTE!.

Vol. 28. Salem: July — December, 1896. Nos. 7-12.

THE PPIOTOGRAPH AND SKELETON
OF A NATIVE AUSTRALIAN.



BY GEORGE A. DORSET, PH.D.,
Acting Curator, Field Columbian Museum.



In March, 1891, the Peabotly Miiseura received by
purchase from Mr. A. P. Goodwin a large collection of
ethnological ol)ject8 from Oceania. Among these were the
photograph and skeleton of a native of Lismore, who was
known as Neddy Larkin. As a perfect skeleton and pho-
tograph of an Australian subject in life are not often met
with in the museums of this country. Professor Putnam,
the Curator of the Museum, placed the skeleton and pho-
tograph ill my hands for study. Mr. Goodwin's letter,
in which he states that he knew Neddy Larkin, saw him
buried, and personally secured his skeleton, is on tile in
the Museum. Thus there can be no doubt that the skel-
eton is really that of the individual of the photograph.

ESSEX INST. BULLETIN, VOL. XXVIII 4* (57)



58 BULLETIN OF THE ESSEX INSTITUTE.

Lismore is on the Richmond river in the extreme
northeastern part of New South Wales. According to an
ethnographical map of Fraser, this region of New South
Wales is inhabited by the Paikalyug tribe.

PHOTOGRAPH.

Judging from the photograph and skeleton, Neddy
Larkiii must have been about fifty years old. There is
nothing especially noteworthy brought out by the photo-
graph. It presents to us simply a typical specimen of a
native of New South Wales. The beard apparently is
slightly gray, and evidently has been trimmed quite short.
The hair is long and in the usual state of disorder, but
seems rather straighter than one usually finds in a native
of Australia. The deep set eyes and overhanging brows
are quite prominent, and give some indication of the mas-
sive superciliary ridges which we find on the skull. The
nose is very broad but not flat, and is well shaped. A
depression between the lower lateral cartilages of the nose
is well marked and has almost the appearance of a slit in
the nose. The body is not so lean as is usually the case
with Australians, judging from several photographs before
me. The arms are covered with long, thick hair, and
hair can be seen thickly scattered over a small area high
up the breast. The body below the waist is not visible.
In the left hand is held a rough boomerang. On the up-
per left arm (the upper right arm is hid b}' the fore-arm)
and on the breast are plainly seen the usual marks of
adorimient — long straight brands or scars. They run
entirely across the breast at close intervals, the highest
one being placed just above the mammje. At least seven-
teen lines are visible and there may be more which can
not be seen. On the arm thirteen scars or "mom-bari"
are visible ; they run lengthwise and are al)out eight



PHOTOGRAPH AND SKELETON OF AN AUSTRALIAN. 59

inches in length. The primary significance of this peculiar
form of tattoo! nor jg not known and has been fors^otten
even by the natives themselves. Concerning the method
of operation, Frazer says " the brand is cut with a piece of
flint or of a glass bottle in some simple pattern ; the cuts
bleed a good deal, and to make them deeper the knife is
applied again and again. While the wounds are still
open, hoar frost is rubbed in, or charcoal, and that causes
w^ell-marked ridges to remain permanently there. The
thing is done when the person is young, perhaps from 6
to 12 years of age."

The anterior edges of the sterno-cleido-mastoid muscles
are uimsually prominent and make a well-defined depres-
sion between them.

SKELETON.

The skeleton is almost complete, only a few of the ter-
minal phalanges being missing. The extremities of both
hands and feet have a charred appearance as if from hav-
ing been in fire. Otherwise the skeleton is in good con-
dition. The length of the entire skeleton is 1616 mm.
which with 35 mm. for the soft parts would make 1651
mm. for the stature of Neddy Larkin. In taking the
height of the skeleton I followed the method employed
by Dr. Dwight and fully described by him in the Medical
Record of Sept. 8, 1894.

Examinina: the leno:th of the long^ bones we have the
following measurements :

Humerus 272 mm.

Radius 253

Ulna 272

Femur, oblique length . . 440
Tibia, maximum length . . 381

From these measurements some interesting observations
can be made. The proportion of the humerus to the total



60 BULLETIN OF THE ESSEX INSTITUTE.

length of the skeleton is 20.3 which is even greater than
that given by Humphrey for Bushmen. The relation of
the radius to the stature is 15.6 which is approximately
the figure given by Hovelacque and Herve. The relations
of the femur and tibia to the skeleton are 26.8 and 23.2
respectively. The antibrachial index is 80.3 which is
very high, and approximates that of the higher apes more
closely than does the same index in the African negro.

The torsion of the humerus is 136 degrees. According
to Hovelacque and Herve, the degree of torsion of the
humerus in the human family is lowest among the Aus-
tralians.

SKULL.

The skull is remarkable in many ways. The general
surface is very smooth and it is almost impossible to make
out any muscular ridges. In addition to the sutures
which are normally closed in an individual of this age,
the following are more or less completely synostosed :
the coronal, sagittal, lambdoidal, spheno-frontal, spheno-
parietal, malo-zygomatic, malo-frontal, nasal, naso-maxil-
lary, intermaxillary, palato-maxillary and interpalatal.
The original degree of serration of the cranial sutures
cannot be determined.

Norma lateralis. — There is a considerable amount
of alveolar prognathism, rather more than one usually
finds in an Australian skull. The teeth are nearly hori-
zontal. The nasal spine is heavy and prominent, a char-
acter not usually associated with the lower types of crania.
The nasal bones are not prominent. The glabella, while
very highly developed, is entirely obscured by the enor-
mous development of the superciliary ridges. The inion
is equally massive and projects downwards so that it sup-
ports the posterior region of the skull. The mastoid
processes are not prominent. The temporal ridges can



i



PHOTOGRAPH AND SKELETON OF AN AUSTRALIAN. 61

no lono;erbe distinguished. A faint spheno-parietal suture
can be made oat about 4 mm. in length, which gives the so-
called pterion in H. The curvature of the vault of the
cranium is very gradual, the curve of the frontal region
passing imperceptibly into that of the parietal ; in type
it approaches the Neanderthal. The external auditory
meatus is nnusually large and is elliptical in shape.

Norma verticalis. — With the skull in this position its
extreme length and the narrowness of the frontal region
are very striking, w^hile the prominence of the supra-
orbital ridges is equalled by that of the external angular
processes of the frontal bone. The parietal eminences
are small but well marked. There is nothing which ap-
proaches the parietal crest which often marks skulls of
an interior type. The parietal foramina have entirely dis-
appeared .

Norma frontalis. — From a front view the face seems
all orbits and nose, so great are their cavities. The orbits
are especially profound and large. The angle of inclina-
tion of the transverse diameter seems unusually great.
The lachrymal l)ones are obscured by the frontal process
of the maxillary bones and none of the lachrymal sutures
can be determined. The infra-orbital groove continues
broad and shallow, almost to the orbital crest. On the
right orbit is a supra-orbital foramen, on the left side a
shallow notch is hardly recognizable. The nasal bones
broaden and flatten out very much at their inferior border.
The inferior border of the nasal cavity is not sharp as it
usually is in Europeans, but is concave so that the nasal
cavity is not well defined and passes gradually on to the
alveolar region. The maxilhiry bones are broad, espe-
cially through the alveolar region. The canine fosste are
extremely shallow, a character the reverse of the European
type.



62 BULLETIN OF THE ESSEX INSTITUTE.

Norma posterior. — The skull is hypsicephalic or nar
row and high, but not to an extreme degree as is usually
the case with Australian skulls. The region just above
the occiput and below the parietal eminences is slightly
flattened. The transition of the posterior region is very
marked at the region of the inion where the occipital bone
passes forward very abruptly.

Norma inferior. — While the external occipital crest
is fairly prominent, no trace of the inferior curved line
can be made out. The digastric and occipital grooves are
very deep and pronounced and the foramen ovale seems
to be of unusually large size. The zygomatic arches stand
out prominently and the prognathism already spoken of
is seen in the distinct forward slant of the alveolar process.
The surfaces of the alveolar process are broad and are
more or less absorbed, especially in the regions of the in-
cisors.

From a morphological consideration of the skull we
pass to the craniometric characters. The following meas-
urements were taken :

Capacity 1290 cc.

Maximum length • . 191 mm.

Maximum breadth 131

Height, basion-bregna 140

Index, length-breadth 69

Index, length-height 73

Minimum breadth of forehead . . . . 98

Breadth of base 102

Height of face, nasal point-alveolar point (A) . 71

Height of face, nasal point, mental point (B) 118
Breadth of face, bi-zygomatic diameter . .131

Index face (A) 54

Index face (B) ....... 90

Height of nose , 60



PHOTOGRAPH AND SKELETON OF AN AUSTRALIAN. 63

Breadth of nose 32 mm.

Index of nose 64

Height of orbit 38

Breadth of orbit 44

Index of orbit 86

Length of palate 52

Breadth of palate, between lateral canines (A) . 32

Breadth of palate, between 2nd molars (B) . 43

Index of palate (A) 61

Index of palate (B) 82

Mandibular angle 124

Basi-alveolar length 100

Basi-nasal length 97

Index of alveolar gnathisni .... 103.9

The capacity, 1290 cc, is somewhat higher than that
usually given tor Australians, Turner giving 1230 cc. and
Quatrefages and Hamy, 1269 mm. The cephalic index
of 69 proves the skull to be longer than the average,
Quatrefages and Hamy, and Broca giving 71. The ver-
tical index is about the average for Australians.

Both facial indices indicate a short, broad face, a char-
acteristic trait of Australians. The nasal index of 64 is
unusually high, the average among the Bushmen being
only 60, while the average for the Australians is 57. The
orbital index also is unusually high, 80 being the average.
The two palatal indices show the palate to be of a very low
type, the posterior diameter being proportionally much
greater than the anterior. The other measurements do
not merit special comment. To conclude with the skull,
it is notable for its amount of synostosis, small capacity,
pronounced dolicocephalism, mesoseme orbits, platyrhine
nose, broad palate, and prognathism.

Teeth. — The incisors, right canine, both 3rd molars,
and the left second molar of the upper teeth, and the tirst
and second premolars and all the molars of the left side



64 BULLETIN OF THE ESSEX INSTITUTE.

of the lower teeth were lost during life and the alveoli are
considerably absorbed. Of the upper teeth there now
remain only the premolars of the right side and the canine
and first premolar of the left side ; of the lower teeth there
yet remain the incisors of the left side and the three
molars of the right side. The crowns of the teeth are
very much worn down, especially those of the front teeth.
The wear on the lower lateral incisor has been from side
to side and not from before backwards. The degree of
wear corresponds in general to No. 3 of Broca's scale.
Every one of the nine teeth present is more or less af-
fected by caries, these being unusually large in the molars
of the lower jaw.

TRUNK.

The vertebrae and ribs are of the usual number. The
first rib is extremely short and atavistic, even after making
due allowances for the general slightuess of the skeleton.
The sternum presents no peculiarity whatever. Like the
other bones of the skeleton it is slight, short and very
narrow. The length of the manubrium is 47 mm. and the
greatest width 50 mm. The length of the body is 99 mm.
Thus the general rule prevails here, the body of the ster-
num in males being a little more than double the length
of the manubrium. The clavicle is short, thick, massive
and only measures 118 mm. in length, whereas a length
of 145 mm. for a European clavicle would not be exces-
sive.

Scapula. — The body of both right and left scapulce is
exceedingly delicate and thin, so much so that there occur,
especially in the left, numerous irregular foramina, there
being one in the supra-spinous region with a diameter of
15 mm. There is also, in the left scapula, a large oval
foramen in the centre of the spine just where it is differ-



PHOTOGRAPH AND SKELETON OF AN AUSTRALIAN. 65

entiated from the body. In the same bone the configura-
tion in the region of the supruscapuhir notch is very
pecnliar, and deserves a l)rief notice. This notch in Enro-
peans is generally well differentiated and lies just at the
posterior border of the base of the coracoid process. In
the anthropoid apes a distinct notch does not appear at
all, there being simply a gradual curve along the entire
su[)erior border. Now in the left scapula we find neither
the notch nor the gradual curve. Instead there is a pro-
longation of the anterior process to within 10 mm. of the
base of the spine, then it projects backwards and slightly
upwards for a distance of 8 mm. ; then it passes upwards
and decidedly forward and reaches the crest of the spine.
Thus there is formed a squarish notch, the sides of which
measure approximately 10 mm. jukI the posterior superior
edge forms with the border of the body proper an ex-
tremely acute angle.

This same region on the left scapula is not so anomalous
but is of perhaps greater interest, for there is not a notch
at all but a clearly defined parabolic curve, which in no
wise differs from that of the scapula of the orang.

There is yet another peculiar difierence to be noted
between the right and left scapula. In the right scapula
the external border is decidedly T shaped almost through-
out, the outer border being 10-12 mm. broad, but there
is no abrupt increase in width as we approach the acromion
as is usual, but instead only a gradual widening until the
end is reached, where there is the maxinunn width of 25
mm. Tiie termination of the process is squarish and only
projects 22 mm. beyond a line perpendicular to the glenoid
fossa. The spine of the left clavicle is decidedly heavier
and more massive in every way, and its termination is
more typical of the human form than that of the loft. The
tip of the external border of the acromion extends beyond

KSSKX INST. BULLETIN, VOL XXVIII 5



66 BULLETIN OF THE ESSEX INSTITUTE.

the plane of the glenoid fossa about 40 mm. or nearly
twice as far as it does in the right clavicle. The coracoid
processes are approximately the same in both specimens,
except perhaps that that of the left is a trifle more massive.
The superior third of the subscapular fossa of the right
bone is decidedly more concave than the left, so much so
that the supraspinous portion turns sharply forward at
an angle of about 45 degrees.

There remains to be noted the character of the inferior
borders with their angles. Without attempting to give
the degree of the angle with accuracy, for that is well
nigh impossible, I may say it is evidently under 35°, which
is about the minimum average for man. But the interest-
ing point to note is the fact that the axillary and inferior
vertebral borders are nearly straight and form an angle
with approximately straight sides, so that there is little
difference in this respect from the orang's scapula.

When we consider the measurements of the two bones
singularly there is no apparent difference between them,
80 they may both be given together. The measurements
are as follows : —

Breadth 102 mm.

Length 145

Infraspinous length 116

From the first two measurements, there is obtained the
scapular index, which in this case is 70.3. This is consid-
erably higher than the average in Europeans, which is
about 65. It agrees pretty nearly, however, with the
index given by Flower and Garson for Australians and
other inferior races, and corresponds to the figure given
by Broca for the gorilla. Perhaps of still greater interest
is the infraspinous index. Here, according to Dwight,
the lowest of the gorilla and chimpanzee exceeds the



PHOTOGRAPH AND SKELETON OF AN ADSTRALIAN. 67

highest iiifraspinous index of man. The infraspinous index
of the scapula under consideration is 80. This is excep-
tionally low, even for very inferior races.

The left scapula has the singular distinction of bearing
a rifle ball of lead deeply iml)edded and partially covered
by new bone growth, in the subscapular fossa just be-
neath the neck of the spine.

Pelvis. — The individual varieties of the pelvis are so
great even in the same race that it seems almost useless to
give the measurements of a single specimen. Yet any
observations on a skeleton without taking into considera-
tion those of the pelvis, would be decidedly superficial.
The pelvis as a whole is remarkably slight and compact.
The width between the iliac crests, the maximum width
of the pelvis, is 255 mm. which is about what we should
expect, considering the general slightness of the entire
skeleton. The measurements of the true pelvis are as fol-
lows : Antero-posterior diameter 110 mm., transverse diam-
eter 111 mm. This gives approximately 100 as the pelvic
index, which is about the usual thing in males — in females
the transverse diameter is appreciably longer, relatively,
than the antero-posterior diameter, so that the usual pel-
vic index is somewhat less than 100 for females. The
width between the tubersites of the ischia is 118 mm. Of
the other numerous and less important measurements
which might be taken on the pelvis, I have made only
three. The first two are the maximum height, 188 mm.,
and the maxinnim width, 158 mm. With these we obtain
the height-index of the pelvis which in this case is 80.3.

Sacrum.. — The sacrum possesses the usual number of
vertebnc, five, and is characterized by its length, which
is a feature common to Australians and other inferior
races. Its maximum width is 96 mm. while the maxinnim
lengrth is 101 mm. This gives a sacral index of 115. For



68 BULLETIN OF THE ESSEX INSTITUTE.

the maximum diameter to be less than that of the length
is the rule in males, but the index 95 is rather low, even
for Australians, as 99 is usually given as the average index
and 94, according to Turner, is that of the Andamanese.
The average sacral index in the European male is about
112, while that of the anthropoid apes is as high as 87
in the orang. Thus here we have evidence of a low type
of skeleton.

LIMBS.

The length of the limbs has already been given. The
diameter of the head of the femur is 43 mm. which is con-
siderably less than what we should expect. The neck of
the femur is very short, measuring only 21 mm. on the
dorsal side. The right tibia is peculiar in that there is a
high ridge or crest which surmounts the spinous process
of the head and rises to a height of 3 mm. above the lat-
eral tubercles. The fibula is curiously shaped and can
be described with great difficulty. Its posterior border
is very sharp and this sharp edge extends to the centre of
the bone. The inner and especially the outer surfaces are
highly concave ; in a cross section of the upper extremity
it would present an inverted T shape, while toward the
centre it is more nearly live-sided, the three larger sur-
faces being decidedly concave. The humerus is not per-
forated. The head measures but 39 mm. in diameter.



LIST OF BOOKS AND PAPERS CITED OR CONSULTED IN THE
PREPARATION OF THIS PAPER.

1. Cooper, C. Dudley.

Notes ou the Skull of an aborigiual Australian.
J. A. I. V. xxiii, pp. 153-156.



PHOTOGRAPH AND SKELETON OF AN AUSTRALIAN. 69



2. Duckworth, W. L. H.

Crania of Australians. J. A. I. v. xxiii, pp.
284-315.

3. D wight, T.

The Sternum as an index of Sex, Height, and
Age. J. of Anat. & Phys. v. xxiv, pp. 527-
542.

4. Flower, Wm. M.

Osteological Catalogue, Royal College of Sur-
geons. Part I. Man, 1879.

5. Frazer, John.

The Aborigines of New South Wales, Sydney,

1892.

6. HOVELACQUE & HeRVE.

Precis d'Anthropologie. Paris, 1887

7. Humphrey, G. M.

The Human Skeleton. London, 1858.

8. Quain's Anatomy.

Vol. ii, pt. i. London, 1893.

9. QUATREFAGES AND HaMY.

Crania Ethnica. Paris, 1882.

10. Turner, Sir William.

Human Crania, and Human Skeletons in Vols.
X and xvi of Challenger Reports.

11. Wilson, J. T.

Craniology of Australian Aborigines, pp. 96-
100 of Frazer's New South Wales.


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